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Technical Paper

A Biomechanical Analysis of Head, Neck, and Torso Injuries to Child Surrogates Due to Sudden Torso Acceleration

This paper reports on the injuries to the head, neck and thorax of fifteen child surrogates, subjected to varying levels of sudden acceleration. Measured response data in the child surrogate tests and in matched tests with a three-year-old child test dummy are compared to the observed child surrogates injury levels to develop preliminary tolerance data for the child surrogate. The data are compared with already published data in the literature.
Technical Paper

A Crash Simulation of Instrument Panel Knee Bolster Using Hybrid III Dummy Lower Torso

This paper reports the analytical procedure developed for a simulation of knee impact during a barrier crash using a hybrid III dummy lower torso. A finite element model of the instrument panel was generated. The dummy was seated in mid-seat position and was imparted an initial velocity so that the knee velocity at impact corresponded to the secondary impact velocity during a barrier crash. The procedure provided a reasonably accurate simulation of the dummy kinematics. This simulation can be used for understanding the knee bolster energy management system. The methodology developed has been used to simulate impact on knee for an occupant belted or unbelted in a frontal crash. The influence of the vehicle interior on both the dummy kinematics and the impact locations was incorporated into the model. No assumptions have been made for the knee impact locations, eliminating the need to assume knee velocity vectors.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Road Loads Prediction Method with Full Vehicle Dynamic Simulation

A hybrid approach to predict road-induced loads in vehicle structures is presented. The technique involves full vehicle dynamic simulation using measured wheel forces, absolute wheel vertical displacements, and steering angle as input. The wheel vertical displacement is derived from the measured wheel acceleration. This approach avoids the use of tire-road interface modeling. It also improves the conventional loads measuring process with minimum instrumentation and data acquisition. Existing load data from a test vehicle is used to validate this approach. Computed component loads show good agreement with measurements.
Technical Paper

A Mainstream Test Methodology for Developing a Vehicle Equipped with an Electronic Stability Control System

There have been many articles published in the last decade or so concerning the components of an electronic stability control (ESC) system, as well as numerous statistical studies that attempt to predict the effectiveness of such systems relative to crash involvement. The literature however is free from papers that discuss how engineers might develop such systems in order to achieve desired steering, handling, and stability performance. This task is complicated by the fact that stability control systems are very complex and their designs and what they can do have changed considerably over the years. These systems also differ from manufacturer to manufacturer and from vehicle to vehicle in a given maker of automobiles. In terms of ESC hardware, differences can include all the components as well as the addition or absence of roll rate sensors or active steering gears to name a few.
Technical Paper

A Multinational Approach to European Environmental Concerns

European legislation covering noise, smoke emission and industrial pollution, all seeking to improve the environment are not addressed in this paper, which takes only exhaust emission and fuel complexity as its subjects. It describes how this complexity can inhibit the development capacity, thus restricting the model offering of a major european automobile manufacturer. The paper concludes that general benefit would be derived from genuine pan european emission legislation, particularly if that legislation was established at levels of control that allowed the development and use of modern engine technology.
Technical Paper

A New Tool for the Vibration Engineer

Significant progress could not have been made in the Sound Quality area without the invention and development of engineering tools. For the sound engineer, the binaural recording head is a primary example of one of those tools. The use of the binaural recording head was crucial to the development of the sound characterization process and has become an essential tool in the Sound Quality areas in Ford Motor Company. A similar tool, The Ford Vehicle Vibration Simulator, has been developed for the vibration engineer. The vehicle vibration simulator (VVS) is unique, consisting of vibration of the vehicle seat (6 degrees of freedom), steering wheel (4 DOF), vehicle floorpan section (1 DOF), and the brake or accelerator pedal (1 DOF). Many vibration test systems have been developed to study human response to vibration, especially for military and space applications. To our knowledge, this is the first multi-axis, fully integrated vibration test system to be used for automotive applications.
Technical Paper

