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Technical Paper

A Front Rail Design for Efficient Crush Energy Absorption

1995-10-31
1995-20-0016
Although there was a safety awareness from the earliest days of the automobile, systematic approaches to designing for safety became more widespread after 1950 when large numbers of vehicles came into use in both the United States and Europe, and governments in both continents undertook a widespread highway development. Industry response to safety objectives and also to government regulation has produced a large number of safety enhancing engineering developments, including radial tires, disc brakes, anti-lock brakes, improved vehicle lighting systems, better highway sign support poles, padded instrument panels, better windshield retention systems, collapsible hood structures, accident sensitive fuel pump shut-off valves, and other items. A significant development was the design of the energy absorbing front structures.
Technical Paper

A Rational Approach to Qualifying Materials for Use in Fuel Systems

2000-06-19
2000-01-2013
About 10 years ago in the US, an automotive OEM consortium formed the Oxygenated Fuels Task Force which in turn created the SAE Cooperative Research Project Group 2 to develop a simple rational method for qualifying materials. At that time the focus was Methanol/Gasoline blends. This work resulted in SAE J1681, Gasoline/Methanol Mixtures for Materials Testing. Recently this document was rewritten to make it the single, worldwide, generic source for fuel system test fluids. The paper will describe the rationale for selecting the fuel surrogate fluids and why this new SAE standard should replace all existing test fuel or test fluid standards for fuel system materials testing.
Technical Paper

A Small Displacement DI Diesel Engine Concept for High Fuel Economy Vehicles

1997-08-06
972680
The small-displacement direct-injection (DI) diesel engine is a prime candidate for future transportation needs because of its high thermal efficiency combined with near term production feasibility. Ford Motor Company and FEV Engine Technology, Inc. are working together with the US Department of Energy to develop a small displacement DI diesel engine that meets the key challenges of emissions, NVH, and power density. The targets for the engine are to meet ULEV emission standards while maintaining a best fuel consumption of 200g/kW-hr. The NVH performance goal is transparency with state-of-the-art, four-cylinder gasoline vehicles. Advanced features are required to meet the ambitious targets for this engine. Small-bore combustion systems enable the downsizing of the engine required for high fuel economy with the NVH advantages a four- cylinder has over a three-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

Activated Carbon Canister Performance During Diurnal Cycles: An Experimental and Modeling Evaluation

1997-05-01
971651
A vehicle's evaporative emission control system is continuously working, even when the vehicle is not running, due to generation of vapors from the fuel tank during ambient temperature variations. Diurnal temperature cycles cause the fuel tank to breathe the fuel vapor in and out, and thus the activated carbon canister is constantly loading and purging the hydrocarbon vapors. This paper discusses a study undertaken at Ford to evaluate the relationship between carbon canister condition and fuel tank vapor generation during diurnal cycles. The results of an extensive set of experiments are presented, and the data from these experiments are compared to the output of a fuel vapor system model also developed at Ford. Key parameters relating to the migration of hydrocarbons during the experimental conditions studied, including initial canister condition, canister volume, and canister geometry, are discussed.
Technical Paper

An Algorithm to Compensate for Air Charge Prediction Errors

2000-03-06
2000-01-0258
Various methods are available to predict future cylinder air charge for improved air/fuel control. However, there can never be perfect prediction. This paper presents an algorithm to correct for imperfect cylinder charge prediction. This is done by expanding the air/fuel control boundary to include the catalyst, and correcting prediction errors as soon as possible using small corrective changes to later cylinder fuel inputs. The method was experimentally tested and showed improved air/fuel control as indicated by reduced variability of catalyst downstream air/fuel ratio. Additional vehicle testing showed potential to further reduce emissions.
Technical Paper

Carbon Canister Development for Enhanced Evaporative Emissions and On-Board Refueling

1997-02-24
970312
Automotive fuel vapor emissions that would otherwise evaporate into the atmosphere are being captured in activated carbon vapor storage canisters. Fuel vapor is loaded into the canisters via a direct connection to the fuel tank vapor dome. Hydrocarbons are desorbed from the activated carbon into the engine combustion cylinders using engine intake vacuum. The carbon canister capacity requirements have increased in recent years in order to meet both Enhanced Evaporative Emission regulations and the Clean Air Act emission requirements for On-board Refueling Vapor Recovery (ORVR). The higher capacity requirements have generated the need for larger volume canisters that can meet the emission requirements and still be designed within the space and packaging limits of the vehicle application. This paper describes the simultaneous engineering approach used at Ford Motor Company to design a large volume cylindrical shaped carbon canister.
Technical Paper

Characterisation of DISI Emissions and Fuel Economy in Homogeneous and Stratified Charge Modes of Operation

