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Technical Paper

A Drum Brake Squeal Analysis in the Time Domain

Brake squeal has been a chronic customer complaint, often appearing high on the list of items that reduce customers' satisfaction with their vehicles. Brake squeal can emanate from either a drum brake or a disc brake even though the geometry of the two systems is significantly different. A drum brake generates friction within a cylindrical drum interacting with two semi-circular linings. A disc brake consists of a flat disc and two flat pads. The observed squeal behavior in a vehicle differs somewhat between drum and disc brakes. A drum brake may have a loud noise coming from three or more squeal frequencies, whereas a disc brake typically has one or two major squeal frequencies making up the noise. A good understanding of the operational deflection shapes of the brake components during noise events will definitely aid in design to reduce squeal occurrences and improve product quality.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Journal Article

A Model Based Approach for Electric Steering Tuning to Meet Vehicle Steering Performance Targets

Subjective steering feel tuning and objective verification tests are conducted on vehicle prototypes that are a subset of the total number of buildable combinations of body style, drivetrain and tires. Limited development time, high prototype vehicle cost, and hence limited number of available prototypes are factors that affect the ability to tune and verify all the possible configurations. A new model-based process and a toolset have been developed to enhance the existing steering development process such that steering tuning efficiency and performance robustness can be improved. The innovative method utilizes the existing vehicle dynamics simulation and/or physical test data in conjunction with steering system control models, and provides users with simple interfaces which can be used by either CAE or development engineers to perform virtual tuning of the vehicle steering feel to meet performance targets.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Methodology to Estimate Chassis Force Transmissibility and Applications to Road NVH Improvement

The performance of structure-borne road NVH can be cascaded down to three major systems: 1) vehicle body structure, 2) chassis/suspension, 3) tire/wheel. The forces at the body attachment points are controlled by the isolation efficiency of the chassis/suspension system and the excitation at the spindle/knuckle due to the tire/road interaction. The chassis force transmissibility is a metric to quantify the isolation efficiency. This paper presents a new experimental methodology to estimate the chassis force transmissibility from a fully assembled vehicle. For the calculation of the transmissibility, the spindle force/moment estimation and the conventional Noise Path Analysis (NPA) methodologies are utilized. A merit of the methodology provides not only spindle force to body force transmissibility but also spindle moment to body force transmissibility. Hence it enables us to understand the effectiveness of the spindle moments on the body forces.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Methodology to Estimate Tire/Wheel Blocked Force for Road NVH Application

Past studies have shown that NVH CAE tire model quality is not adequate to correctly capture a mid-frequency range (100-300 Hz). A new methodology has been developed to estimate tire forces that are independent of dynamic characteristics of vehicle suspension and rig test fixture. The forces are called tire blocked forces and defined as a force generated by a tire/wheel system whose boundary condition is constrained. The tire blocked force is estimated by removing the dynamic effect of the tire force measurement fixture. The blocked forces can be applied to CAE models to predict vehicle road NVH responses. This new method can also be used as a target setting tool. Tire suppliers can check the blocked tire forces from the rig testing data against a force target before they submit tires to automotive manufacturers for evaluations on a prototype vehicle.
Technical Paper

A New Tire Model for Road Loads Simulation: Full Vehicle Validation

Road loads tire models are used in the automotive industry in full vehicle simulations to compute the loading from the road into the chassis encountered in proving ground durability events. Such events typically include Belgian Block events, bump events, potholes and others. Correctly capturing tire enveloping forces in such events has historically been challenging - several different approaches exist each with its own limitations. In this paper a model is presented which captures the first order tire dynamics (frequencies lower than 80 Hz) and associated enveloping loading without the need of an effective road profile. The theory behind this tire model is briefly introduced. Importantly, a comprehensive study of the validation of the tire model is given which shows correlation for full vehicle dynamic proving ground events. A Virtual Tire Lab (VTL) pre-processing tool is also presented which is used to compute tire model input parameters from a validated non-linear FEA tire model.
Technical Paper

A Packaging Layout to Mitigate Crosstalk for SiC Devices

SiC devices have inherent fast switching capabilities due to their superior material properties, and are considered potential candidates to replace Si devices for traction inverters in electrified vehicles in future. However, due to the comparatively low gate threshold voltage, SiC devices may encounter oscillatory false triggering especially during fast switching. This paper analyzed the causes of false triggering, and also studied the impact of a critical parasitic parameter - common source inductance. It is shown that crosstalk is the main cause for the false triggering in the case and some positive common source inductance help to mitigate the crosstalk issue. A packaging layout method is proposed to create the positive common source inductance through layout of control terminals / busbars, and/or the use of control terminal bonded wires at different height.
Technical Paper

