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Technical Paper

A CAE Methodology for Reducing Rattle in Structural Components

Squeak and rattle has become a primary source of undesired noise in automobiles due to the continual diminishment of engine, power train and tire noise levels. This article presents a finite-element-based methodology for the improvement of rattle performance of vehicle components. For implementation purposes, it has been applied to study the rattle of a glove compartment latch and corner rubber bumpers. Results from the glove compartment study are summarized herein. Extensions to other rattle problems are also highlighted.
Technical Paper

A Calibration Study of CFD for Automotive Shapes and CD

An extensive calibration study has been initiated to assess the predictive ability of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) for the aerodynamic design of automotive shapes. Several codes are being checked against a set of detailed wind tunnel measurements on ten car-like shapes. The objective is to assess the ability of numerical analysis to predict the CD (drag coefficient) influence of the rear end configuration. The study also provides a significant base of information for investigating discrepancies between predicted and measured flow fields and for assessing new numerical techniques. This technical report compares STAR-CD predictions to the wind tunnel measurements. The initial results are quite encouraging. Calculated centerline pressure distributions on the front end, underbody and floor compare well for all ten shapes. Wake flow structures are in reasonable agreement for many of the configurations. Drag, lift, and pitching moment trends follow the experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time Domain and Frequency Domain Test Methods for Automotive Components

Frequency domain testing has had limited use in the past for durability evaluations of automotive components. Recent advances and new perspectives now make it a viable option. Using frequency domain testing for components, test times can be greatly reduced, resulting in considerable savings of time, money, and resources. Quality can be built into the component, thus making real-time subsystem and full vehicle testing and development more meaningful. Time domain testing historically started with block cycle histogram tests. Improved capabilities of computers, controllers, math procedures, and algorithms have led to real time simulation in the laboratory. Real time simulation is a time domain technique for duplicating real world environments using computer controlled multi-axial load inputs. It contains all phase information as in the recorded proving ground data. However, normal equipment limitations prevent the operation at higher frequencies.
Technical Paper

A Discussion of Aerodynamic Interference Effects Between a Race Car and a Race Track Retaining Wall (A Wind Tunnel NASCAR Case Study)

This report should not be looked upon as an end in itself, but rather as a thought provoker. It raises the question that there may be an additional dimension to race car aerodynamics other than just open roadway drag reduction, stability and handling performance. Some situations are seldom considered, nor even addressed, in public forums. Based upon wind tunnel test data, the authors show, at least for this one test setup, that significantly large changes in aerodynamic forces can be generated on a NASCAR stock car racer by its close proximity to the stationary retaining wall around a race track.
Technical Paper

A Dynamometer Study of Off-Cycle Exhaust Emissions - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

Four vehicle fleets, consisting of 3 to 4 vehicles each, were emission tested on a 48″ roll chassis dynamometer using both the FTP urban dynamometer driving cycle and the REP05 driving cycle. The REP05 cycle was developed to test vehicles under high speed and high load conditions not included in the FTP. The vehicle fleets consisted of 1989 light-duty gasoline vehicles, 1992-93 limited production FFV/VFV methanol vehicles, 1992-93 compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles and their gasoline counterparts, and a 1992 production and two prototype ethanol FFV/VFV vehicles. All vehicles (except the dedicated CNG vehicles) were tested using Auto/Oil AQIRP fuels A and C2. Other fuels used were M85 blended from A and C2, E85 blended from C1, which is similar to C2 but without MTBE, and four CNG fuels representing the range of in-use CNG fuels. In addition to bag measurements, tailpipe exhaust concentration and A/F data were collected once per second throughout every test.
Technical Paper

A Feedgas HC Emission Model for SI Engines Including Partial Burn Effects

A model is presented which incorporates the key mechanisms in the formation and reduction of unburned HC emissions from spark ignited engines. The model includes the effects of piston crevice volume, oil layer absorption / desorption, partial burns, and in-cylinder and exhaust port oxidation. The mechanism for the filling and emptying of the piston crevice takes into account the location of the flame front so that the flow of both burned gas and unburned gas is recognized. Oxidation of unburned fuel is calculated with a global, Arrhenius-type equation. A newly developed submodel is included which calculates the amount of unburned fuel to be added to the cylinder as a result of partial burns. At each crankangle, the submodel compares the rate of change of the burned gas volume to the rate of change of the cylinder volume.
Technical Paper

A Front Rail Design for Efficient Crush Energy Absorption

Although there was a safety awareness from the earliest days of the automobile, systematic approaches to designing for safety became more widespread after 1950 when large numbers of vehicles came into use in both the United States and Europe, and governments in both continents undertook a widespread highway development. Industry response to safety objectives and also to government regulation has produced a large number of safety enhancing engineering developments, including radial tires, disc brakes, anti-lock brakes, improved vehicle lighting systems, better highway sign support poles, padded instrument panels, better windshield retention systems, collapsible hood structures, accident sensitive fuel pump shut-off valves, and other items. A significant development was the design of the energy absorbing front structures.
Technical Paper