A Performance Comparison of Various Automatic Transmission Pumping Systems

The pumping system used in a step ratio automatic transmission can consume up to 20% of the total power required to operate a typical automotive transmission through the EPA city cycle. As such, it represents an area manufacturers have focused their efforts towards in their quest to obtain improved transmission efficiency. This paper will discuss the history of automatic transmission pumps that develop up to 300 psi along with a description of the factors used to size pumps and establish pump flow requirements. The various types of pumps used in current automatic transmissions will be described with a discussion of their characteristics including a comparison based upon observations of their performance. Specific attention will be focused on comparing the volumetric efficiency, mechanical efficiency, overall efficiency, pumping torque and discharge flow.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for Feedgas Hydrocarbon Emissions: An Extension to Warm Engine Maps

A feedgas hydrocarbon emissions model that extends the usefulness of fully-warmed steady-state engine maps to the cold transient regime was developed for use within a vehicle simulation program that focuses on the powertrain control system (Virtual Powertrain and Control System, VPACS). The formulation considers three main sources of hydrocarbon. The primary component originates from in-cylinder crevice effects which are correlated with engine coolant temperature. The second component includes the mass of fuel that enters the cylinder but remains unavailable for combustion (liquid phase) and subsequently vaporizes during the exhaust portion of the cycle. The third component includes any fuel that remains from a slow or incomplete burn as predicted by a crank angle resolved combustion model.
Technical Paper

Additional Notes on Finite Element Models of Deformable Featureless Headform

Model characteristics of a finite element deformable featureless headform with one to four layers of solid elements for the headform skin are studied using both the LS-DYNA3D and FCRASH codes. The models use a viscoelastic material law whose constitutive parameters are established through comparisons of drop test simulations at various impact velocities with the test data. Results indicate that the one-layer model has a significant distinct characteristic from the other (2-to-4-layer) models, thus requiring different parametric values. Similar observation is also noticed in simulating drop tests with one and two layers of solid elements for the headform skin using PAM-CRASH. When using the same parametric values for the viscoelastic material, both the LS-DYNA3D and FCRASH simulations yield the same results under identical impact conditions and, thereby, exhibit a “functional equivalency” between these two codes.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Instrument for the Real Time Measurement of Engine Oil Economy

A number of advancements have been made in the coulometric sulfur trace instrumental technique for the real-time measurement of engine oil economy. These advancements include modification of the coulometric cell to improve reliability and reproducibility. The instrument has been interfaced with a microcomputer for instrument control as well as data acquisition, storage, and analysis. Studies were undertaken which demonstrate sufficient sensitivity and linearity for determination of engine oil economy at levels better than 10,000 miles/quart. Applications to steady-state engine oil consumption mapping and to instantaneous oil consumption during transient engine cycling are described. These instruments are being produced by an outside supplier for use in various company locations in both the engine production and engine research environments.
Technical Paper

An Approach to Improved Electroplated Parts Quality

The long term visual appearance of exterior chrome-plated parts is highly dependent on part design and supplier performance. The use of numerous complex designs coupled with the pressures of competition has caused a statistically high percentage of parts to be manufactured which do not fully meet customer expectations. A coordinated approach to improve supplier performance and simplification of part designs was required. A task force was established to address these issues in 1980 and desirable results were achieved.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of Various Viscous Criterion Computational Algorithms

The viscous criterion (V*C) has been proposed by biomechanics researchers as a generic biomechanical index for potential soft tissue injury. It is defined by the product of the velocity of deformation and the instantaneous compression of torso and abdomen. This criterion requires calculation and differentiation of measured torso/abdomen compression data. Various computational algorithms for calculating viscous criterion are reviewed and evaluated in this paper. These include methods developed by Wayne State University (WSU), NHTSA (DOT) and Ford. An evaluation has been conducted considering the accuracy of these algorithms with both theoretical and experimental data from dummy rib compressions obtained during a crash test. Based on these results, it is found that: V*C results depend on the scheme used in the computation process, the sampling rate and filtering of original raw data. The NHTSA method yields the lowest V*C value.
Technical Paper

An Evaluation of the SAE Recommended Design Changes to the Hybrid III Dummy Hip Joint

The SAE Large Male and Small Female Dummy Task Group has recommended a change to the Hybrid III dummy hip joint. This change was made because of a non-biofidelic interference in the current design that can influence chest accelerations. The modifications include a new femur casting shaft design and the addition of an elastomeric stop to the top of the casting. Static testing and Hyge sled tests were done to evaluate the modifications. Based on the results, the new design satisfied the requirements set by the SAE task group and reduced the influence of hip joint characteristics on chest accelerations.
Technical Paper