2001-09-24
2001-01-3671
An experimental study of the performance of a reverse tumble, DISI engine is reported. Specific fuel consumption and engine-out emissions have been investigated for both homogeneous and stratified modes of fuel injection. Trends in performance with varying AFR, EGR, spark and injection timings have been explored. It is shown that neural networks can be trained to describe these trends accurately for even the most complex case of stratified charge operation with exhaust gas recirculation.
Journal Article

Crash Performance Simulation of a Multilayer Thermoplastic Fuel Tank with Manufacturing and Assembly Consideration

2011-04-12
2011-01-0009
The modeling of plastic fuel tank systems for crash safety applications has been very challenging. The major challenges include the prediction of fuel sloshing in high speed impact conditions, the modeling of multilayer thermoplastic fuel tanks with post-forming (non-uniform) material properties, and the modeling of tank straps with pre-tensions. Extensive studies can be found in the literature to improve the prediction of fuel sloshing. However, little research had been conducted to model the post-forming fuel tank and to address the tension between the fuel tank and the tank straps for crash safety simulations. Hoping to help improve the modeling of fuel systems, the authors made the first attempt to tackle these major challenges all at once in this study by dividing the modeling of the fuel tank into eight stages. An ALE (Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian) method was adopted to simulate the interaction between the fuel and the tank.
Technical Paper

Design Considerations for Plastic Fuel Lines

1988-02-01
880683
Plastic fuel lines have a long history in Europe but have only recently found acceptance in the U.S. Cost and material selection have played the key roles in the past. With the advent of pressurized fuel injection systems, the environmental resistance performance criteria have become more important and plastic materials such as type 11 and 12 nylon have met the challenge and replaced metal tubing and rubber hose as the fuel line materials. The success of a plastic fuel line application depends on material selection, routing and the method of connection to the rest of the system. This paper attempts to explain the driving forces behind the historic use of plastic as a fuel line material. The main body of the paper will lay out the major design considerations which apply to fuel lines in general and will explain how these criteria, applied to plastic fuel lines, can result in a successful product.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of the Ford GT Spaceframe

2004-03-08
2004-01-1255
The Ford GT is a high performance sports car designed to compete with the best that the global automotive industry has to offer. A critical enabler for the performance that a vehicle in this class must achieve is the stiffness and response of the frame structure to the numerous load inputs from the suspension, powertrain and occupants. The process of designing the Ford GT spaceframe started with a number of constraints and performance targets derived through vehicle dynamics CAE modeling, crash performance requirements, competitive benchmarking and the requirement to maintain the unique styling of the GT40 concept car. To achieve these goals, an aluminum spaceframe was designed incorporating 35 different extrusion cross-sections, 5 complex castings, 4 smaller node castings and numerous aluminum stampings.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fuelling System to Reduce Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Emissions in an SI Engine

1996-05-01
961119
An air-assisted fuel vaporiser (AAFV), designed to replace the conventional fuelling system has been tested on a 3.0-litre development engine under simulated cold-Start conditions. Providing the cold engine with pre-vaporised fuel removed the need for an enriched mixture during start-up. Comparisons between the AAFV and standard fuelling systems were performed. Engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) exhaust emissions were measured during cold-start and the ensuing two minutes. Fuel spray characterisation was also conducted using a steady flow test rig designed to mimic inlet port conditions of air flow and manifold pressure over a wide range of engine operation.
Technical Paper

Development of the Ford QVM CNG Bi-Fuel 4.9L F-Series Pickup Truck

1996-02-01
960850
A bi-fuel (Compressed Natural Gas [CNG] and gasoline) pickup truck has been developed using the Ford Alternative Fuel Qualified Vehicle Modifier (QVM) process. The base vehicle's 4.9L engine has been specially modified for improved durability on gaseous fuels. The base vehicle's configuration has been designed for conversion to bi-fuel CNG operation. A complete CNG fuel system has been designed and qualified, including fuel tanks, fuel system, and electrical interface. The completed vehicle has been safety and emission certified, demonstrating CARB Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) emissions in MY95. This paper details the design objectives, development process, CNG components, and integration of the two fuel systems.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Delivery Module for Light Truck Applications

1993-11-01
932980
This paper reviews the design and development of a self-filling, in-tank fuel system reservoir intended for use in diesel engine vehicle applications. This new idea eliminates engine driveability concerns (stumbles, hesitations, stalling, etc.) associated with an inconsistent supply of fuel from the fuel tank to the engine, particularly during sudden vehicle maneuvers and with low fuel tank conditions.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 3. The Effect of Pilot Injection, Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

2001-09-24
2001-01-3630
The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of pilot fuel injection on engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur (∼1 ppm), low aromatic, hydrocracked fuel, the same low-sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a California reformulated fuel, and a EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The pilot fuel injection was either turned off or turned on with engine control by either Location of Peak Pressure (LPP) of combustion or the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) calibration strategy. These three control strategies were compared over 2 speed-load modes run in triplicate. Thirty-three potentially toxic compounds were measured.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mileage Accumulation on Particulate Emissions from Vehicles Using Gasoline with Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl

1992-02-01
920731
Particulate and manganese mass emissions have been measured as a function of mileage for four Escort and four Explorer vehicles using 1) MMT (Methylcyclopentadienyl Manganese Tricarbonyl) added to the gasoline at 1/32 g Mn/gal and 2) gasoline without MMT. The MMT was used in half of the fleet starting at 5,000 miles. The vehicles were driven on public roads at an average speed of 54 mph to accumulate mileage. This report describes the particulate and manganese emissions, plus emissions of four air toxics at 5,000, 20,000, 55,000, 85,000 and 105,000 miles. Four non-regulated emissions were measured and their average values for vehicles without MMT were 0.6 mg/mi for formaldehyde, 0.7 mg/mi for 1,3-butadiene, 9 mg/mi for benzene and 12 mg/mi for toluene. Corresponding values for MMT-fueled vehicles were between 1.5 and 2.4 times higher.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility and Operating Conditions on Fuel Sprays in DISI Engines: (1) Imaging Investigation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0535
Optimal design of modern direct injection spark-ignition engines depends heavily on the characteristics and distribution of the fuel spray. This study was designed to investigate changes in the spray properties due to fuel volatility and operating conditions using a firing optically-accessible engine with planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging. The results show that the spray structure changes not only with ambient gas density, which is often measured, but also with fuel temperature and volatility. As ambient pressure decreases and fuel temperature increases, the volatile ends of multi-component fuels evaporate quickly, disrupting the spray structure and producing a vapor core along the axis of the spray. Beyond a certain point, evaporation is rapid enough to expand the initial cone angle of the spray while causing a decrease in the overall spray width.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Volatility and Operating Conditions on Fuel Sprays in DISI Engines: (2) PDPA Investigation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0536
Optimal design of modern direct injection spark-ignition engines depends heavily on the characteristics and distribution of the fuel spray. This study was designed to compliment imaging experiments of changes in the spray structure due to fuel volatility and operating conditions. Use of phase-Doppler particle analysis (PDPA) allows quantitative point measurements of droplet diameter and velocity. In agreement with imaging experiments, the results show that the spray structure changes not only with ambient gas density, which is often measured, but also with fuel temperature and volatility. The mean droplet diameter was found to decrease substantially with increasing fuel temperature and decreasing ambient density. Under conditions of low potential for vaporization, the observed trends in mean droplet sizes agree with published correlations for pressure-swirl atomizers.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing on Air-Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970625
Multidimensional modeling is used to study air-fuel mixing in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the start of fuel injection on gas/spray interactions, wall wetting, fuel vaporization rate and air-fuel ratio distributions in this paper. It was found that the in-cylinder gas/spray interactions vary with fuel injection timing which directly impacts spray characteristics such as tip penetration and spray/wall impingement and air-fuel mixing. It was also found that, compared with a non-spray case, the mixture temperature at the end of the compression stroke decreases substantially in spray cases due to in-cylinder fuel vaporization. The computed trapped-mass and total heat-gain from the cylinder walls during the induction and compression processes were also shown to be increased in spray cases.
Technical Paper

Effects of Oil-Derived Contaminants on Emissions from TWC-Equipped Vehicles

2000-06-19
2000-01-1881
Advances in fuel control strategy, emission system architecture, and catalyst technology have led to dramatic decreases in exhaust emissions in recent years. To continue this trend, especially at high mileages, the impact of engine oil derived contaminants will need to be minimized. In this study, the deactivating effects of oil-derived contaminants on advanced catalyst technologies was assessed using an oxalic acid washing technique to remove phosphorus and other oil-derived contaminants from fleet-aged automotive three-way exhaust catalysts. Acid washing removed most of the phosphorus on the catalyst (chief poison associated with decomposition of the engine oil antiwear additive ZDDP) without significantly affecting other catalyst properties. Catalysts from eight high-mileage vehicles were analyzed, representing four vehicle families.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetically Controlled Distributor-Type Fuel Injection System

1989-02-01
890477
With the advent of electronic controls and development of electromagnetically controlled fuel injection pumps, the cost of fuel systems using plunger-type pumps was substantially reduced. Further reduction in cost can be achieved if fewer solenoid valves are used. A new type of injection pump combining electromagnetic spill control principle with distributor-type operation is described. Only one solenoid valve is required for a multi-cylinder engine. The pump was designed for port injection of gasoline, but with some modifications could be adapted to direct fuel injection. The fuel injection system includes a controller capable of electronic trimming of port-to-port fuel distribution for tight control of air to fuel ratios in all engine cylinders. A review of the basic concept and operating principles is given, and test results as well as cost considerations are discussed.
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