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Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Melding the Past and the Future

The 2005 Ford GT high performance sports car was designed and built in keeping with the heritage of the 1960's LeMans winning GT40 while maintaining the image of the 2002 GT40 concept vehicle. This paper reviews the technical challenges in designing and building a super car in 12 months while meeting customer expectations in performance, styling, quality and regulatory requirements. A team of dedicated and performance inspired engineers and technical specialists from Ford Motor Company Special Vehicle Teams, Research and Advanced Engineering, Mayflower Vehicle Systems, Roush Industries, Lear, and Saleen Special Vehicles was assembled and tasked with designing the production 2005 vehicle in record time.
Technical Paper

A Brief History of Auto Radio Styling

“There's nothing new under the sun,” the old proverb says. But you only have to read a magazine, scan a periodical, listen to the radio, watch television, or glance at the multitude of ads that promise that such and such product is the latest trend or has up-to-date, state-of-the-art technology, to seemingly prove the old proverb wrong. However, old proverbs become old because they withstand the test of time. In this case, a hasty judgement should be withheld. Currently, as in the past, the above holds true for car radios as well. Whether in the United States, Europe, Canada or Latin America, the public has always been susceptible to last minute technological advances. It is curious then, that as far as car radio styling is concerned, their appearance has been typically rather conservative, and that it is only recently that styling has begun to change to be more in tune with the times.
Technical Paper

A Cycle Counting Algorithm for Fatigue Damage Analysis

A cycle counting algorithm that will reduce a complex history into a series of discrete cycles is presented. The cycles determined by this technique are defined as closed stress-strain hysteresis loops of the type obtained from constant amplitude tests. Using the computer cycle counting algorithm, life predictions were made and compared with experimental results. These predictions were found to be typically within a ±3 factor of error. Also, the computer counting method was found to yield more accurate life predictions when compared to the histogram and range counting methods.
Technical Paper

A New 5MPH Bumper System

A new bumper system which provides 8 kph (5 mph) vehicle protection with superior quality, outstanding durability and high value is in production. The system includes five new technologies: Hot stamped, ultra high strength front beam, 970 N/mm2 (160 KSI) which also is the #1 body structure crossmember. Ultra high strength roll formed rear beam 1150 N/mm2 (190 KSI). polypropylene foam isolators designed for controlled energy management Thermoplastic olefin (TPO), injection molded fascias Two component urethane paint for long term color, gloss and scratch resistance. This bumper system, installed on over 100,000 vehicles so far, meets both MPV and passenger car 8 kph standards. Consumer and insurance industry trends indicate increasing demand for Multi Purpose Vehicle (MPV) bumper systems which meet 8 kph criteria. The major competitors in the MPV market (Aerostar, Grand Caravan, Toyota Previa, GM APV's, and Mazda MPV) have either 0 kph or at best 4 kph systems.
Technical Paper

A New Look at the Service Life Expectancy of Passenger Cars in the United States

An estimate of the rate of attrition of passenger cars, needed to establish the service life expectancy of passenger cars, is of major interest whenever long range production plans are made, marketing strategies are developed, the total needs of vehicles on the roads are estimated, etc. Estimation of vehicle attrition is very complex, however, due to the lack of accurate data and the interaction of the parameters affecting attrition. In 1980 and 1985, similar studies of attrition [1,2] utilized vehicle registration data available as of July, 1979 and as of July, 1984. The object of this paper is to update the results of these papers, using the 1991 July registration data, available in May 1992. Within the scope of this paper the attrition rates of various passenger cars are compared and the effect of geographical location on the attrition rates and the change in attrition rates during the past twenty years are discussed.
Technical Paper

A New Method Development to Predict Brake Squeal Occurrence

A new method to predict brake squeal occurrence was developed by MSC under contract to Ford Motor Company. The results indicate that the stability characteristics of this disc brake assembly are governed mainly by the frictional properties between the pads and rotor. The stability is achieved when the friction coefficient of the pads is decreasing as the contact force increases. Based on the results, a stable brake system can be obtained without changing the brake structure by incorporating the appropriate frictional coefficient in the brake system. The method developed here can be also used as a tool to test the quality of any brake design in the early design stage.
Technical Paper