A Gasoline Engine Cycle that Permits High Expansion Operation with Reduced Part Load Throttling Losses by Modulating Charge Mass and Temperature

A four-stroke, spark-ignition engine is described that seeks to achieve high expansion ratio and low throttling losses at light load, whilst retaining good knock resistance at full load operation and without the need for expensive mechanical changes to the engine. The engine does, however, incorporate a second inlet (transfer) valve and associated transfer port linked to the intake port. The timing of the transfer valve is different from that of the main inlet valve. Load modulation is achieved by control of the gas outflow from the transfer port. A computer model of the engine is first validated against measured data from a conventional engine. Comparisons are made of incylinder pressure at part load conditions, total air flowrate through the engine and intake port air velocities as a function of crank angle position.
Technical Paper

A General Formulation for Topology Optimization

Topology optimization is used for obtaining the best layout of vehicle structural components to achieve predetermined performance goals. Unlike the most common approach which uses the optimality criteria methods, the topology design problem is formulated as a general optimization problem and is solved by the mathematical programming method. One of the major advantages of this approach is its generality; thus it can solve various problems, e.g. multi-objective and multi-constraint problems. The MSC/NASTRAN finite element code is employed for response analyses. Two automotive examples including a simplified truck frame and a truck frame crossmember are presented.
Technical Paper

A Magnetorheological Door Check

Several shortcomings of mechanical door checks are overcome using a magnetorheological damper. Because the damper is electrically actuated, it can check in any desired position. The logical decision to activate or release the door check can be made either by passive circuitry based on input signals from switches attached to door handles or under microprocessor control, in which case the decision can take into account a variety of unconventional input factors, including the magnitude of the force applied to the door, the rate of change of the applied force, and the angle of door opening. With the addition of an appropriate proximity sensor, the controllable damper can prevent the door from inadvertently hitting a nearby obstacle. Details of the damper mechanism are described, and several implemented control strategies, both passive and microprocessor based, are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Method to Measure Air Conditioning Refrigerant Contributions to Vehicle Evaporative Emissions (SHED Test)

Although the intent of the SHED test (Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination) is to measure evaporative fuel losses, the SHED sampling methodology in fact measures hydrocarbons from all vehicle and test equipment sources. Leakage of air conditioning (AC) refrigerant is one possible non-fuel source contributing to the SHED hydrocarbon measurement. This report describes a quick and relatively simple method to identify the contribution of AC refrigerant to the SHED analyzer reading. R134A (CH2FCF3), the hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant used in all current automotive AC systems, as well as its predecessor, the chlorofluorocarbon R12, can be detected using the gas chromatography methods currently in place at many emissions labs for the speciation of exhaust and evaporative hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper

A New 5MPH Bumper System

A new bumper system which provides 8 kph (5 mph) vehicle protection with superior quality, outstanding durability and high value is in production. The system includes five new technologies: Hot stamped, ultra high strength front beam, 970 N/mm2 (160 KSI) which also is the #1 body structure crossmember. Ultra high strength roll formed rear beam 1150 N/mm2 (190 KSI). polypropylene foam isolators designed for controlled energy management Thermoplastic olefin (TPO), injection molded fascias Two component urethane paint for long term color, gloss and scratch resistance. This bumper system, installed on over 100,000 vehicles so far, meets both MPV and passenger car 8 kph standards. Consumer and insurance industry trends indicate increasing demand for Multi Purpose Vehicle (MPV) bumper systems which meet 8 kph criteria. The major competitors in the MPV market (Aerostar, Grand Caravan, Toyota Previa, GM APV's, and Mazda MPV) have either 0 kph or at best 4 kph systems.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for Weight Reduction in Truck Frame Design

A new, systematic, sensitivity based design process for weight reduction is presented. Traditionally, a trial and error method is used when a design fails to meet the weight and the design criteria, which often conflict. This old approach not only is time and cost consuming but also does not provide insight into structural behavior. This proposed process uses state-of-the-art technologies such as design sensitivity analysis, numerical optimization, graphical user interface, etc. It handles multi-discipline design criteria simultaneously and provides design engineers insight into structural responses for frequency, durability, and stiffness concerns and a means for systematic weight reduction and quality improvement. The new design process has been applied for the weight reduction of advanced truck frame designs. Results show that a significant weight savings has been achieved while all design criteria are met.
Technical Paper

