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Technical Paper

1970 Passenger Car High Altitude Emission Baseline

The 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments allow the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to set high altitude emission standards for 1981-83, but specify that any such standards may not be more stringent than comparable sea level standards -- relative to 1970 emission levels. Since available high altitude emission data from 1970 models were incomplete and controversial, the Motor Vehicle Manufacturers Association contracted with Automotive Testing Laboratories, Inc. to test a fleet of 25 1970 cars. Results of the test program showed average increases in emissions at Denver's altitude, compared to sea level, to be about 30% for evaporative HC, 57 to 60% for exhaust HC, 215 to 247% for CO and -46 to -47% for NOx. Corresponding HC and CO exhaust emission baselines would be 6.4 to 6.6 and 108 to 118 g/mi respectively.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Effects of Fuel Properties of Non-Petroleum Fuels on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions

A single cylinder indirect injection diesel engine was used to evaluate the emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay of non-petroleum liquid fuels derived from coal, shale, and tar sands. Correlations were made relating fuel properties with exhaust emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay. The results of the correlation study showed that the indicated fuel consumption, ignition delay, and CO emissions significantly correlated with the H/C ratio, specific gravity, heat of combustion, aromatics and saturates content, and cetane number, Multiple fuel properties were necessary to correlate the hydrocarbon emissions. The NOx emissions did not correlate well with any fuel property. Because these fuels from various resources were able to correlate succesfully with many of the fuel properties suggests that the degree of refinement or the chemical composition of the fuel is a better predictor of its performance than its resource.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Total and Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Engine Run on Two Different California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasolines

New regulations from the state of California have established, for the first time, reactivity-based exhaust emissions standards for new vehicles and require that any clean alternative fuels needed by these vehicles be made available. Contained in these regulations are provisions for “reactivity adjustment factors” which will provide credit for vehicles which run on reformulated gasoline. The question arises: given two fuels of different chemical composition, but both meeting the criteria for CA Phase 2 gasoline (reformulated gasoline), how different might the specific reactivity of the exhaust hydrocarbons be? In this study we explored this question by examining the engine-out HC emissions from a single-cylinder version of the 5.4 L modular truck engine run on two different CA Phase 2 fuels.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Emissions from a Vehicle in Both Normal and Selected Malfunctioning Operation Modes

A 1990 Ford Taurus operated on reformulated gasoline was tested under three modes of malfunction: disabled heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor, inactive catalytic converter, and controlled misfire. The vehicle was run for four U.S. EPA UDDS driving schedule (FTP-75) tests at each of the malfunction conditions, as well as under normal operating conditions. An extensive set of emissions data were collected. In addition to the regulated emissions (HC, CO, and NOx), a detailed chemical analysis was carried out to determine the gas- and particle-phase non-regulated emissions. The effect of vehicle malfunction on gas phase emissions was significantly greater than it was on particle phase emissions. For example, CO emissions ranged from 2.57 g/mi (normal operation) to 34.77 g/mi (disable HEGO). Total HCs varied from 0.22 g/mi (normal operation) to 2.21 g/mi (blank catalyst). Emissions of air toxics (1,3-butadiene, benzene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde) were also significantly effected.
Technical Paper

A Dynamometer Study of Off-Cycle Exhaust Emissions - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

Four vehicle fleets, consisting of 3 to 4 vehicles each, were emission tested on a 48″ roll chassis dynamometer using both the FTP urban dynamometer driving cycle and the REP05 driving cycle. The REP05 cycle was developed to test vehicles under high speed and high load conditions not included in the FTP. The vehicle fleets consisted of 1989 light-duty gasoline vehicles, 1992-93 limited production FFV/VFV methanol vehicles, 1992-93 compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles and their gasoline counterparts, and a 1992 production and two prototype ethanol FFV/VFV vehicles. All vehicles (except the dedicated CNG vehicles) were tested using Auto/Oil AQIRP fuels A and C2. Other fuels used were M85 blended from A and C2, E85 blended from C1, which is similar to C2 but without MTBE, and four CNG fuels representing the range of in-use CNG fuels. In addition to bag measurements, tailpipe exhaust concentration and A/F data were collected once per second throughout every test.
Technical Paper

