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Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Effect of E85 vs. Gasoline on Exhaust System Surface Temperatures

2007-04-16
2007-01-1392
With concerns over increasing worldwide demand for gasoline and greenhouse gases, many automotive companies are increasing their product lineup of vehicles to include flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of operating on fuel blends ranging from 100% gasoline up to a blend of 15% gasoline/85% ethanol (E85). For the purpose of this paper, data was obtained that will enable an evaluation relating to the effect the use of E85 fuel has on exhaust system surface temperatures compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline while the vehicle undergoes a typical drive cycle. Three vehicles from three different automotive manufacturers were tested. The surface of the exhaust systems was instrumented with thermocouples at specific locations to monitor temperatures from the manifold to the catalytic converter outlet. The exhaust system surface temperatures were recorded during an operation cycle that included steady vehicle speed operation; cold start and idle and wide open throttle conditions.
Journal Article

Advancements and Opportunities for On-Board 700 Bar Compressed Hydrogen Tanks in the Progression Towards the Commercialization of Fuel Cell Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-1183
Fuel cell vehicles are entering the automotive market with significant potential benefits to reduce harmful greenhouse emissions, facilitate energy security, and increase vehicle efficiency while providing customer expected driving range and fill times when compared to conventional vehicles. One of the challenges for successful commercialization of fuel cell vehicles is transitioning the on-board fuel system from liquid gasoline to compressed hydrogen gas. Storing high pressurized hydrogen requires a specialized structural pressure vessel, significantly different in function, size, and construction from a gasoline container. In comparison to a gasoline tank at near ambient pressures, OEMs have aligned to a nominal working pressure of 700 bar for hydrogen tanks in order to achieve the customer expected driving range of 300 miles.
Technical Paper

An Overhead Cam Wear and Valvetrain Dynamics Study

1989-09-01
892149
A 22 hour engine test was developed to evaluate the effects of fuels, lubricants, and valvetrain dynamics on the wear of OHC 2.3L engine camshafts and finger followers. Procedures include a break-in to improve test repeatability and a test sequence to allow single-shift operation. A surface analyzer capable of measuring cam lobe wear profiles to micro-inch accuracy provided a quantitative wear comparison. A pure mineral oil, as expected, resulted in higher camshaft wear than using a fully formulated SF lubricant. Cam and follower wear increased significantly when ethanol replaced gasoline as fuel. The combination of ethanol, mineral oil and heavy duty valve springs was selected to increase test severity for hardware discrimination. The average wear of the intake lobes was greater than the exhausts. Kinematic analysis and visual inspection of the valve train mechanism revealed differences in the relative motion and contact stress pattern.
Journal Article

An Overview of the Effects of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on SI Engine Performance, Fuel Efficiency, and Emissions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1635
This paper provides an overview of the effects of blending ethanol with gasoline for use in spark ignition engines. The overview is written from the perspective of considering a future ethanol-gasoline blend for use in vehicles that have been designed to accommodate such a fuel. Therefore discussion of the effects of ethanol-gasoline blends on older legacy vehicles is not included. As background, highlights of future emissions regulations are discussed. The effects on fuel properties of blending ethanol and gasoline are described. The substantial increase in knock resistance and full load performance associated with the addition of ethanol to gasoline is illustrated with example data. Aspects of fuel efficiency enabled by increased ethanol content are reviewed, including downsizing and downspeeding opportunities, increased compression ratio, fundamental effects associated with ethanol combustion, and reduced enrichment requirement at high speed/high load conditions.
Technical Paper

Aqueous Corrosion of Experimental Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloys

2006-04-03
2006-01-0257
This paper presents a comparison of aqueous corrosion rates in 5% NaCl solution for eight experimental creep-resistant magnesium alloys considered for automotive powertrain applications, as well as three reference alloys (pure magnesium, AM50B and AZ91D). The corrosion rates were measured using the techniques of titration, weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and DC polarization. The corrosion rates measured by these techniques are compared with each other as well as with those obtained with salt-spray testing using ASTM B117. The advantages and disadvantages of the various corrosion measurement techniques are discussed.
Technical Paper

Architecture and Development of a Hydrogen Sensing and Mitigation System in H2RV - Ford's Concept HEV Propelled With a Hydrogen Engine

