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Technical Paper

A Modified Oil Lubrication System with Flow Control to Reduce Crankshaft Bearing Friction in a Litre 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine

The oil distribution system of an automotive light duty engine typically has an oil pump mechanically driven through the front-endancillaries-drive or directly off the crankshaft. Delivery pressure is regulated by a relief valve to provide an oil gallery pressure of typically 3 to 4 bar absolute at fully-warm engine running conditions. Electrification of the oil pump drive is one way to decouple pump delivery from engine speed, but this does not alter the flow distribution between parts of the engine requiring lubrication. Here, the behaviour and benefits of a system with an electrically driven, fixed displacement pump and a distributor providing control over flow to crankshaft main bearings and big end bearings is examined. The aim has been to demonstrate that by controlling flow to these bearings, without changing flow to other parts of the engine, significant reductions in engine friction can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Characterising Lubricating Oil Viscosity to Describe Effects on Engine Friction

Oil formulation has been varied to modify oil viscosity characteristics; the effect on the rubbing friction losses of a 2.4litre diesel engine has been investigated for a range of temperatures from -20 to around 60°C. The aims of the study were first, to examine the extent to which viscosity alone determined the effect of formulation changes, and second, to define an effective viscosity to relate changes in viscosity due to formulation and temperature to changes in engine friction. This effective viscosity is based on cold cranking simulator measurements at -30°C, high temperature high shear viscosity at 150°C and kinematic viscosity measurements at three intermediate temperatures to define the variation with temperature. The effective viscosity has been described using a modified Vogel equation, which is presented.
Journal Article

Development and Testing of an Innovative Oil Condition Sensor

In order to detect degradation of engine oil lubricant, bench testing along with a number of diesel-powered Ford trucks were instruments and tested. The purpose of the bench testing was primarily to determine performance aspects such as repeatability, hysteresis effects and so on. Vehicle testing was conducted by designing and installing a separate oil reservoir along with a circulation system which was mounted in the vicinity of the oil pan. An innovative oil sensor was directly installed on the reservoir which can measure five (5) independent oil parameters (viscosity, density, permittivity, conductance, temperature). In addition, the concept is capable of detecting the oil level continuously during normal engine operation. The sensing system consists of an ultrasonic transducer for the oil level detection as well as a Tuning Fork mechanical resonator for the oil condition measurement.
Journal Article

Effect of Biodiesel (B20) on Vehicle-Aged Engine Oil Properties

High concentrations of diesel fuel can accumulate in the engine oil, especially in vehicles equipped with diesel particle filters. Fuel dilution can decrease the viscosity of engine oil, reducing its film thickness. Higher concentrations of fuel are believed to accumulate in oil with biodiesel than with diesel fuel because biodiesel has a higher boiling temperature range, allowing it to persist in the sump. Numerous countries are taking actions to promote the use of biodiesel. The growing interest for biodiesel has been driven by a desire for energy independence (domestically produced), the increasing cost of petroleum-derived fuels, and an interest in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Biodiesel can affect engine lubrication (through fuel dilution), as its physical and chemical properties are significantly different from those of petrodiesel. Many risks associated with excessive biodiesel dilution have been identified, yet its actual impact has not been well quantified.
Journal Article

Effects of Oil Formulation, Oil Separator, and Engine Speed and Load on the Particle Size, Chemistry, and Morphology of Diesel Crankcase Aerosols

The recirculation of gases from the crankcase and valvetrain can potentially lead to the entrainment of lubricant in the form of aerosols or mists. As boost pressures increase, the blow-by flow through both the crankcase and the valve cover increases. The resulting lubricant can then become part of the intake charge, potentially leading to fouling of intake components such as the intercooler and the turbocharger. The entrained aerosol which can contain the lubricant and soot may or may not have the same composition as the bulk lubricant. The complex aerodynamic processes that lead to entrainment can strip out heavy components or volatilize light components. Similarly, the physical size and numbers of aerosol particles can be dependent upon the lubricant formulation and engine speed and load. For instance, high rpm and load may increase not only the flow of gases but the amount of lubricant aerosol.
Technical Paper

