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Technical Paper

1983 Ford Ranger Truck HSLA Steel Wheel

The demand for improved fuel economy in both cars and trucks has emphasized the need for lighter weight components. The application of high strength steel to wheels, both rim and disc, represents a significant opportunity for the automotive industry. This paper discusses the Ranger HSLA wheel program that achieved a 9.7 lbs. per vehicle weight savings relative to a plain carbon steel wheel of the same design. It describes the Ranger wheel specifications, the material selection, the metallurgical considerations of applying HSLA to wheels, and HSLA arc and flash butt welding. The Ranger wheel design and the development of the manufacturing process is discussed, including design modifications to accommodate the lighter gage. The results demonstrate that wheels can be successfully manufactured from low sulfur 60XK HSLA steel in a conventional high volume process (stamped disc and rolled rim) to meet all wheel performance requirements and achieve a significant weight reduction.
Technical Paper

1987 Thunderbird Turbo Coupe Programmed Ride Control (PRC) Suspension

This paper describes Programmed Ride Control (PRC), the automatic adjustable shock absorber system designed and patented by Ford Motor Company. The system utilizes low shock absorber damping under normal driving conditions to provide soft boulevard ride, automatically switching to firm damping when required for improved handling. The system's microprocessor control module “learns” where the straight ahead steering wheel position is, allowing the system to respond to absolute steering wheel angle. A closed loop control strategy is used to improve system reliability and to notify the driver in the event of a system malfunction. Fast acting rotary solenoids control the damping rate of the shock absorbers.
Technical Paper

1988 Lincoln Continental Variable-Assist Power Steering System

Conventional power steering systems can be “tailored” to provide light steering efforts for parking and low speed, or high steering efforts for stability and “road feel” at high speed. In either case, the customer's preferred steering efforts are not provided at all times. Compromises are required. The need for a speed-sensitive steering effort system has prompted the introduction of several innovative variable-assist steering systems in the past few years, which are currently used in some European and Japanese vehicles. This paper describes a Ford-patented variable-assist system used on the 1988 Lincoln Continental, the first application of vehicle speed-sensitive steering to an American-designed and manufactured vehicle. The Ford Variable-Assist Power Steering System is a “rotary steering valve” system. It uses a modification of the current rotary valve to provide low steering efforts (low torsion bar twist) at low speed and higher efforts (more twist) as vehicle speed increases.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time Domain and Frequency Domain Test Methods for Automotive Components

Frequency domain testing has had limited use in the past for durability evaluations of automotive components. Recent advances and new perspectives now make it a viable option. Using frequency domain testing for components, test times can be greatly reduced, resulting in considerable savings of time, money, and resources. Quality can be built into the component, thus making real-time subsystem and full vehicle testing and development more meaningful. Time domain testing historically started with block cycle histogram tests. Improved capabilities of computers, controllers, math procedures, and algorithms have led to real time simulation in the laboratory. Real time simulation is a time domain technique for duplicating real world environments using computer controlled multi-axial load inputs. It contains all phase information as in the recorded proving ground data. However, normal equipment limitations prevent the operation at higher frequencies.
Technical Paper

A Front Rail Design for Efficient Crush Energy Absorption

Although there was a safety awareness from the earliest days of the automobile, systematic approaches to designing for safety became more widespread after 1950 when large numbers of vehicles came into use in both the United States and Europe, and governments in both continents undertook a widespread highway development. Industry response to safety objectives and also to government regulation has produced a large number of safety enhancing engineering developments, including radial tires, disc brakes, anti-lock brakes, improved vehicle lighting systems, better highway sign support poles, padded instrument panels, better windshield retention systems, collapsible hood structures, accident sensitive fuel pump shut-off valves, and other items. A significant development was the design of the energy absorbing front structures.
Journal Article

A Fuzzy Inference System for Understeer/Oversteer Detection Towards Model-Free Stability Control

In this paper, a soft computing approach to a model-free vehicle stability control (VSC) algorithm is presented. The objective is to create a fuzzy inference system (FIS) that is robust enough to operate in a multitude of vehicle conditions (load, tire wear, alignment), and road conditions while at the same time providing optimal vehicle stability by detecting and minimizing loss of traction. In this approach, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) is generated using previously collected data to train and optimize the performance of the fuzzy logic VSC algorithm. This paper outlines the FIS detection algorithm and its benefits over a model-based approach. The performance of the FIS-based VSC is evaluated via a co-simulation of MATLAB/Simulink and CarSim model of the vehicle under various road and load conditions. The results showed that the proposed algorithm is capable of accurately indicating unstable vehicle behavior for two different types of vehicles (SUV and Sedan).
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Road Loads Prediction Method with Full Vehicle Dynamic Simulation

