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Technical Paper

Engine Control Unit Modeling with Engine Feature C Code for HEV Applications

Engine control unit (ECU) modeling using engine feature C code is an increasingly important part of new vehicle analysis and development tools. The application areas of feature based ECU models are numerous: a) cold vehicle fuel economy (FE) prediction required for recently introduced 5-cycle certification; b) vehicle thermal modeling; c) evaporative (purge) systems design; d) model-in-the-loop/software-in-the-loop (MIL/SIL) vehicle control development and calibration. The modeling method presented in the paper embeds production C-code directly into Simulink at a feature level using an S-Function wrapper. A collection of features critical to accurate engine behavior prediction are compiled individually and integrated according to the newly developed Engine Control Model Architecture (ECMA). Custom MATLAB script based tools enable efficient model construction.
Technical Paper

Powersplit HEV Performance Simulation Capability

A new performance simulation capability has been developed for powersplit HEVs to enable analytical assessment of new engine technologies in the context of HEV system operation and to analyze/understand important system dynamics and control interactions affecting HEV performance. This new capability allows direct simulation with closed-loop controls and the driver, is compatible with Ford standard HEV system simulation capabilities and enables simulation with multiple levels of model fidelity and feature content across the vehicle system. The combined plant Vehicle Model Architecture (VMA) in Simulink was used for the infrastructure. The simulation capability includes a Dymola model of the powersplit transaxle, a Vehicle System Control (VSC) model implemented in Simulink, a high fidelity 2L Atkinson GT-Power engine model, and a simplified representation of the engine controls in Simulink.
Technical Paper

Standardized Methods and Processes for Vehicle System Modeling

Within automotive OEM's, there has been increasing reliance on vehicle system modeling for: Successful implementation of new system level technologies; Meeting the quality and efficiency demands of shorter product development cycles; and Enabling more analytical optimization of hardware and software systems. Ensuring high efficiency and quality of system engineering work reliant on vehicle system modeling requires enabling enterprise wide model sharing, highly coordinated cross-functional model development efforts and standard methods and processes. This paper discusses key elements and requirements of standard methods and processes for vehicle system modeling. First, obstacles to wider reliance on system modeling within current system engineering processes are described. Then a discussion is presented of model specifications as a central element in enabling more of a model driven vehicle system engineering process.
Technical Paper

System Simulation and Analysis of EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy for Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicles

To better reflect real world driving conditions, the EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy method encompasses high vehicle speeds, aggressive vehicle accelerations, climate control system use and cold temperature conditions in addition to the previously used standard City and Highway drive cycles in the estimation of vehicle fuel economy. A standard Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system simulation environment has long been established and widely used within Ford to project fuel economy for the standard EPA City and Highway cycles. Direct modeling and simulation of the complete 5-Cycle fuel economy test set for HEV's presents significant new challenges especially with respect to modeling vehicle thermal management system and interactions with HEV features and system controls. It also requires a structured, systematic approach to validate the key elements of the system models and complete vehicle system simulations.