2004-03-08
2004-01-0359
Ford's Hydrogen Hybrid Research Vehicle (H2RV) is an industry first parallel hybrid vehicle utilizing a hydrogen internal combustion engine. The goal of this drivable concept vehicle is to marry Ford's extensive hybrid powertrain experience with its hydrogen internal combustion engine technology to produce a low emission, fuel-efficient vehicle. This vehicle is seen as a possible bridge from the petroleum fueled vehicles of today to the fuel cell vehicles envisioned for tomorrow. A multi-layered hydrogen management strategy was developed for the H2RV. All aspects of the vehicle including the design of the fuel and electrical systems, placement of high-voltage subsystems, and testing, service, and storage procedures were examined to ensure the safe operation of the vehicle. The results of these reviews led to the design of the hydrogen sensing and mitigation system for the H2RV vehicle.
Journal Article

Benefits of Pd Doped Zeolites for Cold Start HC/NOx Emission Reductions for Gasoline and E85 Fueled Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0948
In the development of HC traps (HCT) for reducing vehicle cold start hydrocarbon (HC)/nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions, zeolite-based adsorbent materials were studied as key components for the capture and release of the main gasoline-type HC/NOx species in the vehicle exhaust gas. Typical zeolite materials capture and release certain HC and NOx species at low temperatures (<200°C), which is lower than the light-off temperature of a typical three-way catalyst (TWC) (≥250°C). Therefore, a zeolite alone is not effective in enhancing cold start HC/NOx emission control. We have found that a small amount of Pd (<0.5 wt%) dispersed in the zeolite (i.e., BEA) can significantly increase the conversion efficiency of certain HC/NOx species by increasing their release temperature. Pd was also found to modify the adsorption process from pure physisorption to chemisorption and may have played a role in the transformation of the adsorbed HCs to higher molecular weight species.
Technical Paper

CAI Combustion with Methanol and Ethanol in an Air-Assisted Direct Injection SI Engine

2008-06-23
2008-01-1673
CAI combustion has the potential to be the most clean combustion technology in internal combustion engines and is being intensively researched. Following the previous research on CAI combustion of gasoline fuel, systematic investigation is being carried out on the application of bio-fuels in CAI combustion. As part of an on-going research project, CAI combustion of methanol and ethanol was studied on a single-cylinder direct gasoline engine with an air-assisted injector. The CAI combustion was achieved by trapping part of burnt gas within the cylinder through using short-duration camshafts and early closure of the exhaust valves. During the experiment the engine speed was varied from 1200rpm to 2100rpm and the air/fuel ratio was altered from the stoichiometry to the misfire limit. Their combustion characteristics were obtained by analysing cylinder pressure trace.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Performance Evaluation on E0 and E85 Fuels

2011-04-12
2011-01-0904
The differences in hydrocarbons (HCs) emitted by gasoline (E0) and ethanol (EtOH) blend fuels from flex-fuel capable engines can lead to differences in the performance of aftertreatment devices. Vehicle emission results have shown either better performance on E0 compared to E85 or vice versa, dependent on the vehicle calibration. In order to separate the impact of the vehicle and the catalyst, a laboratory study was conducted to evaluate performance on a pulse-flame (pulsator) reactor and compare reactivity towards E0 and E85 (85% EtOH-15% E0) exhaust. The catalysts evaluated were substrate-only, washcoat-only and fully formulated catalysts that had been aged either on a pulsator reactor or dynamometer engine. Catalyst performance was evaluated with light-off tests utilizing both slow and fast temperature ramp rates.
Journal Article

Design Considerations for Hydrogen Management System on Ford Hydrogen Fueled E-450 Shuttle Bus

2009-04-20
2009-01-1422
As part of a continuous research and innovation effort, Ford Motor Company has been evaluating hydrogen as an alternative fuel option for vehicles with internal combustion engines since 1997. Ford has recently designed and built an Econoline (E-450) shuttle bus with a 6.8L Triton engine that uses gaseous hydrogen fuel. Safe practices in the production, storage, distribution, and use of hydrogen are essential for the widespread public and commercial acceptance of hydrogen vehicles. Hazards and risks inherent in the application of hydrogen fuel to internal combustion engine vehicles are explained. The development of a Hydrogen Management System (H2MS) to detect hydrogen leaks in the vehicle is discussed, including the evolution of the H2MS design from exploration and quantification of risks, to implementation and validation of a working system on a vehicle. System elements for detection, mitigation, and warning are examined.
Technical Paper

