Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

1.8L Sierra-Mondeo Turbo-Diesel Valvetrain Friction Reduction Using a Solid Film Lubricant

1994-10-01
941986
A 1.8L turbocharged diesel engine valvetrain friction was investigated, and the effectiveness of using a solid film lubricant (SFL) coating in reducing friction was determined throughout the operable speed range. This valvetrain design features direct acting mechanical bucket valve lifters. Camshaft journal bearing surfaces and all camshaft rubbing surfaces except lobe tips were coated. The direct acting bucket shims were etched with a cross hatch pattern to a depth sufficient to sustain a SFL film coating on the shim rubbing surfaces subjected to high surface loads. The SFL coated valvetrain torque was evaluated and compared with uncoated baseline torque. Coating the cam bearing journal surfaces alone with II-25D SFL reduced valvetrain friction losses 8 to 17% for 250 to 2000 rpm cam speed range (i.e. 500 - 4000 rpm engine speed). When bucket tappet and shims were also coated with the SFL, further significant reductions in coated valvetrain friction were observed.
Technical Paper

1970 Passenger Car High Altitude Emission Baseline

1979-02-01
790959
The 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments allow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to set high altitude emission standards for 1981-83, but specify that any such standards may not be more stringent than comparable sea level standards -- relative to 1970 emission levels. Since available high altitude emission data from 1970 models were incomplete and controversial, the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association contracted with Automotive Testing Laboratories, Inc. to test a fleet of 25 1970 cars. Results of the test program showed average increases in emissions at Denver's altitude, compared to sea level, to be about 30% for evaporative HC, 57 to 60% for exhaust HC, 215 to 247% for CO and -46 to -47% for NOx. Corresponding HC and CO exhaust emission baselines would be 6.4 to 6.6 and 108 to 118 g/mi respectively.
Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

1982-02-01
820019
The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

1987 Thunderbird Turbo Coupe Programmed Ride Control (PRC) Suspension

1987-02-01
870540
This paper describes Programmed Ride Control (PRC), the automatic adjustable shock absorber system designed and patented by Ford Motor Company. The system utilizes low shock absorber damping under normal driving conditions to provide soft boulevard ride, automatically switching to firm damping when required for improved handling. The system's microprocessor control module “learns” where the straight ahead steering wheel position is, allowing the system to respond to absolute steering wheel angle. A closed loop control strategy is used to improve system reliability and to notify the driver in the event of a system malfunction. Fast acting rotary solenoids control the damping rate of the shock absorbers.
Technical Paper

1988 Lincoln Continental Variable-Assist Power Steering System

1988-02-01
880707
Conventional power steering systems can be “tailored” to provide light steering efforts for parking and low speed, or high steering efforts for stability and “road feel” at high speed. In either case, the customer's preferred steering efforts are not provided at all times. Compromises are required. The need for a speed-sensitive steering effort system has prompted the introduction of several innovative variable-assist steering systems in the past few years, which are currently used in some European and Japanese vehicles. This paper describes a Ford-patented variable-assist system used on the 1988 Lincoln Continental, the first application of vehicle speed-sensitive steering to an American-designed and manufactured vehicle. The Ford Variable-Assist Power Steering System is a “rotary steering valve” system. It uses a modification of the current rotary valve to provide low steering efforts (low torsion bar twist) at low speed and higher efforts (more twist) as vehicle speed increases.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Melding the Past and the Future

2004-03-08
2004-01-1251
The 2005 Ford GT high performance sports car was designed and built in keeping with the heritage of the 1960's LeMans winning GT40 while maintaining the image of the 2002 GT40 concept vehicle. This paper reviews the technical challenges in designing and building a super car in 12 months while meeting customer expectations in performance, styling, quality and regulatory requirements. A team of dedicated and performance inspired engineers and technical specialists from Ford Motor Company Special Vehicle Teams, Research and Advanced Engineering, Mayflower Vehicle Systems, Roush Industries, Lear, and Saleen Special Vehicles was assembled and tasked with designing the production 2005 vehicle in record time.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT- Maintaining Your Cool at 200 MPH

2004-03-08
2004-01-1257
An integrated engineering approach using computer modeling, laboratory and vehicle testing enabled the Ford GT engineering team to achieve supercar thermal management performance within the aggressive program timing. Theoretical and empirical test data was used during the design and development of the engine cooling system. The information was used to verify design assumptions and validate engineering efforts. This design approach allowed the team to define a system solution quickly and minimized the need for extensive vehicle level testing. The result of this approach was the development of an engine cooling system that adequately controls air, oil and coolant temperatures during all driving and environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Pressure Loss Characteristics through a DPF with Asymmetrical Channel size

