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Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Electrical & Electronics

The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
Technical Paper

A Review of Human Physiological, Psychological & Human Biomechanical Factors on Perceived Thermal Comfort of Automotive Seats.

Thermal comfort in automotive seating has been studied and discussed for a long time. The available research, because it is focused on the components, has not produced a model that provides insight into the human-seat system interaction. This work, which represents the beginning of an extensive research program, aims to establish the foundation for such a model. This paper will discuss the key physiological, psychological, and biomechanical factors related to perceptions of thermal comfort in automotive seats. The methodology to establish perceived thermal comfort requirements will also be presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

A Review of Modal Choice Models: Case Study for São Paulo

The world urbanization is growing rapidly, bringing many challenges for people to move in dense metropolitan regions. Public transportation is not able to attend the whole demand, and individual transportation modes are struggling with traffic congestion and stringent regulations to reduce its attractiveness, such as the license plate restriction in São Paulo. On the other hand, enablers like smartphones mass penetration, GPS connected services and shared economy have opened space to a whole new range of possible solutions to improve people perception on urban mobility. This work aims to evaluate the modal choice behavior models and understand the success factor of current mobility solutions in the city of São Paulo. The data available through origin/destination researches will be used to validate the models used in this work.
Technical Paper

A Technical Analysis of a Proposed Theory on Tire Tread Belt Separation-Induced Axle Tramp

Recently, papers have been published purporting to study the effect of rear axle tramp during tread separation events, and its effect on vehicle handling [1, 2]. Based on analysis and physical testing, one paper [1] has put forth a mathematical model which the authors claim allows vehicle designers to select shock damping values during the development process of a vehicle in order to assure that a vehicle will not experience axle tramp during tread separations. In the course of their work, “lumpy” tires (tires with rubber blocks adhered to the tire's tread) were employed to excite the axle tramp resonance, even though this method has been shown not to duplicate the physical mechanisms behind an actual tread belt separation. This paper evaluates the theories postulated in [1] by first analyzing the equations behind the mathematical model presented. The model is then tested to see if it agrees with observed physical testing.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Design and Appraisal System for Vehicle Interior Packaging

Static seating bucks have long been used as the only means to subjectively appraise the vehicle interior packages in the vehicle development process. The appraisal results have traditionally been communicated back to the requesting engineers either orally or in a written format. Any design changes have to be made separately after the appraisal is completed. Further, static seating bucks lack the flexibility to accommodate design iterations during the evolution of a vehicle program. The challenge has always been on how to build a seating buck quickly enough to support the changing needs of vehicle programs, especially in the early vehicle development phases. There is always a disconnect between what the seating buck represents and what is in the latest design (CAD), since it takes weeks or months to build a seating buck and by the time it is built the design has already been evolved. There is also no direct feedback from seating buck appraisal to the design in CAD.
Technical Paper

Approaches to Determining Beneficial Use of Simulink and UML in Automotive Embedded Software Systems

Simulink is a very successful and popular method for modelling and auto-coding embedded automotive features, functions and algorithms. Due to its history of success, university feeder programs, and large third party tool support, it has, in some cases, been applied to areas of the software system where other methods, principles and strategies may provide better options for the software and systems engineers and architects. This paper provides approaches to determine when best to apply UML and when best to apply Simulink to a typical automotive feature. Object oriented software design patterns as well as general guidelines are provided to help in this effort. This paper's intent is not to suggest a replacement for Simulink but to provide the software architects and designers additional options when decomposing high level requirements into reusable software components.
Technical Paper

Aqueous Corrosion of Experimental Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloys

This paper presents a comparison of aqueous corrosion rates in 5% NaCl solution for eight experimental creep-resistant magnesium alloys considered for automotive powertrain applications, as well as three reference alloys (pure magnesium, AM50B and AZ91D). The corrosion rates were measured using the techniques of titration, weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and DC polarization. The corrosion rates measured by these techniques are compared with each other as well as with those obtained with salt-spray testing using ASTM B117. The advantages and disadvantages of the various corrosion measurement techniques are discussed.
Technical Paper