Effects of Surface Treatment (Lubricant) on Spot Friction Welded Joints Made of 6111-T4 Aluminum Sheets

The effects of lubricant on lap shear strength of Spot Friction Welded (SFW) joints made of 6111-T4 alloys were studied. Taguchi L8 design of experiment methodology was used to determine the lubricant effects. The results showed that the lap shear strength increased by 9.9% when the lubricant was present at the top surface compared to that of the baseline (no lubricant) whereas the lap shear strength reduced by 10.2% and 10.9% when the lubricant was present in the middle and at the bottom surfaces compared to that of the baseline (no lubricant), respectively. The microstructure analysis showed a zigzag interface at the joint between the upper and the lower sheet metal for the baseline specimen, the specimens with the lubricant at the top and at the bottom. However, a straight line interface is exhibited at the joint between the upper and the lower sheet for the specimen with the lubricant in the middle. The weld nugget sizes of the lap shear tested specimens were measured.
Technical Paper

Engine Friction and Wear Performances with Polyalkylene Glycol Engine Oils

The application of polyalkylene glycol (PAG) as a base stock for engine oil formulation has been explored for substantial fuel economy gain over traditional formulations with mineral oils. Various PAG chemistries were explored depending on feed stock material used for manufacturing. All formulations except one have the same additive package. The friction performance of these oils was evaluated in a motored single cylinder engine with current production engine hardware in the temperature range 40°C-120°C and in the speed range of 500 RPM-2500 RPM. PAG formulations showed up to 50% friction reduction over GF-5 SAE 5W-20 oil depending on temperature, speed, and oil chemistry. Friction evaluation in a motored I-4 engine showed up to 11% friction reduction in the temperature range 40°C-100°C over GF-5 oil. The paper will share results on ASTM Sequence VID fuel economy, Sequence IVA wear, and Sequence VG sludge and varnish tests. Chassis roll fuel economy data will also be shared.
Technical Paper

Extensional Rheology: New Dimension of Characterizing Automotive Fluids

This paper describes the basic principles of extensional rheometry, and the successful application to a variety of automotive fluids, including gear lubricants, paints, and forming lubricants. These fluids are used under very complex flow fields containing strong extensional (elongational) components. While exact derivation of extensional viscosities involves sophisticated theories, the measurement of liquid filament break-up time can provide fruitful information. Gear lubes showed different break-up time according to the kinematic viscosities. Addition of viscosity modifier (acrylic copolymer) significantly increased the breakup time, whereas surfactants had little effect. Clearcoat paint sample increased the breakup time, perhaps due to the deterioration. The waxy stamping lubricant showed remarkable change in the extensional properties as the temperature is raised.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Improvement Through Frictional Loss Reduction in Light Duty Truck Rear Axle

In an effort to improve fuel economy for light duty trucks, an initiative was undertaken to reduce frictional losses in rear axle through use of low friction lubricants and novel surface finish on gears while maintaining durability. This paper describes the effect of rear axle lubricants on fuel economy. A laboratory rig was set up using a full size pick-up truck rear axle to measure axle efficiency and lubricant temperature with various SAE 75W-90 and SAE 75W-140 viscosity grade lubricants. Traction coefficients of lubricants were also measured at various temperatures using a laboratory ball and disk contact geometry. An improvement in axle efficiency up to 4.3% was observed over current Ford factory fill SAE 75W-140 lubricant depending on speed, torque and the type of lubricant used. The temperature of the lubricants was also lower than that with the current factory fill. This is important for maintaining bearing life and overall durability of the rear axle.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Oil Service Interval Strategy for PROCONVE P7 Diesel Commercial Vehicles

This paper describes the strategy of lubricant oil service interval for commercial truck based on new engine technology (PROCONVE P7), the fleet owner's needs, vehicle typical application route, operational costs related to oil change, design of oil pan to adequate the oil volume and lubricant oil available technology. In result, this analysis shows the best annual operational cost for customer in terms of oil change.
Journal Article

