Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Affiliation

Search Results

Technical Paper

1D Model for Correcting the Rate of Injection Signal Based on Geometry and Temperature Influence

2017-03-28
2017-01-0819
The fuel consumption and emissions of diesel engines is strongly influenced by the injection rate pattern, which influences the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. Knowing the exact injection rate is mandatory for an optimal diesel combustion development. The short injection time of no more than some milliseconds prevents a direct flow rate measurement. However, the injection rate is deduced from the pressure change caused by injecting into a fuel reservoir or pipe. In an ideal case, the pressure increase in a fuel pipe correlates with the flow rate. Unfortunately, real measurement devices show measurement inaccuracies and errors, caused by non-ideal geometrical shapes as well as variable fuel temperature and fuel properties along the measurement pipe. To analyze the thermal effect onto the measurement results, an available rate measurement device is extended with a flexible heating system as well as multiple pressure and temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Powertrain - Supercharged Supercar

2004-03-08
2004-01-1252
The Ford GT powertrain (see Figure 1) is an integrated system developed to preserve the heritage of the LeMans winning car of the past. A team of co-located engineers set out to establish a system that could achieve this result for today's supercar. Multiple variations of engines, transaxles, cooling systems, component locations and innovations were analyzed to meet the project objectives. This paper covers the results and achievements of that team.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Upfront Optimization of the In-Cylinder Flow of the 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1492
This paper presents part of the analytical work performed for the development and optimization of the 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system from Ford Motor Company. The 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system is a direct injected twin turbocharged combustion system employing side-mounted multi-hole injectors. Upfront 3D CFD, employing a Ford proprietary KIVA-based code, was extensively used in the combustion system development and optimization phases. This paper presents the effect of intake port design with various levels of tumble motion on the combustion system characteristics. A high tumble intake port design enforces a well-organized stable motion that results in higher turbulence intensity in the cylinder that in turn leads to faster burn rates, a more stable combustion and less fuel enrichment requirement at full load.
Technical Paper

50,000 Mile Vehicle Road Test of Three-Way and NOx Reduction Catalyst Systems

1978-02-01
780608
The performance of three way and NOx catalysts was evaluated on vehicles utilizing non-feedback fuel control and electronic feedback fuel control. The vehicles accumulated 80,450 km (50,000 miles) using fuels representing the extremes in hydrogen-carbon ratio available for commercial use. Feedback carburetion compared to non-feedback carburetion improved highway fuel economy by about 0.4 km/l (1 mpg) and reduced deterioration of NOx with mileage accumulation. NOx emissions were higher with the low H/C fuel in the three way catalyst system; feedback reduced the fuel effect on NOx in these cars by improving conversion efficiency with the low H/C fuel. Feedback had no measureable effect on HC and CO catalyst efficiency. Hydrocarbon emissions were lower with the low H/C fuel in all cars. Unleaded gasoline octane improver, MMT, at 0.015g Mn/l (0.06 g/gal) increased tailpipe hydrocarbon emissions by 0.05 g/km (0.08 g/mile).
Technical Paper

A Bootstrap Approach to Training DNNs for the Automotive Theater

2017-03-28
2017-01-0099
The proposed technique is a tailored deep neural network (DNN) training approach which uses an iterative process to support the learning of DNNs by targeting their specific misclassification and missed detections. The process begins with a DNN that is trained on freely available annotated image data, which we will refer to as the Base model, where a subset of the categories for the classifier are related to the automotive theater. A small set of video capture files taken from drives with test vehicles are selected, (based on the diversity of scenes, frequency of vehicles, incidental lighting, etc.), and the Base model is used to detect/classify images within the video files. A software application developed specifically for this work then allows for the capture of frames from the video set where the DNN has made misclassifications. The corresponding annotation files for these images are subsequently corrected to eliminate mislabels.
Journal Article

A Calibration Optimizer Tool for Torque Estimation of K0 Clutch in Hybrid Automatic Transmissions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0603
Software development for automotive application requires several iterations in order to tune parameters and strategy logic to operate accordantly with optimal performance. Thus, in this paper we present an optimizer method and tool used to tune calibration parameters related to torque estimation for a hybrid automatic transmission application. This optimizer aims to minimize the time invested during the software calibration and software development phases that could take significant time in order to cover the different driving conditions under which a hybrid automatic transmission can operate. For this reason, an optimization function based on the Nelder-Mead simplex algorithm using Matlab software helps to find optimized calibration values based on a cost function (square sum error minimization).
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing: Development of an ECU for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-0303
Ford Motor Company has recently implemented a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing system for a new, highly complex, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The implementation of this HIL system has been quick and effective, since it is based on proven Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) automation tools for real-time that allow for a very flexible and intuitive design process. An overview of the HIL system implementation process and the derived development benefits will be shown in this paper. The initial concept for the use of this HIL system was a complete closed-loop vehicle simulation environment for Vehicle System Controller testing, but the paper will show that this concept has evolved to allow for the use of the HIL system for many facets of the design process.
Technical Paper

