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Technical Paper

1983 Ranger Pickup

The Ford Ranger will be a domestically built, small pickup truck engineered to many design objectives typical of a fullsize pickup, yet with four cylinder engine fuel efficiency. Ranger is a full-function on-and-off road pickup truck with a uniquely smooth ride and a capacity to carry up to a 725.7 kg. (1600 lb.) payload. The truck features a three passenger body-on-frame cab and a double wall pickup box with provision for 1.2m × 2.4m (4 ft. × 8 ft.) sheets of construction material. Featured in this comprehensive paper are the engineering highlights and innovations contributing to the accomplishment of these Small Truck objectives.
Technical Paper

2005 Fuel Cell Vehicle and its Magnesium Power Distribution Unit

The High Voltage Power Distribution Unit (PDU) is constructed of magnesium in support of Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV) weight reduction efforts. The PDU distributes and controls a nominal 75 kilowatts of power generated by the Fuel Cell, the primary source of High Voltage power, to all the vehicle loads and accessories. The constraints imposed on the design of the PDU resulted in a component highly susceptible to general and galvanic corrosion. Corrosion abatement was the focus of the PDU redesign. This paper describes the redesign efforts undertaken by Ford personnel to improve the part robustness and corrosion resistance.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing: Development of an ECU for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Ford Motor Company has recently implemented a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing system for a new, highly complex, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The implementation of this HIL system has been quick and effective, since it is based on proven Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) automation tools for real-time that allow for a very flexible and intuitive design process. An overview of the HIL system implementation process and the derived development benefits will be shown in this paper. The initial concept for the use of this HIL system was a complete closed-loop vehicle simulation environment for Vehicle System Controller testing, but the paper will show that this concept has evolved to allow for the use of the HIL system for many facets of the design process.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Methods for Battery and Supercapacitor Modeling

In future vehicles (e.g. fuel cell vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles), the electrical system will have an important impact on the mechanical systems in the car (e.g. powertrain, steering). Furthermore, this coupling will become increasingly important over time. In order to develop effective designs and appropriate control systems for these systems, it is important that the plant models capture the detailed physical behavior in the system. This paper will describe models of two electrical components, a battery and a supercapacitor, which have been modeled in two ways: (i) modeling the plant and controller using block diagrams in Simulink and (ii) modeling the plant and controller in Dymola followed by compiling this model to an S-function for simulation in Simulink. Both the battery and supercapacitor model are based on impedance spectroscopy measurements and can be used for highly dynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Technical Paper

A Generic Teaching Case Study for Teaching Design for Six Sigma

There are several reasons why it can be daunting to apply Six Sigma to product creation. Foremost among them, the functional performance of new technologies is unknown prior to starting a project. Although, Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) was developed to overcome this difficulty, a lack of applicable in-class case studies makes it challenging to train the product creation community. The current paper describes an in-class project which illustrates how Six Sigma is applied to a simulated product creation environment. A toy construction set (TCS) project is used to instruct students how to meet customer expectations without violating cost, packaging volume and design-complexity constraints.
Technical Paper

A New Approach of Generating Travel Demands for Smart Transportation Systems Modeling

The transportation sector is facing three revolutions: shared mobility, electrification, and autonomous driving. To inform decision making and guide smart transportation system development at the city-level, it is critical to model and evaluate how travelers will behave in these systems. Two key components in such models are (1) individual travel demands with high spatial and temporal resolutions, and (2) travelers’ sociodemographic information and trip purposes. These components impact one’s acceptance of autonomous vehicles, adoption of electric vehicles, and participation in shared mobility. Existing methods of travel demand generation either lack travelers’ demographics and trip purposes, or only generate trips at a zonal level. Higher resolution demand and sociodemographic data can enable analysis of trips’ shareability for car sharing and ride pooling and evaluation of electric vehicles’ charging needs.
Journal Article

A New Responsive Model for Educational Programs for Industry: The University of Detroit Mercy Advanced Electric Vehicle Graduate Certificate Program

Today's automotive and electronics technologies are evolving so rapidly that educators and industry are both challenged to re-educate the technological workforce in the new area before they are replaced with yet another generation. In early November 2009 Ford's Product Development senior management formally approved a proposal by the University of Detroit Mercy to transform 125 of Ford's “IC Engine Automotive Engineers” into “Advanced Electric Vehicle Automotive Engineers.” Two months later, the first course of the Advanced Electric Vehicle Program began in Dearborn. UDM's response to Ford's needs (and those of other OEM's and suppliers) was not only at the rate of “academic light speed,” but it involved direct collaboration of Ford's electric vehicle leaders and subject matter experts and the UDM AEV Program faculty.
Technical Paper