A Post-processor for Finite Element Stress-based Fatigue Analysis

Explicit finite element simulations were conducted on an aluminum wheel model where a rotating bend moment was applied on its hub to simulate wheel cornering fatigue testing. A post-processor was developed to calculate equivalent von Mises alternating and mean stresses from stress tensor. The safety factors of fatigue design for each finite element were determined to assess the fatigue performance by utilizing the Goodman linear relationship. Elements with low safety factors were identified due to the prescribed boundary conditions and stress concentrations arising from wheel geometry.
Journal Article

A Smart Gate Driver with Active Switching Speed Control for Traction Inverters

The IGBTs are dominantly used in traction inverters for automotive applications. Because the Si-based device technology is being pushed to its theoretical performance limit in such applications during recent years, the gate driver design is playing a more prominent role to further improve the traction inverter loss performance. The conventional gate driver design in traction inverter application needs to consider worst case scenarios which adversely limit the semiconductor devices' switching speed in its most frequent operation regions. Specifically, when selecting the gate resistors, the IGBT peak surge voltage induced by fast di/dt and stray inductance must be limited below the device rated voltage rating under any conditions. The worst cases considered include both highest dc bus voltage and maximum load current. However, the traction inverter operates mainly in low current regions and at bus voltage much lower than the worst case voltage.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Evaluation of Brake Performance

Utilization of statistical methods can improve vehicle stopping-distance projections and reduce the complexity of brake deceleration models. These techniques can be very useful in the course of ascertaining whether an untested vehicle conforms to the applicable Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS), but they have much broader uses in the design of brake systems.
Technical Paper

A System for Autonomous Braking of a Vehicle Following Collision

This paper presents two brake control functions which are initiated when there is an impact force applied to a host vehicle. The impact force is generated due to the host vehicle being collided with or by another vehicle or object. The first function - called the post-impact braking assist - initiates emergency brake assistance if the driver is braking during or right after the collision. The second function - called the post-impact braking - initiates autonomous braking up to the level of the anti-lock-brake system if the driver is not braking during or right after the collision. Both functions intend to enhance the current driver assistance features such as emergency brake assistance, electronic stability control, anti-brake-lock system, collision mitigation system, etc.
Technical Paper

A Technical Analysis of a Proposed Theory on Tire Tread Belt Separation-Induced Axle Tramp

Recently, papers have been published purporting to study the effect of rear axle tramp during tread separation events, and its effect on vehicle handling [1, 2]. Based on analysis and physical testing, one paper [1] has put forth a mathematical model which the authors claim allows vehicle designers to select shock damping values during the development process of a vehicle in order to assure that a vehicle will not experience axle tramp during tread separations. In the course of their work, “lumpy” tires (tires with rubber blocks adhered to the tire's tread) were employed to excite the axle tramp resonance, even though this method has been shown not to duplicate the physical mechanisms behind an actual tread belt separation. This paper evaluates the theories postulated in [1] by first analyzing the equations behind the mathematical model presented. The model is then tested to see if it agrees with observed physical testing.
Technical Paper

A Test-Based Procedure for the Identification of Rack and Pinion Steering System Parameters for Use In CAE Ride-Comfort Simulations

Current CAE modeling and simulation techniques in the time domain allow, by now, very accurate prediction of many ride-comfort performances of the cars. Nevertheless, the prediction of the steering wheel rotation vibration excited by, for instance, wheel unbalance or asymmetric obstacle impact, often runs into the difficulty of modeling the steering line with sufficient accuracy. For a classic rack and pinion, hydraulic assisted steering line, one of the challenges is to model the complex and non linear properties - stiffness, friction and damping - of the rack-rack case system. This paper proposes a rack model, thought for easy implementation in complex multi-body models, and an identification procedure of its parameters, based on measurements, in the operational range of the wheel unbalance excitation. The measurements have been gathered by specific tests on the components and the test set-up is also shown here.
Technical Paper

A Theoretical, Risk Assessment Procedure for In-Position Drivers Involved in Full-Engagement Frontal Impacts