A hybrid approach to predict road-induced loads in vehicle structures is presented. The technique involves full vehicle dynamic simulation using measured wheel forces, absolute wheel vertical displacements, and steering angle as input. The wheel vertical displacement is derived from the measured wheel acceleration. This approach avoids the use of tire-road interface modeling. It also improves the conventional loads measuring process with minimum instrumentation and data acquisition. Existing load data from a test vehicle is used to validate this approach. Computed component loads show good agreement with measurements.
Technical Paper

A Magnetorheological Door Check

Several shortcomings of mechanical door checks are overcome using a magnetorheological damper. Because the damper is electrically actuated, it can check in any desired position. The logical decision to activate or release the door check can be made either by passive circuitry based on input signals from switches attached to door handles or under microprocessor control, in which case the decision can take into account a variety of unconventional input factors, including the magnitude of the force applied to the door, the rate of change of the applied force, and the angle of door opening. With the addition of an appropriate proximity sensor, the controllable damper can prevent the door from inadvertently hitting a nearby obstacle. Details of the damper mechanism are described, and several implemented control strategies, both passive and microprocessor based, are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Mainstream Test Methodology for Developing a Vehicle Equipped with an Electronic Stability Control System

There have been many articles published in the last decade or so concerning the components of an electronic stability control (ESC) system, as well as numerous statistical studies that attempt to predict the effectiveness of such systems relative to crash involvement. The literature however is free from papers that discuss how engineers might develop such systems in order to achieve desired steering, handling, and stability performance. This task is complicated by the fact that stability control systems are very complex and their designs and what they can do have changed considerably over the years. These systems also differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and from vehicle to vehicle in a given maker of automobiles. In terms of ESC hardware, differences can include all the components as well as the addition or absence of roll rate sensors or active steering gears to name a few.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Quantification of Front Disc Brake Squeal

A subjective in-vehicle evaluation system is generally used to evaluate brake noise. This approach is quite dependent on analysis procedure, individual hearing abilities, individual tolerance level to the noise, the vehicle condition, road conditions and weather conditions. Due to the resultant subjective rating's dependence on these non-controllable factors, it was decided to develop an empirical laboratory technique using the brake dynamometer with sensitive noise measuring equipment to collect sufficient data on brake noise to allow engineers to study brake noise problems.
Technical Paper

A Micromachined Silicon Mass-Air-Flow Sensor

This paper describes the fabrication and operation of a low-cost, monolithic silicon mass-air-flow sensor (MAFS) developed for automotive applications. The device is a hot wire anemometer made of two thin single-crystal silicon beams, one being the heated element and the other serving as a temperature reference. Temperature compensation techniques and the design tradeoffs to maximize performance while ensuring durability in the harsh automotive environment are discussed.
Journal Article

A Model-Free Stability Control Design Scheme with Active Steering Actuator Sets

This paper presents the application of a proposed fuzzy inference system as part of a stability control design scheme implemented with active steering actuator sets. The fuzzy inference system is used to detect the level of overseer/understeer at the high level and a speed-adaptive activation module determines whether an active front steering, active rear steering, or active 4 wheel steering is suited to improve vehicle handling stability. The resulting model-free system is capable of minimizing the amount of model calibration during the vehicle stability control development process as well as improving vehicle performance and stability over a wide range of vehicle and road conditions. A simulation study will be presented that evaluates the proposed scheme and compares the effectiveness of active front steer (AFS) and active rear steer (ARS) in enhancing the vehicle performance. Both time and frequency domain results are presented.
Technical Paper

A Multibody Dynamics Approach to Leaf Spring Simulation for Upfront Analyses

Drivelines used in modern pickup trucks commonly employ universal joints. This type of joint is responsible for second driveshaft order vibrations in the vehicle. Large displacements of the joint connecting the driveline and the rear axle have a detrimental effect on vehicle NVH. As leaf springs are critical energy absorbing elements that connect to the powertrain, they are used to restrain large axle windup angles. One of the most common types of leaf springs in use today is the multi-stage parabolic leaf spring. A simple SAE 3-link approximation is adequate for preliminary studies but it has been found to be inadequate to study axle windup. A vast body of literature exists on modeling leaf springs using nonlinear FEA and multibody simulations. However, these methods require significant amount of component level detail and measured data. As such, these techniques are not applicable for quick sensitivity studies at design conception stage.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for the On-Road Data Acquisition and Analysis System