A Feedback A/F Control System for Low Emission Vehicles

Recent Federal and California legislation have mandated major improvements in emission control. Tailpipe HC emission must be decreased an order of magnitude for the California Ultra Low Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standard. Present feedback A/F* control systems employ a Heated Exhaust Gas Oxygen sensor (HEGO sensor) upstream of the catalyst to perform A/F feedback control. Limitations on the ultimate accuracy of these switching sensors are well known. To overcome these limitations a linear Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen sensor (UEGO sensor) placed downstream from the minicatalyst is employed to attain improved A/F control and therefore, higher three-way catalyst (TWC) conversion efficiency. This configuration was granted a patent in 1992 (1**). This study compares performance differences between the two feedback control systems on a Ford Mustang. In initial studies both the UEGO and HEGO sensors were compared at the midposition location downstream of a minicatalyst.
Technical Paper

A Linear Catalyst Temperature Sensor for Exhaust Gas Ignition (EGI) and On Board Diagnostics of Misfire and Catalyst Efficiency

Afterburning of a rich exhaust/air mixture ahead of the catalyst has been shown in earlier papers to offer an effective means of achieving catalyst light-off in very short times. Protection of the catalyst from overheating is an important aspect of systems using EGI, and on board diagnostics will be required to check for proper function of EGI. In this paper, some options for these requirements are discussed, using a high temperature linear thermistor.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Speciation of Diesel Fuel and the Semi-Volatile Hydrocarbon Fraction of Diesel-Fueled Vehicle Exhaust Emissions

Although much has been learned in recent years about the atmospheric reactivity of the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles, there is only a limited database of corresponding information for exhaust emissions from diesel-fueled vehicles. An assessment of exhaust reactivity requires “speciation”, or measurement of the individual species of the HC fraction. The HC exhaust emissions are a complex mixture of unburned and partially burned fuel components. Because diesel fuel contains a much higher molecular weight range (typically C9-C26) than gasoline (typically C5-C12), new methodology was required to accommodate the collection and analysis of the >C12 fraction of the HC exhaust. As part of a study of the effects of fuel and other factors on the chemical nature of diesel emissions, we have developed a method for the collection and analysis of the semivolatile or heavy HC (>C12) fraction of the exhaust.
Technical Paper

A Method to Measure Air Conditioning Refrigerant Contributions to Vehicle Evaporative Emissions (SHED Test)

Although the intent of the SHED test (Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination) is to measure evaporative fuel losses, the SHED sampling methodology in fact measures hydrocarbons from all vehicle and test equipment sources. Leakage of air conditioning (AC) refrigerant is one possible non-fuel source contributing to the SHED hydrocarbon measurement. This report describes a quick and relatively simple method to identify the contribution of AC refrigerant to the SHED analyzer reading. R134A (CH2FCF3), the hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant used in all current automotive AC systems, as well as its predecessor, the chlorofluorocarbon R12, can be detected using the gas chromatography methods currently in place at many emissions labs for the speciation of exhaust and evaporative hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper

A Multinational Approach to European Environmental Concerns

European legislation covering noise, smoke emission and industrial pollution, all seeking to improve the environment are not addressed in this paper, which takes only exhaust emission and fuel complexity as its subjects. It describes how this complexity can inhibit the development capacity, thus restricting the model offering of a major european automobile manufacturer. The paper concludes that general benefit would be derived from genuine pan european emission legislation, particularly if that legislation was established at levels of control that allowed the development and use of modern engine technology.
Technical Paper