2011-04-12
2011-01-0818
The main objective of the current paper was to investigate the fluid flow and pressure loss characteristics of DPF substrates with asymmetric channels utilizing 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods. The ratio of inlet to outlet channel width is 1.2. First, CFD results of velocity and static pressure distributions inside the inlet and outlet channels are discussed for the baseline case with both forward and reversed exhaust flow. Results were also compared with the regular DPF of same cell structure and wall material properties. It was found that asymmetrical channel design has higher pressure loss. The lowest pressure loss was found for the asymmetrical channel design with smaller inlet channels. Then, the effects of DPF length and filter wall permeability on pressure loss, flow and pressure distributions were investigated.
Journal Article

3D Numerical Study of Pressure Loss Characteristics and Filtration Efficiency through a Frontal Unplugged DPF

2010-04-12
2010-01-0538
The main objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of partial filtration DPF substrates using 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods. Detailed 3-D CFD simulations were performed for real world sizes of DPF inlet and outlet channel geometries. Two concepts of partial filters were studied. The baseline geometry was a standard DPF with the front plugs removed. The second concept was to eliminate half of outlet plugs in addition to the inlet plugs to improve the pressure drop performance. The total filter efficiency was defined in current study to quantify the overall filter filtration efficiency which combines the effects from wall flow efficiency and flow through efficiency. For baseline case, 45% of total exhaust gas was found to go through the inlet channels, and the total trap efficiency was as high as 60%. However, only a 10% pressure loss reduction was found due to the removal of the outlet channel plugs from the DPF inlet side.
Journal Article

A Bayesian Inference based Model Interpolation and Extrapolation

2012-04-16
2012-01-0223
Model validation is a process to assess the validity and predictive capabilities of a computer model by comparing simulation results with test data for its intended use of the model. One of the key difficulties for model validation is to evaluate the quality of a computer model at different test configurations in design space, and interpolate or extrapolate the evaluation results to untested new design configurations. In this paper, an integrated model interpolation and extrapolation framework based on Bayesian inference and Response Surface Models (RSM) is proposed to validate the designs both within and outside of the original design space. Bayesian inference is first applied to quantify the distributions' hyper-parameters of the bias between test and CAE data in the validation domain. Then, the hyper-parameters are extrapolated from the design configurations to untested new design. They are then followed by the prediction interval of responses at the new design points.
Technical Paper

A Biomechanical Analysis of Head, Neck, and Torso Injuries to Child Surrogates Due to Sudden Torso Acceleration

1984-10-01
841656
This paper reports on the injuries to the head, neck and thorax of fifteen child surrogates, subjected to varying levels of sudden acceleration. Measured response data in the child surrogate tests and in matched tests with a three-year-old child test dummy are compared to the observed child surrogates injury levels to develop preliminary tolerance data for the child surrogate. The data are compared with already published data in the literature.
Technical Paper

A Brief History of Auto Radio Styling

1989-02-01
890114
“There's nothing new under the sun,” the old proverb says. But you only have to read a magazine, scan a periodical, listen to the radio, watch television, or glance at the multitude of ads that promise that such and such product is the latest trend or has up-to-date, state-of-the-art technology, to seemingly prove the old proverb wrong. However, old proverbs become old because they withstand the test of time. In this case, a hasty judgement should be withheld. Currently, as in the past, the above holds true for car radios as well. Whether in the United States, Europe, Canada or Latin America, the public has always been susceptible to last minute technological advances. It is curious then, that as far as car radio styling is concerned, their appearance has been typically rather conservative, and that it is only recently that styling has begun to change to be more in tune with the times.
Technical Paper

A CAE Methodology for Reducing Rattle in Structural Components

1997-05-20
972057
Squeak and rattle has become a primary source of undesired noise in automobiles due to the continual diminishment of engine, power train and tire noise levels. This article presents a finite-element-based methodology for the improvement of rattle performance of vehicle components. For implementation purposes, it has been applied to study the rattle of a glove compartment latch and corner rubber bumpers. Results from the glove compartment study are summarized herein. Extensions to other rattle problems are also highlighted.
Technical Paper

