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Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Electrical & Electronics

2004-03-08
2004-01-1259
The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
Technical Paper

2005 Fuel Cell Vehicle and its Magnesium Power Distribution Unit

2005-04-11
2005-01-0339
The High Voltage Power Distribution Unit (PDU) is constructed of magnesium in support of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) weight reduction efforts. The PDU distributes and controls a nominal 75 kilowatts of power generated by the Fuel Cell, the primary source of High Voltage power, to all the vehicle loads and accessories. The constraints imposed on the design of the PDU resulted in a component highly susceptible to general and galvanic corrosion. Corrosion abatement was the focus of the PDU redesign. This paper describes the redesign efforts undertaken by Ford personnel to improve the part robustness and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

A Bootstrap Approach to Training DNNs for the Automotive Theater

2017-03-28
2017-01-0099
The proposed technique is a tailored deep neural network (DNN) training approach which uses an iterative process to support the learning of DNNs by targeting their specific misclassification and missed detections. The process begins with a DNN that is trained on freely available annotated image data, which we will refer to as the Base model, where a subset of the categories for the classifier are related to the automotive theater. A small set of video capture files taken from drives with test vehicles are selected, (based on the diversity of scenes, frequency of vehicles, incidental lighting, etc.), and the Base model is used to detect/classify images within the video files. A software application developed specifically for this work then allows for the capture of frames from the video set where the DNN has made misclassifications. The corresponding annotation files for these images are subsequently corrected to eliminate mislabels.
Technical Paper

A CFD Validation Study for Automotive Aerodynamics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0129
A study was conducted using Ford's nine standard CFD calibration models as described in SAE paper 940323. The models are identical from the B-pillar forward but have different back end configurations. These models were created for the purpose of evaluating the effect of back end geometry variations on aerodynamic lift and drag. Detailed experimental data is available for each model in the form of surface pressure data, surface flow visualization, and wake flow field measurements in addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values. This data is extremely useful in analyzing the accuracy of the numerical simulations. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of a digital physics based commercial CFD code, PowerFLOW ® to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around the car-like benchmark shapes.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing: Development of an ECU for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-0303
Ford Motor Company has recently implemented a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing system for a new, highly complex, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The implementation of this HIL system has been quick and effective, since it is based on proven Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) automation tools for real-time that allow for a very flexible and intuitive design process. An overview of the HIL system implementation process and the derived development benefits will be shown in this paper. The initial concept for the use of this HIL system was a complete closed-loop vehicle simulation environment for Vehicle System Controller testing, but the paper will show that this concept has evolved to allow for the use of the HIL system for many facets of the design process.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Methods for Battery and Supercapacitor Modeling

2003-06-23
2003-01-2290
In future vehicles (e.g. fuel cell vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles), the electrical system will have an important impact on the mechanical systems in the car (e.g. powertrain, steering). Furthermore, this coupling will become increasingly important over time. In order to develop effective designs and appropriate control systems for these systems, it is important that the plant models capture the detailed physical behavior in the system. This paper will describe models of two electrical components, a battery and a supercapacitor, which have been modeled in two ways: (i) modeling the plant and controller using block diagrams in Simulink and (ii) modeling the plant and controller in Dymola followed by compiling this model to an S-function for simulation in Simulink. Both the battery and supercapacitor model are based on impedance spectroscopy measurements and can be used for highly dynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

A Data Mining and Optimization Process with Shape and Size Design Variables Consideration for Vehicle Application

2018-04-03
2018-01-0584
This paper presents a design process with data mining technique and advanced optimization strategy. The proposed design method provides insights in three aspects. First, data mining technique is employed for analysis to identify key factors of design variables. Second, relationship between multiple types of size and shape design variables and performance responses can be analyzed. Last but not least, design preference can be initialized based on data analysis to provide priori guidance for the starting design points of optimization algorithm. An exhaust system design problem which largely contributes to the improvement of vehicular Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) performance is employed for the illustration of the process. Two types of design parameters, structural variable (gauge of component) and layout variable (hanger location), are considered in the studied case.
Journal Article

