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Technical Paper

1D Model for Correcting the Rate of Injection Signal Based on Geometry and Temperature Influence

2017-03-28
2017-01-0819
The fuel consumption and emissions of diesel engines is strongly influenced by the injection rate pattern, which influences the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. Knowing the exact injection rate is mandatory for an optimal diesel combustion development. The short injection time of no more than some milliseconds prevents a direct flow rate measurement. However, the injection rate is deduced from the pressure change caused by injecting into a fuel reservoir or pipe. In an ideal case, the pressure increase in a fuel pipe correlates with the flow rate. Unfortunately, real measurement devices show measurement inaccuracies and errors, caused by non-ideal geometrical shapes as well as variable fuel temperature and fuel properties along the measurement pipe. To analyze the thermal effect onto the measurement results, an available rate measurement device is extended with a flexible heating system as well as multiple pressure and temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Upfront Optimization of the In-Cylinder Flow of the 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1492
This paper presents part of the analytical work performed for the development and optimization of the 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system from Ford Motor Company. The 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system is a direct injected twin turbocharged combustion system employing side-mounted multi-hole injectors. Upfront 3D CFD, employing a Ford proprietary KIVA-based code, was extensively used in the combustion system development and optimization phases. This paper presents the effect of intake port design with various levels of tumble motion on the combustion system characteristics. A high tumble intake port design enforces a well-organized stable motion that results in higher turbulence intensity in the cylinder that in turn leads to faster burn rates, a more stable combustion and less fuel enrichment requirement at full load.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Investigation on the High Temperature Fatigue of Three Cast Aluminum Alloys

2004-03-08
2004-01-1029
The high temperature fatigue behaviors of three cast aluminum alloys used for cylinder head fabrication - 319, A356 and AS7GU - are compared under isothermal fatigue at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior for both out-of-phase and in-phase loading conditions (100-300°C) has also been investigated. It has been observed that all three of these alloys present a very similar behavior under both isothermal and thermo-mechanical low-cycle fatigue. Under high-cycle fatigue, however, the alloys A356 and AS7GU exhibit superior performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Automotive System Fatigue Models Processed in the Time and Frequency Domain

2016-04-05
2016-01-0377
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that frequency domain methods for calculating structural response and fatigue damage can be more widely applicable than previously thought. This will be demonstrated by comparing results of time domain vs. frequency domain approaches for a series of fatigue/durability problems with increasing complexity. These problems involve both static and dynamic behavior. Also, both single input and multiple correlated inputs are considered. And most important of all, a variety of non-stationary loading types have been used. All of the example problems investigated are typically found in the automotive industry, with measured loads from the field or from the proving ground.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1695
Two oxygenated fuels were evaluated on a single-cylinder diesel engine and compared to three hydrocarbon diesel fuels. The oxygenated fuels included canola biodiesel (canola methyl esters, CME) and CME blended with dibutyl succinate (DBS), both of which are or have the potential to be bio-derived. DBS was added to improve the cold flow properties, but also reduced the cetane number and net heating value of the resulting blend. A 60-40 blend of the two (60% vol CME and 40% vol DBS) provided desirable cold flow benefits while staying above the U.S. minimum cetane number requirement. Contrary to prior vehicle test results and numerous literature reports, single-cylinder engine testing of both CME and the 60-40 blend showed no statistically discernable change in NOx emissions relative to diesel fuel, but only when constant intake oxygen was maintained.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0666
Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Effect of E85 vs. Gasoline on Exhaust System Surface Temperatures

2007-04-16
2007-01-1392
With concerns over increasing worldwide demand for gasoline and greenhouse gases, many automotive companies are increasing their product lineup of vehicles to include flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of operating on fuel blends ranging from 100% gasoline up to a blend of 15% gasoline/85% ethanol (E85). For the purpose of this paper, data was obtained that will enable an evaluation relating to the effect the use of E85 fuel has on exhaust system surface temperatures compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline while the vehicle undergoes a typical drive cycle. Three vehicles from three different automotive manufacturers were tested. The surface of the exhaust systems was instrumented with thermocouples at specific locations to monitor temperatures from the manifold to the catalytic converter outlet. The exhaust system surface temperatures were recorded during an operation cycle that included steady vehicle speed operation; cold start and idle and wide open throttle conditions.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

A Drum Brake Squeal Analysis in the Time Domain

2005-05-16
2005-01-2312
Brake squeal has been a chronic customer complaint, often appearing high on the list of items that reduce customers' satisfaction with their vehicles. Brake squeal can emanate from either a drum brake or a disc brake even though the geometry of the two systems is significantly different. A drum brake generates friction within a cylindrical drum interacting with two semi-circular linings. A disc brake consists of a flat disc and two flat pads. The observed squeal behavior in a vehicle differs somewhat between drum and disc brakes. A drum brake may have a loud noise coming from three or more squeal frequencies, whereas a disc brake typically has one or two major squeal frequencies making up the noise. A good understanding of the operational deflection shapes of the brake components during noise events will definitely aid in design to reduce squeal occurrences and improve product quality.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element Method for Camshaft Cap Durability Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0341
In this study, a finite element analysis method is developed for simulating a camshaft cap punching bench test. Stiffness results of simulated camshaft cap component are correlated with test data and used to validate the model accuracy in terms of material and boundary conditions. Next, the method is used for verification of cap design and durability performance improvement. In order to improve the computational efficiency of the finite element analysis, the punch is replaced by equivalent trigonometric distributed loads. The sensitivity of the finite element predicted strains for different trigonometric pressure distribution functions is also investigated and compared to strain gage measured values. A number of equivalent stress criteria are also used for fatigue safety factor calculations.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

2005-11-01
2005-01-3568
In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Reliable and Durable Product Design