A portable in-vehicle NVH data acquisition and analysis system is required to support the product development timing necessary to be competitive in today's automotive market. The components of such a system should include rugged hardware and software to support NVH data acquisition and analysis for frequently performed tests. The system should be easy for the vehicle development engineers to operate while producing results with a high confidence level. Once the data has been measured and analyzed, the system should support automated reporting and databasing of the results. The availability of such a system would make it easy for the vehicle development engineers to perform standardized tests with standardized analysis and reporting. Such a system has been successfully developed at Ford Motor Company.
Technical Paper

A New Method Development to Predict Brake Squeal Occurrence

A new method to predict brake squeal occurrence was developed by MSC under contract to Ford Motor Company. The results indicate that the stability characteristics of this disc brake assembly are governed mainly by the frictional properties between the pads and rotor. The stability is achieved when the friction coefficient of the pads is decreasing as the contact force increases. Based on the results, a stable brake system can be obtained without changing the brake structure by incorporating the appropriate frictional coefficient in the brake system. The method developed here can be also used as a tool to test the quality of any brake design in the early design stage.
Technical Paper

A New Tire Model for Vehicle NVH Analysis

Since road roughness is an important source of vehicle vibration, a system model for NVH analysis requires a tire model which accurately predicts spindle response to road input. Most tire models currently used in the auto industry do not meet this requirement, because they are based on static stiffness of the tire and do not produce realistic response to input at the patch. This paper investigates a new modal tire model with patch input capability as a component within a vehicle system model. Comparisons are also presented between the behavior of the new tire model and a conventional spring model. To validate the performance of the tire model for NVH analysis, simulated vehicle responses to bump input are compared to chassis roll test results. Good correlation between the model prediction and the chassis roll measurements is observed.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Testing of Nonvolatile Memory Retention

This paper discusses the testing for retentivity of non-volatile memories. The physics associated with the reliable production of various non-volatile data storage devices has long been a topic of debate. The ability to reliably produce devices which endure erase/write cycling and retain data for extended periods of time has been questionable. Recent improvements in IC processing has given rise to claims of enhancements in both of these areas. Non-volatile memories are attractive in many automotive electronic applications where battery backup is neither convenient or feasible, but because of reliability concerns they have not found their way into critical applications. In applications like odometer or emission control calibrations it is imperative that memory retention is assured. In order to verify the reliability of the various available non-volatile memory devices, an accelerated test program was instituted.
Technical Paper

Advanced Emission Speciation Methodologies for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program - I. Hydrocarbons and Ethers

An analytical method for the determination of hydrocarbon and ether emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and flexible-fueled vehicles is described. This method was used in Phase I of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program to provide emissions data for various vehicles using individual reformulated gasolines and alternate fuels. These data would then be used for air modeling studies. Emission samples for tailpipe, evaporative, and running loss were collected in Tedlar bags. Gas chromatographic analysis of the emissions samples included 140 components (hydrocarbons, ethers, alcohols and aldehydes) between C1 and C12 in a single analysis of 54-minutes duration. Standardization, quality control procedures, and inter-laboratory comparisons developed and completed as part of this program are also described.
Technical Paper

Advanced Emissions Speciation Methodologies for the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program - II. Aldehydes, Ketones, and Alcohols

Analytical methods for determining individual aldehyde, ketone, and alcohol emissions from gasoline-, methanol-, and variable-fueled vehicles are described. These methods were used in the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program to provide emission data for comparison of individual reformulated fuels, individual vehicles, and for air modeling studies. The emission samples are collected in impingers which contain either 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine solution for the aldehydes and ketones or deionized water for the alcohols. Subsequent analyses by liquid chromatography for the aldehydes and ketones and gas chromatography for the alcohols utilize autoinjectors and computerized data systems which permit high sample throughput with minimal operator intervention. The quality control procedures developed and interlaboratory comparisons conducted as part of this program are also described.
Technical Paper

Advanced Optimization Techniques in Valvetrain Design

In this paper we describe the application of optimization techniques to the design of valvetrains in high revving internal combustion engines. The methods presented are based on parameter optimization [1] and the minimum principle by Pontrjagin [2] and will be applied to cam lobe and valve spring optimization, aiming at reducing oscillation amplitudes and improving control of the valvetrain over a broad speed range. To put the task of optimization into context the engineering requirements for valvetrains and methods to allow their computer based analysis are described. Furthermore principle considerations for valve event curve generation and parametrization, and on optimization techniques are discussed. Based on these fundamentals, optimization aims and constraints are formulated. Furthermore different examples of the application of automated optimization are presented in the area of cam profile optimization and valve spring optimization.