A Review of the Dual EGO Sensor Method for OBD-II Catalyst Efficiency Monitoring

This paper provides an overview of the dual EGO sensor method for OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitoring. The processes governing the relationship between catalyst oxygen storage, HC conversion efficiency, and rear EGO sensor response are reviewed in detail. A simple physical model relating catalyst oxygen storage capacity and rear EGO sensor response is constructed and used in conjunction with experimental data to provide additional insight into the operation of the catalyst monitor. The effect that the catalyst washcoat formulation has in determining the relationship between catalyst oxygen storage capacity and HC conversion efficiency and its impact on the catalyst monitor is also investigated. Lastly, the effects of catalyst failure mode, fuel sulfur, and the fuel additive MMT on the catalyst monitor's ability to properly diagnose catalyst function are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Rule Based Design Process and an Evolutionary Architecture for the Vehicle Power Supply

This paper begins with a comparison of the automotive power supply and loads in the early 1950's (near the end of the six-volt era) to the modern counterpart in the early 1990's (possibly near the end of the 12-volt era). A typical power supply specification sheet is developed based on the in-vehicle performance characteristics. From this summary, two attributes are noted: first, the system voltage is not very stable and second, transient protection is limited. With this awareness and the knowledge that the power supply of the future will need architectural change, a review of the design assumptions using a total system view and a long term outlook is advanced. Using a rule based design process and employing available technology to enhance the power system architecture, a number of elements are proposed for consideration in new designs.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Approach to Quantifying Gear Rattle Noise Using Envelope Analysis

The present work discusses an objective test and analysis method developed to quickly quantify steering gear rattle noise heard in a vehicle. Utilizing envelope analysis on the time history data of the rattle signal, the resulting method is simple, fast, practical and yields a single-valued metric which correlates well to subjective measures of rattle noise. In contrast to many other rattle analysis methods, the approach discussed here is completed in the time domain. As applied to rattle noise produced by automotive electric steering systems, the metric produced with this analysis method correlates well with subjective appraisals of vehicle-level rattle noise performance. Lastly, this method can also be extended to rattle measurements at the component and subcomponent level.
Technical Paper

ACT - Ford's Automatically Controlled Transportation System

This paper contains a technical description of the Ford Motor Co.'s ACT system which has been designed to meet transportation needs in a wide variety of urban applications. The discussion covers the systems design features and operation of the driverless rubber-tired vehicles, the guideway, and the system's ability to meet expanding needs by a modular approach to the command and control design. Descriptions of Ford's new Cherry Hill Test Track and the first installations at the Fairlane Town Center in Dearborn, Mich., and the Bradley International Airport, Hartford, Conn., are also presented.
Technical Paper

Accurate Modeling for the Powertrain and Subframe Modes

Powertrain mounts are one of the important design characteristics of a vehicle. Powertrain is mostly mounted to the front subframe and once installed in a vehicle, powertrain mounting has an important role in determining the vehicle vibration characteristics. A good mounting system isolates engine input vibration from the vehicle body and minimizes the effect of road inputs to the customer. This paper discusses results of several dynamic models as they relate to noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) and compares the accuracy of these models. Various powertrain models are studied and their accuracy in comparison with full a vehicle model is discussed.
Technical Paper

An Approach for Highway Transportation Systems Research — A Model and Instrumentation

This paper outlines an approach to highway transportation research which considers the interrelationship of the major subsystems. It describes the framework, the variables, surveillance techniques, and new vehicle instrumentation. A model is described which serves as the basis for field testing and subsequent mathematical analyses. Surveillance systems including instrumented vehicles, ground, aerial, and space platforms are required as components of a real-time system. A research project, designed to evaluate driver stress, is discussed and sample computer data are shown.
Technical Paper

An Objective Approach to Highway Truck Frame Design

The design requirements for the frame as a load carrying member are discussed in relationship to a highway truck and its basic vehicle package. The theoretical and experimental procedures are given in detail to demonstrate the techniques for frame design. The features of a method to laboratory test a frame with correlation to service miles is discussed.
Technical Paper

An Ultra-Light Thin Sliding Door Design - A Multi-Product Multi-Material Solution

Sliding door designs are applied to rear side doors on vans and other large vehicles with a trend towards dual sliding doors with power operation. It is beneficial for the vehicle user to reduce the weight of and space occupied by these doors. Alcoa, in conjunction with Ford, has developed a multi-product, multi-material-based solution, which significantly reduces the cost of an aluminum sliding door and provides both consumer delight and stamping-assembly plant benefits. The design was successfully demonstrated through a concept readiness/technology demonstration program.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Instabilities and Power Flow in Brake Systems with Coupled Rotor Modes