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2006-04-03
2006-01-0326
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has published and is developing standards for FCVs and hydrogen vehicles. SAE J2578 was the first document published by the working group. The document is written from an overall vehicle perspective and deals with the integration of fuel cell and hydrogen systems in the vehicle and the management of risks associated with these systems. Since the publishing of SAE J2578, the working group has updated SAE J1766 regarding post-crash electrical safety and is developing SAE J2579 which deals with vehicular hydrogen systems.
Journal Article

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-0011
The SAE Fuel Cell Vehicle (FCV) Safety Working Group has been addressing FCV safety for over 9 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable as a Recommended Practice for FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. SAE J2578 is currently being revised so that it will continue to be relevant as FCV development moves forward. For example, test methods were refined to verify the acceptability of hydrogen discharges when parking in residential garages and commercial structures and after crash tests prescribed by government regulation, and electrical requirements were updated to reflect the complexities of modern electrical circuits which interconnect both AC and DC circuits to improve efficiency and reduce cost.
Journal Article

Developing Safety Standards for FCVs and Hydrogen Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-0725
The SAE FCV Safety Working Group has been addressing fuel cell vehicle (FCV) safety for over 8 years. The initial document, SAE J2578, was published in 2002. SAE J2578 has been valuable to FCV development with regard to the identification of hazards and the definition of countermeasures to mitigate these hazards such that FCVs can be operated in the same manner as conventional gasoline internal combustion engine (ICE)-powered vehicles. J2578 is currently being updated to clarify and update requirements so that it will continue to be relevant and useful in the future. An update to SAE J1766 for post-crash electrical safety was also published to reflect unique aspects of FCVs and to harmonize electrical requirements with international standards. In addition to revising SAE J2578 and J1766, the Working Group is also developing a new Technical Information Report (TIR) for vehicular hydrogen systems (SAE J2579).
Journal Article

Effect of Heat of Vaporization, Chemical Octane, and Sensitivity on Knock Limit for Ethanol - Gasoline Blends

2012-04-16
2012-01-1277
Ethanol and other high heat of vaporization (HoV) fuels result in substantial cooling of the fresh charge, especially in direct injection (DI) engines. The effect of charge cooling combined with the inherent high chemical octane of ethanol make it a very knock resistant fuel. Currently, the knock resistance of a fuel is characterized by the Research Octane Number (RON) and the Motor Octane Number (MON). However, the RON and MON tests use carburetion for fuel metering and thus likely do not replicate the effect of charge cooling for DI engines. The operating conditions of the RON and MON tests also do not replicate the very retarded combustion phasing encountered with modern boosted DI engines operating at low-speed high-load. In this study, the knock resistance of a matrix of ethanol-gasoline blends was determined in a state-of-the-art single cylinder engine equipped with three separate fuel systems: upstream, pre-vaporized fuel injection (UFI); port fuel injection (PFI); and DI.
Journal Article

Enabling Flex Fuel Vehicle Emissions Testing – Test Cell Modifications and Data Improvements

2009-04-20
2009-01-1523
The challenges of flex-fuel vehicle (FFV) emissions measurements have recently come to the forefront for the emissions testing community. The proliferation of ethanol blended gasoline in fractions as high as 85% has placed a new challenge in the path of accurate measures of NMHC and NMOG emissions. Test methods need modification to cope with excess amounts of water in the exhaust, assure transfer and capture of oxygenated compounds to integrated measurement systems (impinger and cartridge measurements) and provide modal emission rates of oxygenated species. Current test methods fall short of addressing these challenges. This presentation will discuss the challenges to FFV testing, modifications made to Ford Motor Company’s Vehicle Emissions Research Laboratory test cells, and demonstrate the improvements in recovery of oxygenated species from the vehicle exhaust system for both regulatory measurements and development measurements.
Technical Paper