A Calibration Study of CFD for Automotive Shapes and CD

1994-03-01
940323
An extensive calibration study has been initiated to assess the predictive ability of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) for the aerodynamic design of automotive shapes. Several codes are being checked against a set of detailed wind tunnel measurements on ten car-like shapes. The objective is to assess the ability of numerical analysis to predict the CD (drag coefficient) influence of the rear end configuration. The study also provides a significant base of information for investigating discrepancies between predicted and measured flow fields and for assessing new numerical techniques. This technical report compares STAR-CD predictions to the wind tunnel measurements. The initial results are quite encouraging. Calculated centerline pressure distributions on the front end, underbody and floor compare well for all ten shapes. Wake flow structures are in reasonable agreement for many of the configurations. Drag, lift, and pitching moment trends follow the experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

A Closed-Loop A/F Control Model for Internal Combustion Engines

1980-06-01
800826
A mathematical model is developed which describes the operation of an A/F control system containing an engine, an exhaust gas oxygen sensor, and a feedback controller. The dependence of model parameters on engine operating conditions is discussed, and the model is used to compare integral and proportional/integral control algorithms. Actual data obtained on an engine-dynamometer are presented to test the validity of the model.
Journal Article

A Comparative Benchmark Study of using Different Multi-Objective Optimization Algorithms for Restraint System Design

2014-04-01
2014-01-0564
Vehicle restraint system design is a difficult optimization problem to solve because (1) the nature of the problem is highly nonlinear, non-convex, noisy, and discontinuous; (2) there are large numbers of discrete and continuous design variables; (3) a design has to meet safety performance requirements for multiple crash modes simultaneously, hence there are a large number of design constraints. Based on the above knowledge of the problem, it is understandable why design of experiment (DOE) does not produce a high-percentage of feasible solutions, and it is difficult for response surface methods (RSM) to capture the true landscape of the problem. Furthermore, in order to keep the restraint system more robust, the complexity of restraint system content needs to be minimized in addition to minimizing the relative risk score to achieve New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) 5-star rating.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Effects of Fuel Properties of Non-Petroleum Fuels on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions

1984-10-01
841334
A single cylinder indirect injection diesel engine was used to evaluate the emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay of non-petroleum liquid fuels derived from coal, shale, and tar sands. Correlations were made relating fuel properties with exhaust emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay. The results of the correlation study showed that the indicated fuel consumption, ignition delay, and CO emissions significantly correlated with the H/C ratio, specific gravity, heat of combustion, aromatics and saturates content, and cetane number, Multiple fuel properties were necessary to correlate the hydrocarbon emissions. The NOx emissions did not correlate well with any fuel property. Because these fuels from various resources were able to correlate succesfully with many of the fuel properties suggests that the degree of refinement or the chemical composition of the fuel is a better predictor of its performance than its resource.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Fatigue Behavior of Spot Welded and Mechanically Fastened Aluminum Joints

1995-02-01
950710
The cyclic behavior of single overlap aluminum joints joined through a number of different methods has been investigated using Alcan 5754-O, an alloy that potentially could be used in structural applications. Overlap shear tests of spot welded, clinched and riveted joints are compared on the basis of their fatigue performance. The fatigue response of the spot welded joint was the baseline to which the other fasteners were compared. Test results showed an improvement of approximately 25% for both the mechanical clinch joints and aluminum rivets in fatigue strength at 106 cycles. The most significant improvement in fatigue strength of 100% was found for the self piercing rivets at 106 cycles. The failure behavior of the various joining methods is discussed as well as the surface appearance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study on the Performance of Activated Carbon Canisters Using Different Purge Air Humidities

1994-03-01
940299
Although concerns have been raised that the performance of activated carbon canisters will decrease when exposed to air at higher humidities, results of a recently conducted test program do not substantiate these concerns. The results show that the purge efficiency and the working capacity of canisters that are purged with air at 75 grains per pound of dry air (GPPDA) humidity are equal or greater than those obtained with 50 GPPDA humidity purging. The results have been submitted to the California Air Resources Board (ARB) for use in aligning their evaporative emission testing regulations with the regulations promulgated by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time Domain and Frequency Domain Test Methods for Automotive Components

1994-11-01
942279
Frequency domain testing has had limited use in the past for durability evaluations of automotive components. Recent advances and new perspectives now make it a viable option. Using frequency domain testing for components, test times can be greatly reduced, resulting in considerable savings of time, money, and resources. Quality can be built into the component, thus making real-time subsystem and full vehicle testing and development more meaningful. Time domain testing historically started with block cycle histogram tests. Improved capabilities of computers, controllers, math procedures, and algorithms have led to real time simulation in the laboratory. Real time simulation is a time domain technique for duplicating real world environments using computer controlled multi-axial load inputs. It contains all phase information as in the recorded proving ground data. However, normal equipment limitations prevent the operation at higher frequencies.
X