A theoretical, mathematical, risk assessment procedure was developed to estimate the fraction of drivers that incurred head and thoracic AIS3+ injuries in full-engagement frontal crashes. The estimates were based on numerical simulations of various real-world events, including variations of crash severity, crash speed, level of restraint, and occupant size. The procedure consisted of four steps: (1) conduct the simulations of the numerous events, (2) use biomechanical equations to transform the occupant responses into AIS3+ risks for each event, (3) weight the maximum risk for each event by its real-world event frequency, and (4) sum the weighted risks. To validate the risk assessment procedure, numerous steps were taken. First, a passenger car was identified to represent average field performance.
Technical Paper

A semi-analytical approach for vehicle ride simulation

Vehicle dynamics CAE capabilities has increased in the past few years, specially, for handling and steering attributes. However, secondary ride simulations are still highly depended on the tire model. Such tire model must be capable to simulate high order phenomenon such as impact and harshness transmissibility in three directions. In order to gather tire information sufficient to cope with these phenomena, one needs to perform a series of specific tests, and so be able to build the intended tire model. Still, there could be correlation issues. This whole process takes a lot of time and resources. This article presents a semi-analytical approach, using data gathered via wheel force transducers (WFTs) that are typically used for load cascading and durability purposes. The method main advantage is that since it relies on measured data at the wheel center, it is independent of a tire model, and, as such, it demands less time and resources.
Technical Paper

Acetabulum Injury Investigation of Proposed US-NCAP in OI Mode

In December 2015, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published a Request for Comments on proposed changes to the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP). One potential change is the addition of a frontal oblique impact (OI) crash test using the Test Device for Human Occupant Restraint (THOR). The resultant acetabulum force, which is a unique and specifically defined in the THOR dummy, will be considered as a new injury metric. In this study, the results of ten OI tests conducted by NHTSA on current production mid-sized vehicles were investigated. Specifically, the test data was used to study the lower extremity kinematics for the driver and front passenger THOR dummies. It was found that the acetabulum force patterns varied between the driver and passenger and between the left leg and the right leg of the occupants. The maximum acetabulum force can occur either on the left side or right side of a driver or a front passenger in an OI event.
Technical Paper

Achievements and Exploitation of the AUTOSAR Development Partnership

Reductions of hardware costs as well as implementations of new innovative functions are the main drivers of today's automotive electronics. Indeed more and more resources are spent on adapting existing solutions to different environments. At the same time, due to the increasing number of networked components, a level of complexity has been reached which is difficult to handle using traditional development processes. The automotive industry addresses this problem through a paradigm shift from a hardware-, component-driven to a requirement- and function-driven development process, and a stringent standardization of infrastructure elements. One central standardization initiative is the AUTomotive Open System ARchitecture (AUTOSAR). AUTOSAR was founded in 2003 by major OEMs and Tier1 suppliers and now includes a large number of automotive, electronics, semiconductor, hard- and software companies.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Characteristics of Automotive Catalytic Converter Assemblies

An experimental study of the acoustic characteristics of automotive catalytic converters is presented. The investigation addresses the effects and relative importance of the elements comprising a production catalytic converter assembly including the housing, substrate, mat and seals. Attenuation characteristics are measured for one circular and one oval catalytic converter geometry, each having 400 cell per square inch substrates. For each geometry, experimental results are presented to address the effect of individual components in isolation, and in combination with other assembly components. Additional experiments investigate the significance of acoustic paths around the substrate and through the peripheral wall of the substrate. The experimental results are compared to address the significance of each component on the overall attenuation.
Technical Paper

Acoustic and Tactile Transfer Functions Measurements on Automotive Development

The NVH perception of a vehicle customer is the sum of contributions from various forces and its paths, structure and airborne. Each contribution is the product of an input force and body sensitivity. The tactile and acoustic transfer functions measurements determine how much of the input forces will reach to the costumer. Input points are suspension systems, powertrain and exhaust attachment points. Equivalent stiffness of these points is also determined on this test. This metric is used on target settings or to optimize body structure design at an early stage.
Technical Paper

Active Yaw Control of a Vehicle using a Fuzzy Logic Algorithm

Yaw rate of a vehicle is highly influenced by the lateral forces generated at the tire contact patch to attain the desired lateral acceleration, and/or by external disturbances resulting from factors such as crosswinds, flat tire or, split-μ braking. The presence of the latter and the insufficiency of the former may lead to undesired yaw motion of a vehicle. This paper proposes a steer-by-wire system based on fuzzy logic as yaw-stability controller for a four-wheeled road vehicle with active front steering. The dynamics governing the yaw behavior of the vehicle has been modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The fuzzy controller receives the yaw rate error of the vehicle and the steering signal given by the driver as inputs and generates an additional steering angle as output which provides the corrective yaw moment.