Autonomous Lane Changing Using Model Predictive Control

This paper takes a look at one of the problems associated with the concept of autonomous control of vehicles in the current traffic environment, namely the changing of lanes. Given the increase in traffic density on highways and interstate roads over the past few decades, safe navigation of individual vehicles has required increased driver attention and diligence to an increased number of visual information cues. The concept of autonomous vehicles operating without driver intervention in the present traffic system appears daunting. One aspect of traffic maneuvering involves changing lanes to a position between two other vehicles. Although this aspect appears straightforward, it is the lack of accurate knowledge of other vehicle maneuvering which makes the task difficult. Using Model Predictive Control (MPC) techniques, the task is addressed in an optimization problem framework.
Technical Paper

Brake System Regulations and Standards Review and Comparison Focused on Europe, NA and SA Markets

Considering that the most part of commercial vehicles are equipped with air brakes it is very important assure specific technical requirements for air brake system and its components. In addition, the effects of brake system failure are more critical for commercial vehicles which require more attention on their requirements details. Historically, the development of air brakes technology started on North America and Europe and consequently two strong and distinct resolutions were structured: FMVSS 121 and ECE R.13, respectively. For passenger cars were developed the ECER.13H to harmonize North American and European resolutions. However, for commercial vehicles regional applications, culture and implementation time must be considered. These commercial vehicles peculiarities must be understood and their specific requirements harmonized to attend the global marketing growth.
Technical Paper

Brakes Standards Interface Analysis Considering Brazilian, European and North American Regulations Focusing on Technologies Introduction

It is very important and unquestionable that we need to have a clear technical requirement for Air Brake Systems and its components, since it is one of most important regarding safety. Looking to heavy commercial vehicles and possible air brake system failures, everything becomes clearly to pay total attention for these normative and regulatory requirements. Historically, the development of Brakes technology has started on EUA and Europe and consequently two strong and distinct requirements were structured: FMVSS 121 and ECE-R13. From decades people are trying to harmonize these requirements and for passenger cars, the evolution was faster. However, for commercial vehicles there are more peculiarities considering regional applications and some of them cultural and implementation time. As globally market is growing so fast as well new markets around the world, become fundamental the clearly understanding of these similarities, variants, peculiarities and correlated requirements.
Technical Paper

CAE Approach for Light Truck Frame Durability Evaluation Due to Payload Increase

The growing competition of the automotive market makes more and more necessary the reduction of development time and consequently, the increase of the capacity to quickly respond to the launching of the competitors. One of the most costly phases on the vehicle development process is the field durability test, both in function of the number of prototypes employed and the time needed to its execution. More and more diffused, the fatigue life prediction methods have played an important part in the durability analysis via CAE. Nevertheless, in order they can be reliable and really being able to reduce the development time and cost, they need to be provided with load cases that can accurately represent the field durability tests. This work presents a CAE approach used for light trucks in order to get a reasonable understanding of component durability behavior due to payload increase. In general, road load data is not available for a new payload condition.
Technical Paper

Car Multimedia Bus Development

The following paper will discuss the latest developments that are taking place in the automobile industry pertaining to the development of a high-speed data bus standard. By 2005, it is likely that we will see the introduction of numerous high-speed, real time multimedia applications proliferating into the vehicle. These applications will provide the car owner access to information, entertainment, communication, and safety as well as the Internet. These systems will also drive the need to have a high-speed data bus serving as a backbone for data traffic between different applications. Currently, the minimum bus speed being considered for such applications is 100 Mbps, which is suitable for transmitting a compressed video and audio data stream. Concerns about electromagnetic interference (EMI) and weight have driven the physical media requirement to be plastic optical fiber (POF).
Technical Paper

Characterization of 6XXX Series Aluminum Extrusions Using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technique

Aluminum extrusions are used in the automotive industry for body structure applications requiring cross-section design flexibility, high section stiffness, and high strength. Heat-treatable 6xxx series extrusion alloys have typically been used in automotive due to commercial availability, competitive cost, high strength, and impact performance. This paper presents a characterization study of mechanical properties of 6xxx series aluminum extrusions using digital image correlation (DIC). DIC has been used to capture spatial strain distribution and its evolution in time during material deformation. The materials of study were seamless and structural 6061 and 6082 extrusions. The alloys have been tensile tested using an MTS load frame with a dual optical camera system to capture the stereoscopic digital images. Notable results include the differing anisotropy of seamless and structural extrusions, as well as the influence of artificial aging on anisotropy.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Crankcase Pressure Variation during the Engine Cycle of an Internal Combustion Engine