A New Component Test Methodology Concept for Side Impact Simulation

This paper describes the development of a new component test methodology concept for simulating NHTSA side impact, to evaluate the performance of door subsystems, trim panels and possible safety countermeasures (foam padding, side airbags, etc.). The concept was developed using MADYMO software and the model was validated with a DOT-SID dummy. Moreover, this method is not restricted to NHTSA side impact, but can be also be used for simulating the European procedure, with some modifications. This method uses a combination of HYGE and VIA decelerator to achieve the desired door velocity profile from onset of crash event until door-dummy separation, and also takes into account the various other factors such as the door/B pillar-dummy contact velocity, door compliance, shape of intruding side structure, seat-to-door interaction and initial door-dummy distance.
Technical Paper

A New Method Development to Predict Brake Squeal Occurrence

A new method to predict brake squeal occurrence was developed by MSC under contract to Ford Motor Company. The results indicate that the stability characteristics of this disc brake assembly are governed mainly by the frictional properties between the pads and rotor. The stability is achieved when the friction coefficient of the pads is decreasing as the contact force increases. Based on the results, a stable brake system can be obtained without changing the brake structure by incorporating the appropriate frictional coefficient in the brake system. The method developed here can be also used as a tool to test the quality of any brake design in the early design stage.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Calculating Fluctuation Strength in Electric Motors

In assessing the sound quality of electric motors (e.g., seat, mirror, and adjustable pedal motors), the sensation of Fluctuation Strength - a measure of intensity or frequency variation - has become important. For electric motors, it is typically caused by variation in the load, creating frequency modulation in the sound. An existing method for calculating Fluctuation Strength proved useful initially, but more extensive testing identified unacceptable performance. There were unacceptable levels of both false positives and false negatives. A new method is presented, which shows improved correlation with perceived fluctuation in sounds. Comparisons are made to the previous method and improvement is shown through examples of objective-subjective correlation for both seat motor sounds and adjustable pedal motor sounds. The new method is also shown to match subjective data from which the original measure of Fluctuation Strength was derived.
Technical Paper

A Novel Capability for Crush Testing Crash Energy Management Structures at Intermediate Rates

The crush performance of lightweight composite automotive structures varies significantly between static and dynamic test conditions. This paper discusses the development of a new dynamic testing facility that can be used to characterize crash performance at high loads and constant speed. Previous research results from the Energy Management Working Group (EMWG) of the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) showed that the static crush resistance of composite tubes can be significantly greater than dynamic crush results at speeds greater than 2 m/s. The new testing facility will provide the unique capability to crush structures at high loads in the intermediate velocity range. A novel machine control system was designed and projections of the machine performance indicate its compliance with the desired test tolerances. The test machine will be part of a national user facility at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and will be available for use in the summer of 2002.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for the Interior Pressure Oscillations from Flow Over Vehicle Openings

An analytical model based on “vortex sound” theory was investigated for predicting the frequency, the relative magnitude, the onset, and the offset of self-sustained interior pressure fluctuations inside a vehicle with an open sunroof. The “buffeting” phenomenon was found to be caused by the flow-excited resonance of the cavity. The model was applied to investigate the optimal sunroof length and width for a mid-size sedan. The input parameters are the cavity volume, the orifice dimensions, the flow velocity, and one coefficient characterizing vortex diffusion. The analytical predictions were compared with experimental results obtained for a system which geometry approximated the one-fifth scale model of a typical vehicle passenger compartment with a rectangular, open sunroof. Predicted and observed frequencies and relative interior pressure levels were in good agreement around the “critical” velocity, at which the cavity response is near resonance.
Technical Paper

A Time-Domain Fatigue Life Prediction Method for Vehicle Body Structures

Fatigue analysis using finite element models of a full vehicle body structure subjected to proving ground durability loads is a very complex task. The current paper presents an analytical procedure for fatigue life predictions of full body structures based on a time-domain approach. The paper addresses those situations where this kind of analysis is necessary. It also discusses the major factors (e.g., stress equivalencing procedure, cycle counting method, event lumping and load interactions) which affect fatigue life predictions in the procedure. A comparison study is conducted which explores the combination of these factors favorable for realistic fatigue life prediction. The concepts are demonstrated using a body system model of production size.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle Micro Corrosion Environmental Study of Field and Proving Ground Tests

This paper presents the progress of an ongoing vehicle micro corrosion environment study. The goal of the study is to develop an improved method for estimating vehicle corrosion based on the Total Vehicle Accelerated Corrosion Test at the Arizona Proving Ground (APG). Although the APG test greatly accelerates vehicle corrosion compared to the field, the “acceleration factor” varies considerably from site-to-site around the vehicle. This method accounts for the difference in corrosivity of various local corrosion environments from site-to-site at APG and in the field. Correlations of vehicle microenvironments with the macroenvironment (weather) and the occurrence of various environmental conditions at microenvironments are essential to the study. A comparison of results from APG versus field measurements generated using a cold rolled steel based corrosion sensor is presented.