A Packaging Layout to Mitigate Crosstalk for SiC Devices

SiC devices have inherent fast switching capabilities due to their superior material properties, and are considered potential candidates to replace Si devices for traction inverters in electrified vehicles in future. However, due to the comparatively low gate threshold voltage, SiC devices may encounter oscillatory false triggering especially during fast switching. This paper analyzed the causes of false triggering, and also studied the impact of a critical parasitic parameter - common source inductance. It is shown that crosstalk is the main cause for the false triggering in the case and some positive common source inductance help to mitigate the crosstalk issue. A packaging layout method is proposed to create the positive common source inductance through layout of control terminals / busbars, and/or the use of control terminal bonded wires at different height.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Assess the Impact of Road Events on PHEV Performance using Real World Data

Plug in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) have gained interest over last decade due to their increased fuel economy and ability to displace some petroleum fuel with electricity from power grid. Given the complexity of this vehicle powertrain, the energy management plays a key role in providing higher fuel economy. The energy management algorithm on PHEVs performs the same task as a hybrid vehicle energy management but it has more freedom in utilizing the battery energy due to the larger battery capacity and ability to be recharged from the power grid. The state of charge (SOC) profile of the battery during the entire driving trip determines the electric energy usage, thus determining overall fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

A System for Autonomous Braking of a Vehicle Following Collision

This paper presents two brake control functions which are initiated when there is an impact force applied to a host vehicle. The impact force is generated due to the host vehicle being collided with or by another vehicle or object. The first function - called the post-impact braking assist - initiates emergency brake assistance if the driver is braking during or right after the collision. The second function - called the post-impact braking - initiates autonomous braking up to the level of the anti-lock-brake system if the driver is not braking during or right after the collision. Both functions intend to enhance the current driver assistance features such as emergency brake assistance, electronic stability control, anti-brake-lock system, collision mitigation system, etc.
Technical Paper

A Topographically Structural Optimization Methodology for Improving Noise Radiation in Transaxles

In this paper, a new technology for the design of silent transaxles is developed, where topography optimization is adopted and an artificial parameter called β is proposed as an objective function, representing an upper bound of the surface velocity. The strategy of the optimization is to minimize β while getting the surface velocities less than β. as the constraints. A numerical example of reducing transaxle's radiated noise by using the new optimization technology is given in the paper. In the example, an entire Ford transaxle system was modeled numerically, where most internal components were included. First a modal frequency velocity analysis was conducted. Then an acoustic power analysis based on the Acoustic Transfer Vector (ATV) was carried out. Finally, a topography optimization based on the β - method for the transaxle was performed to minimize the radiated noise.
Technical Paper

A Vehicle Model Architecture for Vehicle System Control Design

A robust Vehicle Model Architecture (VMA) has been developed to support model-based Vehicle System Control (VSC) design work and, in general, model-based vehicle system engineering activities. It is based on a logical breakdown of the vehicle into key subsystems with supporting bus infrastructure for distribution of signals between subsystems. Primary physical interfaces between the top level subsystems have been defined. Subsystem models that comply with these interfaces can be easily plugged into the architecture for complete simulation of vehicle systems. The VMA encourages model re-use and sharing between project teams and, furthermore, removes key obstacles to sharing of models with suppliers.
Technical Paper

AUREATE: An Augmented Reality Test Environment for Realistic Simulations

Automated driving is currently one of the most active areas of research worldwide. While the general progress in developing specific algorithms for perception, planning and control tasks is very advanced, testing and validation of the resulting functions is still challenging due to the large number of possible scenarios and generation of ground-truth. Currently, real world testing and simulations are used in combination to overcome some of these challenges. While real world testing does not suffer from imperfect sensor models and environments, it is expensive, slow and not accurately repeatable and therefore unable to capture all possible scenarios. However, simulation models are not sophisticated enough to fully replace real world testing. In this paper, we propose a workflow that is capable of augmenting real sensor-level data with simulated sensor data.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Cruise Controller: Trailer Tow Use Case