Lubricant-Derived Ash Impact on Gasoline Particulate Filter Performance

The increasing use of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines coupled with the implementation of new particulate matter (PM) and particle number (PN) emissions regulations requires new emissions control strategies. Gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) present one approach to reduce particle emissions. Although primarily composed of combustible material which may be removed through oxidation, particle also contains incombustible components or ash. Over the service life of the filter the accumulation of ash causes an increase in exhaust backpressure, and limits the useful life of the GPF. This study utilized an accelerated aging system to generate elevated ash levels by injecting lubricant oil with the gasoline fuel into a burner system. GPFs were aged to a series of levels representing filter life up to 150,000 miles (240,000 km). The impact of ash on the filter pressure drop and on its sensitivity to soot accumulation was investigated at specific ash levels.
Journal Article

Methodology for Predictive Friction Modeling in Direct-Acting Mechanical Bucket Valvetrain System

Valvetrain friction can represent a substantial portion of overall engine friction, especially at low operating speed. This paper describes the methodology for predictive modeling of frictional losses in the direct-acting mechanical bucket tappet-type valvetrain. The proposed modeling technique combines advanced mathematical models based on established theories of Hertzian contact, hydrodynamic and elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL), asperity contact of rough surfaces, flash temperature, and lubricant rheology with detailed measurements of lubricant properties and surface finish, driven by a detailed analysis of valvetrain system kinematics and dynamics. The contributions of individual friction components to the overall valvetrain frictional loss were identified and quantified. Calculated valvetrain friction was validated against motored valvetrain friction torque measurements on two engines.
Technical Paper

Oil Migration on Sheet Steels and the Effect on Performance in Metal Stamping

Mill oils and prelubes are applied by the steel producer to prevent corrosion and to enhance formability. During coiling, shipping, and storage the lubricant migrates due to pressure and gravity. The redistribution of the lubricant results in widely varying lubricant weights. The move to reduce and eliminate press-applied lubricants has lead to concerns that the variation in lubricant weight as a result of this migration would adversely affect press performance. The Drawbead Simulator (DBS) and Twist Compression Test (TCT) were used to evaluate friction response of electrogalvanized and galvanneal sheet to varying lubricant weight. Results showed the electrogalvanized sheet was sensitive to lubricant type while the galvanneal sheet was sensitive to the amount of lubricant.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Friction Modifiers and DI Package on Friction Reduction Potential of Next Generation Engine Oils: Part I Fresh Oils

Friction reduction in lubricated components through engine oil formulations has been investigated in the present work. Three different DI packages in combination with one friction modifier were blended in SAE 5 W-20 and SAE 0 W-16 viscosity grades. The friction performance of these oils was compared with GF-5 SAE 5 W-20 oil. A motored cranktrain assembly has been used to evaluate these, in which friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) as a function of engine speeds at different lubricant temperatures is measured. Results show that the choice of DI package plays a significant role in friction reduction. Results obtained from the mini-traction machine (MTM2) provide detailed information on traction coefficient in boundary, mixed and elastohydrodynamic (EHD) lubrication regimes. It has been shown that the results from the cranktrain rig are fairly consistent with those found in MTM2 tests for all the lubricants tested.
Journal Article

Two-Phase MRF Model for Wet Clutch Drag Simulation

Wet clutch packs are widely used in today’s automatic transmission systems for gear-ratio shifting. The frictional interfaces between the clutch plates are continuously lubricated with transmission fluid for both thermal and friction management. The open clutch packs shear transmission fluid across the rotating plates, contributing to measurable energy losses. A typical multi-speed transmission includes as many as 5 clutch packs. Of those, two to three clutches are open at any time during a typical drive cycle, presenting an opportunity for fuel economy gain. However, reducing open clutch drag is very challenging, while meeting cooling requirements and shift quality targets. In practice, clutch design adjustment is performed through trial-and-error evaluation of hardware on a test bench. The use of analytical methodologies is limited for optimizing clutch design features due to the complexity of fluid-structure interactions under rotating conditions.