A Data-Driven Diagnostic System Utilizing Manufacturing Data Mining and Analytics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0233
The wide applications of automatic sensing devices and data acquisition systems in automotive manufacturing have resulted in a data-rich environment, which demands new data mining methodologies for effective data fusion and information integration to support decision making. This paper presents a new methodology for developing a diagnostic system using manufacturing system data for high-value assets in automotive manufacturing. The proposed method extends the basic attributes control charts with the following key elements: optimal feature subset selection considering multiple features and correlation structure, balancing the type I and type II errors in decision making, on-line process monitoring using adaptive modeling with control charts, and diagnostic performance assessment using shift and trend detection. The performance of the developed diagnostic system can be continuously improved as the knowledge of machine faults is automatically accumulated during production.
Technical Paper

A Drum Brake Squeal Analysis in the Time Domain

2005-05-16
2005-01-2312
Brake squeal has been a chronic customer complaint, often appearing high on the list of items that reduce customers' satisfaction with their vehicles. Brake squeal can emanate from either a drum brake or a disc brake even though the geometry of the two systems is significantly different. A drum brake generates friction within a cylindrical drum interacting with two semi-circular linings. A disc brake consists of a flat disc and two flat pads. The observed squeal behavior in a vehicle differs somewhat between drum and disc brakes. A drum brake may have a loud noise coming from three or more squeal frequencies, whereas a disc brake typically has one or two major squeal frequencies making up the noise. A good understanding of the operational deflection shapes of the brake components during noise events will definitely aid in design to reduce squeal occurrences and improve product quality.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

2005-11-01
2005-01-3568
In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Technical Paper

A Generic Fault Maturing and Clearing Strategy for Continuous On-Board Diagnostic Monitoring

2016-04-05
2016-01-0633
Per California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations, On-board diagnostic (OBD) of vehicle powertrain systems are required to continuously monitor key powertrain components, such as the circuit discontinuity of actuators, various circuit faults of sensors, and out-of-range faults of sensors. The maturing and clearing of these continuous monitoring faults are critical to simplification of algorithm design, save of engineering cost (i.e., calibration), and reduction of warranty issues. Due to the nature of sensors (to sense different physical quantities) and actuators (to output energy in desired ways), most of OEM and supplies tend to choose different fault maturing and clearing strategy for sensors and actuators with different physics nature, such as timer-based, counter-based, and other physical-quantity-based strategies.
Technical Paper

A Generic Teaching Case Study for Teaching Design for Six Sigma

2006-04-03
2006-01-0501
There are several reasons why it can be daunting to apply Six Sigma to product creation. Foremost among them, the functional performance of new technologies is unknown prior to starting a project. Although, Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) was developed to overcome this difficulty, a lack of applicable in-class case studies makes it challenging to train the product creation community. The current paper describes an in-class project which illustrates how Six Sigma is applied to a simulated product creation environment. A toy construction set (TCS) project is used to instruct students how to meet customer expectations without violating cost, packaging volume and design-complexity constraints.
Journal Article

A Low Profile Loop Antenna Design for Automotive Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-1696
This paper proposes a novel antenna design for automotive communication applications. The antenna design combines a resonant Alford loop with folded dipole elements to allow for efficiencies that are higher than electrically small loop antenna designs. The Alford loop provides the horizontal polarization and omnidirectional pattern coverage on the horizon which is desired for remote keyless entry and other narrowband automotive applications. With the use of folded dipole elements, the design allows for low profile mounting desired by automotive styling.
Technical Paper

A Methodology of Real-World Fuel Consumption Estimation: Part 1. Drive Cycles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0644
To assess the fuel consumption of vehicles, three sets of input data are required; drive cycles, vehicle parameters, and environmental conditions. As the first part of a series of studies on real-world fuel consumption, this study focuses on the drive cycles. In principle, drive cycles should represent real-world usage. Some of them aim at a specific usage such as a city driving condition or an aggressive driving style. However, the definition of city or aggressive driving is very subjective and difficult to quantitatively correlate with the real-world usage. This study proposes a methodology to quantify the speed and dynamics of drive cycles, or vehicle speed traces in general, against the real-world usage. After reviewing parameter sets found in other studies, relative cubic speed (RCS) and positive kinetic energy (PKE) are selected to represent the speed and dynamics through energy flow balance at the wheels.
Journal Article

A Model Based Approach for Electric Steering Tuning to Meet Vehicle Steering Performance Targets

2017-03-28
2017-01-1493
Subjective steering feel tuning and objective verification tests are conducted on vehicle prototypes that are a subset of the total number of buildable combinations of body style, drivetrain and tires. Limited development time, high prototype vehicle cost, and hence limited number of available prototypes are factors that affect the ability to tune and verify all the possible configurations. A new model-based process and a toolset have been developed to enhance the existing steering development process such that steering tuning efficiency and performance robustness can be improved. The innovative method utilizes the existing vehicle dynamics simulation and/or physical test data in conjunction with steering system control models, and provides users with simple interfaces which can be used by either CAE or development engineers to perform virtual tuning of the vehicle steering feel to meet performance targets.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Design Thinking Strategy for in-Vehicle Infotainment Features Development