A New Mechanism for Measuring Exhaust A/F

Exhaust gas air-fuel ratio (A/F) sensors are common devices in powertrain feedback control systems aimed at minimizing emissions. Both resistive (using TiO2) and electrochemical (using ZrO2) mechanisms are used in the high temperature ceramic devices now being employed. In this work a new mechanism for making the measurement is presented based on the change in the workfunction of a Pt film in interaction with the exhaust gas. In particular it is found that the workfunction of Pt increases reversibly by approximately 0.7 V at that point (the stoichiometric ratio) where the exhaust changes from rich to lean conditions. This increase arises from the adsorption of O2 on the Pt surface. On returning to rich conditions, catalytic reaction of the adsorbed oxygen with reducing species returns the workfunction to its original value. Two methods, one capacitive and one thermionic, for electrically sensing this workfunction change and thus providing for a practical device are discussed.
Technical Paper

A New Test for Catalyst Oxygen Storage Which Correlates with Catalyst Performance on the Vehicle

A new laboratory test for measuring catalyst oxygen storage capacity has been developed. The test accurately predicts catalyst performance on the vehicle during transient A/F excursions and correlates well with vehicle CO and Nox tailpipe emissions. The test was subsequently used to facilitate improved oxygen storage capacity for new Pd-only washcoat formulations.
Technical Paper

A Non-Intrusive Method of Measuring PCV Blowby Constituents

A technique is presented that has been successfully demonstrated to non-intrusively and quickly sample gases typically found in PCV systems. Color Detection Tubes (CDTs) were used with a simple sampling arrangement to monitor CO2, NOx, O2, and H2O(g) at the closure line, crankcase, and PCV line. Measurements were accurate and could be made instantaneously. Short Path Thermal Desorbtion Tubes (SPTDTs) were used at the same engine locations for the characterization of fuel- and oil-derived hydrocarbon (HC) fractions and required only 50 cc samples. High engine loads caused pushover of blowby vapors as indicated by increased concentrations of CO2, NOx, H2O(g), and fuel HCs in the engines' fresh air inlets during WOT operation. Peak concentrations of blowby vapors were measured in the crankcase under no load and part throttle conditions. Oxygen concentrations always opposed the trends of CO2, NOx, and H2O(g).
Journal Article

A Pareto Frontier Analysis of Renewable-Energy Consumption, Range, and Cost for Hydrogen Fuel Cell vs. Battery Electric Vehicles

As automakers strategize approaches to sustainable vehicle technologies, alternative powertrains must be considered to reduce future fleet vehicle emissions and improve energy security. These alternative vehicles include different fuels and electrification. The ultimate for on-road CO2 reductions is a zero emission vehicle, which can be achieved by either a hydrogen fuel cell or battery electric vehicle. These vehicles would also require a renewable energy source to provide their propulsion energy in order to achieve maximum sustainability for both CO2 reduction and energy security. Renewable energy sources such as wind or solar result in heat or electricity that needs to be generated into an energy carrier such as hydrogen or stored in a battery. When examining these options based strictly on the efficiency path, previous analysis have concluded fuel cell vehicles may not be an appropriate suitability strategy in comparison to battery electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for Feedgas Hydrocarbon Emissions: An Extension to Warm Engine Maps

A feedgas hydrocarbon emissions model that extends the usefulness of fully-warmed steady-state engine maps to the cold transient regime was developed for use within a vehicle simulation program that focuses on the powertrain control system (Virtual Powertrain and Control System, VPACS). The formulation considers three main sources of hydrocarbon. The primary component originates from in-cylinder crevice effects which are correlated with engine coolant temperature. The second component includes the mass of fuel that enters the cylinder but remains unavailable for combustion (liquid phase) and subsequently vaporizes during the exhaust portion of the cycle. The third component includes any fuel that remains from a slow or incomplete burn as predicted by a crank angle resolved combustion model.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Research on Turbulent Flame Propagation Combustion Modeling Using a Direct Chemical Kinetics Model