Engine Cycle Simulation of Ethanol and Gasoline Blends

2003-10-27
2003-01-3093
Ethanol is one of many alternative transportation fuels that can be burned in internal combustion engines in the same ways as gasoline and diesel. Compared to hydrogen and electric energy, ethanol is very similar to gasoline in many aspects and can be delivered to end-users by the same infrastructures. It can be produced from biomass and is considered renewable. It is expected that the improvement in fuels over the next 20 years will be by blending biomass-based fuels with fossil fuels using existing technologies in present-day automobiles with only minor modifications, even though the overall costs of using biomass-based fuels are still considerably higher than conventional fuels. Ethanol may represent a significant alternative fuel source, especially during the transition from fossil-based fuels to more exotic power sources. Mapping engines for flexible fuel vehicles (FFV), however, would be very costly and time consuming, even with the help of model-based engine mapping (MBM).
Technical Paper

Engineering the Ford H2 IC Engine Powered E-450 Shuttle Bus

2007-10-29
2007-01-4095
As a part of a continuous research and innovation effort, Ford Motor Company has been evaluating hydrogen since 1997 as an alternative fuel option for vehicles with internal combustion engines. Hydrogen fuel is attractive in that it is the cleanest fuel. Hydrogen, when used in an internal combustion engine, produces an exhaust emission consisting mainly of water vapor, with no carbon dioxide and trace amounts of other regulated pollutants. Hydrogen can be produced from renewable sources which will help reduce the dependence on foreign oil. The implementation of the hydrogen powered IC engine is seen as a strategy to help transition from a petroleum economy to a hydrogen economy and drive development of hydrogen storage, fueling infrastructure and other hydrogen related technologies.
Technical Paper

Ford's H2RV: An Industry First HEV Propelled with a H2 Fueled Engine - A Fuel Efficient and Clean Solution for Sustainable Mobility

2004-03-08
2004-01-0058
Ford's H2RV is a Hydrogen engine propelled Hybrid Electric concept Vehicle that was unveiled and driven at Ford's Centennial Show in June 2003. This vehicle is an industry first by an OEM that demonstrates the concept and the marriage of a HEV powertrain with a supercharged Hydrogen ICE that propels the vehicle. Just as Model T was the car of the 20th century, Model U is the vehicle for the 21st century. The powertrain utilizes compressed gaseous hydrogen as fuel, a supercharged 2.3L internal combustion engine, a 25 kW traction motor drive, the electric converterless transmission, regenerative braking, an advanced lithium ion battery, electric power assist steering, electronic throttle and Vehicle System Controller (VSC). The vehicle could deliver a projected fuel economy of 45 mpg and near zero emissions without compromise to performance.
Technical Paper

FordS Zero Emission P2000 Fuel Cell Vehicle

2000-11-01
2000-01-C046
The P2000 Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle developed by Ford Motor Company is the first full-performance, full-size passenger fuel cell vehicle in the world. This development process has resulted in a vehicle with performance that matches some of today's vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. The powertrain in Ford's P2000 FCEV lightweight aluminum vehicle consists of an Ecostar electric motor/transaxle and a fuel cell system developed with XCELLSiS-The Fuel Cell Engine Company (formerly dbb Fuel Cell Engines, Inc.). Ballard's Mark 700 series fuel cell stack is a main component in the fuel cell system. To support this new FCEV, Ford has constructed the first North American hydrogen refueling station capable of dispensing gaseous and liquid hydrogen. On-going research and development is progressing to optimize fuel cell vehicle performance and refueling techniques.
Journal Article

Fuel Economy and CO2 Emissions of Ethanol-Gasoline Blends in a Turbocharged DI Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1321
Engine dynamometer testing was performed comparing E10, E20, and E30 splash-blended fuels in a Ford 3.5L EcoBoost direct injection (DI) turbocharged engine. The engine was tested with compression ratios (CRs) of 10.0:1 (current production) and 11.9:1. In this engine, E20 (96 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR gave very similar knock performance to E10 (91 RON) fuel at 10:1 CR. Similarly, E30 (101 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR resulted in knock-limited performance equivalent to E20 at 10:1 CR, indicating that E30 could have been run at even higher CR with acceptable knock behavior. The data was used in a vehicle simulation of a 3.5L EcoBoost pickup truck, which showed that the E20 (96 RON) fuel at 11.9:1 CR offers 5% improvement in U.S. EPA Metro-Highway (M/H) and US06 Highway cycle tank-to-wheels CO₂ emissions over the E10 fuel, with comparable volumetric fuel economy (miles per gallon) and range before refueling.
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