2017-03-28
2017-01-0007
The advancement in connectivity technology is driving a shift in business models in almost every field. Automakers need to adapt to a new business model in which the platform (automobile) and the mobility solutions (Devices and Services) are enabled by a strong dynamic connectivity. To succeed in this business model, it is imperative to deliver an unparalleled customer experience. Traditional customer experiences focused only in the platform (automobile) are no longer sufficient to address the mobility needs. The development of in-vehicle features should consider both the platform and the connectivity in a single development scope. This paradigm shift sets new challenges for the in-vehicle features designers. Designers have to speak not only the language of the experience but rather a language to address different levels of abstractions to ensure effective communication with all stakeholders and developers including those outside the organization.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Methodology to Estimate Chassis Force Transmissibility and Applications to Road NVH Improvement

2003-05-05
2003-01-1711
The performance of structure-borne road NVH can be cascaded down to three major systems: 1) vehicle body structure, 2) chassis/suspension, 3) tire/wheel. The forces at the body attachment points are controlled by the isolation efficiency of the chassis/suspension system and the excitation at the spindle/knuckle due to the tire/road interaction. The chassis force transmissibility is a metric to quantify the isolation efficiency. This paper presents a new experimental methodology to estimate the chassis force transmissibility from a fully assembled vehicle. For the calculation of the transmissibility, the spindle force/moment estimation and the conventional Noise Path Analysis (NPA) methodologies are utilized. A merit of the methodology provides not only spindle force to body force transmissibility but also spindle moment to body force transmissibility. Hence it enables us to understand the effectiveness of the spindle moments on the body forces.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Methodology to Estimate Tire/Wheel Blocked Force for Road NVH Application

2005-05-16
2005-01-2260
Past studies have shown that NVH CAE tire model quality is not adequate to correctly capture a mid-frequency range (100-300 Hz). A new methodology has been developed to estimate tire forces that are independent of dynamic characteristics of vehicle suspension and rig test fixture. The forces are called tire blocked forces and defined as a force generated by a tire/wheel system whose boundary condition is constrained. The tire blocked force is estimated by removing the dynamic effect of the tire force measurement fixture. The blocked forces can be applied to CAE models to predict vehicle road NVH responses. This new method can also be used as a target setting tool. Tire suppliers can check the blocked tire forces from the rig testing data against a force target before they submit tires to automotive manufacturers for evaluations on a prototype vehicle.
Journal Article

A New Responsive Model for Educational Programs for Industry: The University of Detroit Mercy Advanced Electric Vehicle Graduate Certificate Program

2010-10-19
2010-01-2303
Today's automotive and electronics technologies are evolving so rapidly that educators and industry are both challenged to re-educate the technological workforce in the new area before they are replaced with yet another generation. In early November 2009 Ford's Product Development senior management formally approved a proposal by the University of Detroit Mercy to transform 125 of Ford's “IC Engine Automotive Engineers” into “Advanced Electric Vehicle Automotive Engineers.” Two months later, the first course of the Advanced Electric Vehicle Program began in Dearborn. UDM's response to Ford's needs (and those of other OEM's and suppliers) was not only at the rate of “academic light speed,” but it involved direct collaboration of Ford's electric vehicle leaders and subject matter experts and the UDM AEV Program faculty.
Technical Paper

A New Tire Model for Road Loads Simulation: Full Vehicle Validation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1579
Road loads tire models are used in the automotive industry in full vehicle simulations to compute the loading from the road into the chassis encountered in proving ground durability events. Such events typically include Belgian Block events, bump events, potholes and others. Correctly capturing tire enveloping forces in such events has historically been challenging - several different approaches exist each with its own limitations. In this paper a model is presented which captures the first order tire dynamics (frequencies lower than 80 Hz) and associated enveloping loading without the need of an effective road profile. The theory behind this tire model is briefly introduced. Importantly, a comprehensive study of the validation of the tire model is given which shows correlation for full vehicle dynamic proving ground events. A Virtual Tire Lab (VTL) pre-processing tool is also presented which is used to compute tire model input parameters from a validated non-linear FEA tire model.
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