The present work focused on modeling turbulent flame propagation combustion process using a direct chemical kinetics model. Firstly, the theory of turbulent flame propagation combustion modeling directly using chemical kinetics is given in detail. Secondly, two important techniques in this approach are described. One technique is the selection of chemical kinetics mechanism, and the other one is the selection of AMR (adaptive mesh refinement) level. A reduced chemical kinetics mechanism with minor modification by the authors of this paper which is suitable for simulating gasoline engine under warm up operating conditions was selected in this work. This mechanism was validated over some operating conditions close to some engine cases. The effect of AMR level on combustion simulation is given, and an optimum AMR level of both velocity and temperature is recommended.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Virtual Humidity Sensors for Vehicle Systems

New vehicle control algorithms are needed to meet future emissions and fuel economy mandates that are quite likely to require a measurement of ambient specific humidity (SH). Current practice is to obtain the SH by measurement of relative humidity (RH), temperature and barometric pressure with physical sensors, and then to estimate the SH using a fit equation. In this paper a novel approach is described: a system of neural networks trained to estimate the SH using data that already exists on the vehicle bus. The neural network system, which is referred to as a virtual SH sensor, incorporates information from the global navigation satellite system such as longitude, latitude, time and date, and from the vehicle climate control system such as temperature and barometric pressure, and outputs an estimate of SH. The conclusion of this preliminary study is that neural networks have the potential of being used as a virtual sensor for estimating ambient and intake manifold's SH.
Technical Paper

A Review of the Dual EGO Sensor Method for OBD-II Catalyst Efficiency Monitoring

This paper provides an overview of the dual EGO sensor method for OBD-II catalyst efficiency monitoring. The processes governing the relationship between catalyst oxygen storage, HC conversion efficiency, and rear EGO sensor response are reviewed in detail. A simple physical model relating catalyst oxygen storage capacity and rear EGO sensor response is constructed and used in conjunction with experimental data to provide additional insight into the operation of the catalyst monitor. The effect that the catalyst washcoat formulation has in determining the relationship between catalyst oxygen storage capacity and HC conversion efficiency and its impact on the catalyst monitor is also investigated. Lastly, the effects of catalyst failure mode, fuel sulfur, and the fuel additive MMT on the catalyst monitor's ability to properly diagnose catalyst function are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Sampling System for the Measurement of PreCatalyst Emissions from Vehicles Operating Under Transient Conditions

A proportional sampler for vehicle feedgas and tailpipe emissions has been developed that extracts a small, constant fraction of the total exhaust flow during rapid transient changes in engine speed. Heated sampling lines are used to extract samples either before or after the catalytic converter. Instantaneous exhaust mass flow is measured by subtracting the CVS dilution air volume from the total CVS volume. This parameter is used to maintain a constant dilution ratio and proportional sample. The exhaust sample is diluted with high-purity air or nitrogen and is delivered into Tedlar sample bags. These transient test cycle weighted feedgas samples can be collected for subsequent analysis of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbon species. This “mini-diluter” offers significant advantages over the conventional CVS system. The concentration of the samples are higher than those collected from the current CVS system because the dilution ratio can be optimized depending on the fuel.
Technical Paper

A Simplified Approach to Modeling Exhaust System Emissions: SIMTWC

The optimized design of an exhaust emission system in terms of performance, cost, packaging, and engine control strategy will be a key part of competitively meeting future more stringent emission standards. Extensive use of vehicle experiments to evaluate design system tradeoffs is far too time consuming and expensive. Imperative to successfully meeting the challenges of future emission regulations and cost constraints is the development of an exhaust system simulation model which offers the ability to sort through major design alternatives quickly while assisting in the interpretation of experimental data. Previously, detailed catalyst models have been developed which require the specification of intricate kinetic mechanisms to determine overall catalyst performance. While yielding extremely valuable results, these models use complex numerical algorithms to solve multiple partial differential equations which are time consuming and occasionally numerically unstable.