An Open Versus Closed Architecture for Multimedia Systems

For many years, carmakers have developed unique system designs to gain a competitive advantage using some unique technology or an optimization of a design to cut costs or improve quality. This leads to continual increase in complexity, long development times and high development costs. A common platform, based on an "open architecture,'' provides a solution for many of the problems associated with the conventional automotive approach to electrical/electronic system designs. The PC industry is a prime example of how an open architecture can provide benefits to the consumer, manufacturers of software and hardware components, as well as complete system integrators. The PC, based on the initial IBM computer developed in the early eighties, has become a de facto standard that has survived 20 years of fast and dramatic changes in the fundamental technologies used within the platform.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Importance of Automotive Characteristics by Older and Younger Drivers

A study was conducted to rank 34 ergonomic characteristics of automobiles by their degree of importance to older and younger drivers. The older drivers were students in AARP driver education classes; the younger drivers were students in university classes. Three geographic locations were sampled. The primary variable analyzed was age, but geographic location, gender, driving experience, and use of glasses were also investigated. Of the characteristics that were found to be of more than average importance to older drivers, seven were appreciably more important to older drivers than to younger drivers with the “control of glare light” being the most dominant.
Technical Paper

Automotive Convenience Products Trends and Prospects

The purpose of this paper is to describe the growth and the trends of automotive convenience products. These products contributed to make the driving experience more pleasurable. Electronics have contributed to this growth since the sixties, and its contribution and prospects will be the prime focus of this paper. With the continuing advance of electronic products in the consumer and industrial sectors, the consumer wants' and expectations are changing, especially with the “Baby Boom” generation. More new convenience features will be developed by the prudent use of electronics. The development of these future products require a thorough understanding of consumer wants and needs through market research, careful adaptation of the emerging technology to avoid gimmickry, and dedicated application of engineering know how to design package efficient, cost effective and reliable products.
Technical Paper

Automotive Obstacle Detection Systems: a Survey of Design Requirements and Vehicle Integration Issues

Obstacle detection technology has made significant progress in the last five years in the important product areas of quality, performance and affordability. Ford Motor Company's market research indicates that our customers are very interested in new safety features. Drivers consider obstacle detection and collision warning technology as the next breakthrough in safety technology. Ford recognizes the importance of moving from the collision mitigation to the collision avoidance paradigm. Fortunately, the first step in collision avoidance can be taken by equipping the vehicle with reliable and affordable obstacle detection sensors

Automotive Safety

The increasing importance of safety performance in all aspects of motor vehicle design, development, manufacture and marketing makes it necessary for professionals working in these areas to be more aware of safety considerations. The background material and concepts presented in this book will be useful as a basis to aid in the understanding of future developments in this fascinating area.
Technical Paper

Bar Code System for Gas Cylinder Data Tracking and Inventory Control

This paper describes the development and key features of a bar code based, computerized gas cylinder inventory and record keeping system developed by Ford Motor Company's Gas Standards Laboratory. The paper will demonstrate how bar code technology is being utilized to track compressed gas cylinders efficiently and accurately. It will also describe the link between bar code technology and a data base that was developed using a fourth generation computer language. The implementation of this bar code/data base system has significantly increased data accessibility, improved data quality, reduced training time and increased the efficiency and flexibility of the data reporting process.
Technical Paper

Bench Level Automotive Electrical and Electromagnetic Compatibility Validation Test Process Improvements (Analysis of Survey Results from Test Laboratories)

In an effort to reduce the cost and time associated with bench level automotive electrical and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) validation tests, a survey was created to request advice from the test labs that perform this testing. The survey focuses particularly on the development of the test plan document and the preparation of the test setup. The survey was sent to a targeted group of individuals with experience in performing this type of testing. The invitees work at laboratories that represent the majority of labs in the world that are authorized to perform component electrical / EMC validation testing for automotive original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). There were a significant number of responses; it is possible that representatives from all of the invited laboratories responded. The survey results provide demographic information about the test labs and their participants.