High frequency variations in crankcase pressure have been observed in Inline-four cylinder (I4) engines and an understanding of the causes, frequency and magnitude of these variations is helpful in the design and effective operation of various engine systems. This paper shows through a review and explanation of the physics related to engine operation followed by comparison to measured vehicle data, the relationship between crankcase volume throughout the engine cycle and the observed pressure fluctuations. It is demonstrated that for a known or proposed engine design, through knowledge of the key engine design parameters, the frequency and amplitude of the cyclic variation in crankcase pressure can be predicted and thus utilized in the design of other engine systems.
Technical Paper

Common Mesh Approach for Automotive Vehicle CAE Analysis

Over the past decades, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) based assessment of vehicle durability, NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) and crash performance has become very essential in vehicle development and verification process. CAE activity is often organized as different groups based on the specific attributes (durability, NVH and crash). Main reasons for this are the expertise required and the difference in the finite element software technologies (explicit vs implicit) used to perform and interpret various CAE analyses in each of the attributes. This leads to individual attribute team creating its own model of the vehicle and there is not much exchange of the CAE models between the attribute teams. Different model requirements for each attribute make model sharing challenging. However, CAE analyses for all attributes start with common CAD and follow the same sub-process in vehicle development cycle.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

Analysis of road accidents has shown that an important portion of fatal crashes involving Commercial Vehicles are caused by rollovers. ESC systems in Commercial Vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurrences of jackknifing events. Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov. 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov. 1st, 2014 for all new vehicles), including Commercial Vehicles, Buses, Trucks and Trailers.
Journal Article

Design Considerations for Hydrogen Management System on Ford Hydrogen Fueled E-450 Shuttle Bus

As part of a continuous research and innovation effort, Ford Motor Company has been evaluating hydrogen as an alternative fuel option for vehicles with internal combustion engines since 1997. Ford has recently designed and built an Econoline (E-450) shuttle bus with a 6.8L Triton engine that uses gaseous hydrogen fuel. Safe practices in the production, storage, distribution, and use of hydrogen are essential for the widespread public and commercial acceptance of hydrogen vehicles. Hazards and risks inherent in the application of hydrogen fuel to internal combustion engine vehicles are explained. The development of a Hydrogen Management System (H2MS) to detect hydrogen leaks in the vehicle is discussed, including the evolution of the H2MS design from exploration and quantification of risks, to implementation and validation of a working system on a vehicle. System elements for detection, mitigation, and warning are examined.
Technical Paper

Development of Diagnostic Tools in Automotive Electronics

Throughout the evolution of transportation technology the automotive industry has continually devised methods of diagnosing and servicing vehicle electrical and electronic concerns. Methodologies have always included special test equipment accompanied by volumes of printed manual procedures. Today's vehicle technology, with its highly interactive/integrated systems control capability, has brought on a new level of complexity and confusion to the service technician. In order to assist the technician in the diagnosis of microprocessor based control systems, the service industry has developed highly sophisticated on-board vehicle diagnostics as well as off-board computer based equipment. This paper describes the progression of service test equipment provided by Ford Motor Company to assist in vehicle electrical/electronic diagnostics. Similar to all industry manufacturers Ford Motor has devised both on-board and off-board systems which are required to fix the car right the first time.
Technical Paper

Development of Numerical Models for Injury Biomechanics Research: A Review of 50 Years of Publications in the Stapp Car Crash Conference

Numerical analyses frequently accompany experimental investigations that study injury biomechanics and improvements in automotive safety. Limited by computational speed, earlier mathematical models tended to simplify the system under study so that a set of differential equations could be written and solved. Advances in computing technology and analysis software have enabled the development of many sophisticated models that have the potential to provide a more comprehensive understanding of human impact response, injury mechanisms, and tolerance. In this article, 50 years of publications on numerical modeling published in the Stapp Car Crash Conference Proceedings and Journal were reviewed. These models were based on: (a) author-developed equations and software, (b) public and commercially available programs to solve rigid body dynamic models (such as MVMA2D, CAL3D or ATB, and MADYMO), and (c) finite element models.