Conventional cruise control systems in automotive applications are usually designed to maintain the constant speed of the vehicle based on the desired set-point. It has been shown that fuel economy while in cruise control can be improved using advanced control methods namely adopting the Model Predictive Control (MPC) technology utilizing the road grade preview information and allowance of the vehicle speed variation. This paper is focused on the extension of the Adaptive Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (ANLMPC) reported earlier by application to the trailer tow use-case. As the connected trailer changes the aerodynamic drag and the overall vehicle mass, it may lead to the undesired downshifts for the conventional cruise controller introducing the fuel economy losses. In this work, the ANLMPC concept is extended to avoid downshifts by translating the downshift conditions to the constraints of the underlying optimization problem to be solved.
Journal Article

Advancements and Opportunities for On-Board 700 Bar Compressed Hydrogen Tanks in the Progression Towards the Commercialization of Fuel Cell Vehicles

Fuel cell vehicles are entering the automotive market with significant potential benefits to reduce harmful greenhouse emissions, facilitate energy security, and increase vehicle efficiency while providing customer expected driving range and fill times when compared to conventional vehicles. One of the challenges for successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles is transitioning the on-board fuel system from liquid gasoline to compressed hydrogen gas. Storing high pressurized hydrogen requires a specialized structural pressure vessel, significantly different in function, size, and construction from a gasoline container. In comparison to a gasoline tank at near ambient pressures, OEMs have aligned to a nominal working pressure of 700 bar for hydrogen tanks in order to achieve the customer expected driving range of 300 miles.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag of Engine-Cooling Airflow With External Interference

This report examines the aerodynamic drag and external interference of engine cooling airflow. Much of the report is on inlet interference, a subject that has not been discussed in automotive technical literature. It is called inlet spillage drag, a term used in the aircraft industry to describe the change in inlet drag with engine airflow. The analysis shows that the reduction in inlet spillage drag, from the closed front-end reference condition, is the primary reason why cooling drag measurements are lower than would be expected from free stream momentum considerations. In general, the free stream momentum (or ram drag) is the upper limit and overstates the cooling drag penalty. An analytical expression for cooling drag is introduced to help the understanding and interpretation of cooling drag measurements, particularly the interference at the inlet and exit.
Journal Article

Aerodynamic Investigation of Cooling Drag of a Production Pickup Truck Part 1: Test Results

The airflow that enters the front grille of a ground vehicle for the purpose of component cooling has a significant effect on aerodynamic drag. This drag component is commonly referred to as cooling drag, which denotes the difference in drag measured between open grille and closed grille conditions. When the front grille is closed, the airflow that would have entered the front grille is redirected around the body. This airflow is commonly referred to as cooling interference airflow. Consequently, cooling interference airflow can lead to differences in vehicle component drag; this component of cooling drag is known as cooling interference drag. One mechanism that has been commonly utilized to directly influence the cooling drag, by reducing the engine airflow, is active grille shutters (AGS). For certain driving conditions, the AGS system can restrict airflow from passing through the heat exchangers, which significantly reduces cooling drag.
Technical Paper

Air Conditioning System Performance and Vehicle Fuel Economy Trade-Offs for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

In this paper, the tradeoff relationship between the Air Conditioning (A/C) system performance and vehicle fuel economy for a hybrid electric vehicle during the SC03 drive cycle is presented. First, an A/C system model was integrated into Ford’s HEV simulation environment. Then, a system-level sensitivity study was performed on a stand-alone A/C system simulator, by formulating a static optimization problem which minimizes the total energy use of actuators, and maintains an identical cooling capacity. Afterwards, a vehicle-level sensitivity study was conducted with all controllers incorporated in sensitivity analysis software, under three types of formulations of cooling capacity constraints. Finally, the common observation from both studies, that the compressor speed dominates the cooling capacity and the EDF fan has a marginal influence, is explained using the thermodynamics of a vapor compression cycle.
Technical Paper

An Extensive Validation of an Open Source Based Solution for Automobile External Aerodynamics

The number of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations performed during the vehicle aerodynamic development process continues to expand at a rapid rate. One key contributor to this trend is the number of analytically based designed experiments performed to support vehicle aerodynamic shape development. A second contributor is the number of aerodynamic optimization studies performed for vehicle exterior components such as mirrors, underbody shields, spoilers, etc. A third contributor is the increasing number of “what if” exploratory studies performed early in the design process when the design is relatively fluid. Licensing costs for commercial CFD solutions can become a significant constraint as the number of simulations expands.