1996-08-01
961794
In this paper, a simplified and systematic approach to integrate reliability and durability aspects in design process is presented. A six step process is explained with the help of examples. Two alternatives for gathering means and standard deviations for key parameters are discussed. First a DOE approach based on orthogonal arrays is presented. Second approach is based on Taylor Series expansion. An example of beam design is solved with both of these approaches. The Second example also considers the degradation with time in service.
Technical Paper

A Functional View of Engineering

1999-09-28
1999-01-3218
Many descriptions of product development are based on a timeline of activity. Timelines typically do not characterize the underlying strategy and flexibility embodied in the technical activity that actually takes place between activity nodes. Timelines alone will inhibit evolving to a more rational approach to product development. The view of engineering described in this paper is a functional view of engineering. It is what engineers do. It is aligned with the technical tools used by engineers. It applies to both product development and manufacturing. It's purpose is to enhance understanding of the function of engineering activities, including reliability.
Technical Paper

A Generic Teaching Case Study for Teaching Design for Six Sigma

2006-04-03
2006-01-0501
There are several reasons why it can be daunting to apply Six Sigma to product creation. Foremost among them, the functional performance of new technologies is unknown prior to starting a project. Although, Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) was developed to overcome this difficulty, a lack of applicable in-class case studies makes it challenging to train the product creation community. The current paper describes an in-class project which illustrates how Six Sigma is applied to a simulated product creation environment. A toy construction set (TCS) project is used to instruct students how to meet customer expectations without violating cost, packaging volume and design-complexity constraints.
Technical Paper

A Method for Rapid Durability Test Development

2017-03-28
2017-01-0199
Designing a durability test for an automatic transmission that appropriately reflects customer usage during the lifetime of the vehicle is a formidable task; while the transmission and its components must survive severe usage, overdesigning components leads to unnecessary weight, increased fuel consumption and increased emissions. Damage to transmission components is a function of many parameters including customer driving habits and vehicle and transmission characteristics such as weight, powertrain calibration, and gear ratios. Additionally, in some cases durability tests are required to verify only a subset of the total parameter space, for example, verifying only component modifications. Lastly, the ideal durability test is designed to impose the worst case loading conditions for the maximum number of internal components, be as short as practicable to reduce testing time, with minimal variability between tests in order to optimize test equipment and personnel resources.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0556
A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Journal Article

A Model Based Approach for Electric Steering Tuning to Meet Vehicle Steering Performance Targets

2017-03-28
2017-01-1493
Subjective steering feel tuning and objective verification tests are conducted on vehicle prototypes that are a subset of the total number of buildable combinations of body style, drivetrain and tires. Limited development time, high prototype vehicle cost, and hence limited number of available prototypes are factors that affect the ability to tune and verify all the possible configurations. A new model-based process and a toolset have been developed to enhance the existing steering development process such that steering tuning efficiency and performance robustness can be improved. The innovative method utilizes the existing vehicle dynamics simulation and/or physical test data in conjunction with steering system control models, and provides users with simple interfaces which can be used by either CAE or development engineers to perform virtual tuning of the vehicle steering feel to meet performance targets.
Technical Paper

A Modified Oil Lubrication System with Flow Control to Reduce Crankshaft Bearing Friction in a Litre 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine

2016-04-05
2016-01-1045
The oil distribution system of an automotive light duty engine typically has an oil pump mechanically driven through the front-endancillaries-drive or directly off the crankshaft. Delivery pressure is regulated by a relief valve to provide an oil gallery pressure of typically 3 to 4 bar absolute at fully-warm engine running conditions. Electrification of the oil pump drive is one way to decouple pump delivery from engine speed, but this does not alter the flow distribution between parts of the engine requiring lubrication. Here, the behaviour and benefits of a system with an electrically driven, fixed displacement pump and a distributor providing control over flow to crankshaft main bearings and big end bearings is examined. The aim has been to demonstrate that by controlling flow to these bearings, without changing flow to other parts of the engine, significant reductions in engine friction can be achieved.
Technical Paper

A New Analysis Method for Accurate Accounting of IC Engine Pumping Work and Indicated Work

2004-03-08
2004-01-1262
In order to improve fuel economy, engine manufacturers are investigating various technologies that reduce pumping work in spark ignition engines. Current cylinder pressure analysis methods do not allow valid comparison of pumping work reduction strategies. Existing methods neglect valve timing effects which occur during the expansion and compression strokes, but are actually part of the gas exchange process. These additional pumping work contributions become more significant when evaluating non-standard valve timing concepts. This paper outlines a new analysis method for calculating the pumping work and indicated work of a 4-stroke internal combustion engine. Corrections to PMEP and IMEP are introduced which allow the valid comparison of pumping work and indicated efficiency between engines with different pumping work reduction strategies.
Journal Article

A New Catalyzed HC Trap Technology that Enhances the Conversion of Gasoline Fuel Cold-Start Emissions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0938
Passive in-line catalyzed hydrocarbon (HC) traps have been used by some manufacturers in the automotive industry to reduce regulated tailpipe (TP) emissions of non-methane organic gas (NMOG) during engine cold-start conditions. However, most NMOG molecules produced during gasoline combustion are only weakly adsorbed via physisorption onto the zeolites typically used in a HC trap. As a consequence, NMOG desorption occurs at low temperatures resulting in the use of very high platinum group metal (PGM) loadings in an effort to combust NMOG before it escapes from a HC trap. In the current study, a 2.0 L direct-injection (DI) Ford Focus running on gasoline fuel was evaluated with full useful life aftertreatment where the underbody converter was either a three-way catalyst (TWC) or a HC trap. A new HC trap technology developed by Ford and Umicore demonstrated reduced TP NMOG emissions of 50% over the TWC-only system without any increase in oxides of oxygen (NOx) emissions.
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