Recent investigations by others have indicated that the dynamic response of automotive brake rotors in the squeal frequency range involves the classic flexural modes as well as in-plane motion. While the latter set creates primarily in-plane displacements, there is coupling to transverse displacements that might produce vibrational instabilities. This question is investigated here by analyzing a modal model that includes two modes of the rotor and two modes of the pad and caliper assembly. Coupling between in-plane and transverse displacements is explicitly controlled. Results from this model indicate that the coupling does create vibrational instabilities. The instabilities, whose frequencies are in the squeal range, are characterized by power flow through the transverse motion of the rotor.
Technical Paper

Application of Random Vibration Test Methods for Automotive Subsystems Using Power Spectral Density (PSD)

The object of this paper is to develop a random vibration laboratory test specification for automotive subsystems using the Power Spectral Density (PSD) method. This development is based on the 150k mile field data collected from vehicle proving grounds. The simulated vibration bench test will be used to simulate the energy of the 150k mile field data. The developed specification will include 3 axis random vibration profiles of appropriate duration. The Power Spectral Density method converts the time-domain field data into the frequency-domain data. The Enveloped Energy method groups the similar road PSD profiles to produce a generic PSD profile. The Inverse Law allocates an adjusted duration to the desired PSD energy level. The Road Test Specification provides the duration time for the developed bench test. The n-Soft tool [1] is utilized for data reduction analysis. The Bench Test Specification of the Fuel subsystem is a pilot for this development.
Technical Paper

Biaxial Torsion-Bending Fatigue of SAE Axle Shafts

Variable amplitude torsion, bending, and combined torsion and bending fatigue tests were performed on an axle shaft. The moment inputs used were taken from the respective history channels of a cable log skidder vehicle axle. Testing results indicated that combined variable amplitude loading lives were shorter than the lives of specimens subjected to bending or torsion alone. Calculations using strain rosette readings indicated that principle strains were most active around specific angles but also occurred with lesser magnitudes through a wider angular range. Over the course of a biaxial test, cyclic creep narrowly limited the angles and magnitudes of the principal strains. This limitation was not observed in the calculated principal stress behavior. Simple life predictions made on the measured strain gage histories were non-conservative in most cases.
Technical Paper

Biomechanical Design Considerations for Side Impact

Side impact collisions account for about 29% of all vehicle occupant fatalities and for about one-fifth of all the “harm” to vehicle occupants. This paper addresses many aspects of side impact induced injuries which vehicle planners and designers may choose to consider during the evolution of a vehicle design. The proposed NHTSA side impact test, side impact dummies, the biomechanics of different human body areas and general concepts for increased occupant protection are discussed from a theoretical point of view. It is believed that this paper or a future update of it, can only become a useful tool when there is general agreement that it reflects solid biomechanical direction which in turn, can be reflected in actual, practicable, responsible hardware design.
Technical Paper

Brake Integrated Hydraulic Actuation System Master Cylinder

This paper presents the design and operation of a new stepped bore master cylinder (fast-fill) which also integrates the rear brake proportioning valves and brake failure warning device in one major assembly. This design optimizes weight, performance and package together with several unique design features. It incorporates a combination of a plastic reservoir, permanent mold aluminum body, steel pistons, and minaturized steel proportioning valves resulting in a significant weight and cost reduction versus equivalent hydraulic actuation systems.
Technical Paper

Can All Engine Wear Be Trapped in a Can?

THE study of engine life, carried out by investigating engine wear in typical service, and by then striving to find the most effective ways of controlling it, forms the basis of this paper on contaminants in lubricants. The investigation involved a study of engine wear in 20,000 miles of operation typical of the average driver. The average driver was selected by using test cars from an employee transportation car pool. At the conclusion of the tests it was found that the use of the full-flow oil filter proved to be the best method for restricting engine wear caused by contaminants that get inside the engine. It was also shown that after successfully eliminating large, solid particles, further restriction of engine wear would depend upon the ability of the oil to lubricate, and upon the engine design to provide the oil supply in a manner suitable for lubrication of each part of the engine.