A Co-Simulation Environment for Virtual Prototyping of Ground Vehicles

2007-10-30
2007-01-4250
The use of virtual prototyping early in the design stage of a product has gained popularity due to reduced cost and time to market. The state of the art in vehicle simulation has reached a level where full vehicles are analyzed through simulation but major difficulties continue to be present in interfacing the vehicle model with accurate powertrain models and in developing adequate formulations for the contact between tire and terrain (specifically, scenarios such as tire sliding on ice and rolling on sand or other very deformable surfaces). The proposed work focuses on developing a ground vehicle simulation capability by combining several third party packages for vehicle simulation, tire simulation, and powertrain simulation. The long-term goal of this project consists in promoting the Digital Car idea through the development of a reliable and robust simulation capability that will enhance the understanding and control of off-road vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Investigation on the High Temperature Fatigue of Three Cast Aluminum Alloys

2004-03-08
2004-01-1029
The high temperature fatigue behaviors of three cast aluminum alloys used for cylinder head fabrication - 319, A356 and AS7GU - are compared under isothermal fatigue at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior for both out-of-phase and in-phase loading conditions (100-300°C) has also been investigated. It has been observed that all three of these alloys present a very similar behavior under both isothermal and thermo-mechanical low-cycle fatigue. Under high-cycle fatigue, however, the alloys A356 and AS7GU exhibit superior performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Hydraulic Hybrid Systems for Class 6 Trucks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1472
In order to reduce fuel consumption, companies have been looking at hybridizing vehicles. So far, two main hybridization options have been considered: electric and hydraulic hybrids. Because of light duty vehicle operating conditions and the high energy density of batteries, electric hybrids are being widely used for cars. However, companies are still evaluating both hybridization options for medium and heavy duty vehicles. Trucks generally demand very large regenerative power and frequent stop-and-go. In that situation, hydraulic systems could offer an advantage over electric drive systems because the hydraulic motor and accumulator can handle high power with small volume capacity. This study compares the fuel displacement of class 6 trucks using a hydraulic system compared to conventional and hybrid electric vehicles. The paper will describe the component technology and sizes of each powertrain as well as their overall vehicle level control strategies.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Combustion and Emissions of Diesel Fuels and Oxygenated Fuels in a Modern DI Diesel Engine

2012-09-10
2012-01-1695
Two oxygenated fuels were evaluated on a single-cylinder diesel engine and compared to three hydrocarbon diesel fuels. The oxygenated fuels included canola biodiesel (canola methyl esters, CME) and CME blended with dibutyl succinate (DBS), both of which are or have the potential to be bio-derived. DBS was added to improve the cold flow properties, but also reduced the cetane number and net heating value of the resulting blend. A 60-40 blend of the two (60% vol CME and 40% vol DBS) provided desirable cold flow benefits while staying above the U.S. minimum cetane number requirement. Contrary to prior vehicle test results and numerous literature reports, single-cylinder engine testing of both CME and the 60-40 blend showed no statistically discernable change in NOx emissions relative to diesel fuel, but only when constant intake oxygen was maintained.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0666
Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

1998-10-19
982672
As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Effect of E85 vs. Gasoline on Exhaust System Surface Temperatures

2007-04-16
2007-01-1392
With concerns over increasing worldwide demand for gasoline and greenhouse gases, many automotive companies are increasing their product lineup of vehicles to include flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of operating on fuel blends ranging from 100% gasoline up to a blend of 15% gasoline/85% ethanol (E85). For the purpose of this paper, data was obtained that will enable an evaluation relating to the effect the use of E85 fuel has on exhaust system surface temperatures compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline while the vehicle undergoes a typical drive cycle. Three vehicles from three different automotive manufacturers were tested. The surface of the exhaust systems was instrumented with thermocouples at specific locations to monitor temperatures from the manifold to the catalytic converter outlet. The exhaust system surface temperatures were recorded during an operation cycle that included steady vehicle speed operation; cold start and idle and wide open throttle conditions.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element Method for Camshaft Cap Durability Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0341
In this study, a finite element analysis method is developed for simulating a camshaft cap punching bench test. Stiffness results of simulated camshaft cap component are correlated with test data and used to validate the model accuracy in terms of material and boundary conditions. Next, the method is used for verification of cap design and durability performance improvement. In order to improve the computational efficiency of the finite element analysis, the punch is replaced by equivalent trigonometric distributed loads. The sensitivity of the finite element predicted strains for different trigonometric pressure distribution functions is also investigated and compared to strain gage measured values. A number of equivalent stress criteria are also used for fatigue safety factor calculations.
Technical Paper

A Generic Fault Maturing and Clearing Strategy for Continuous On-Board Diagnostic Monitoring

2016-04-05
2016-01-0633
Per California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations, On-board diagnostic (OBD) of vehicle powertrain systems are required to continuously monitor key powertrain components, such as the circuit discontinuity of actuators, various circuit faults of sensors, and out-of-range faults of sensors. The maturing and clearing of these continuous monitoring faults are critical to simplification of algorithm design, save of engineering cost (i.e., calibration), and reduction of warranty issues. Due to the nature of sensors (to sense different physical quantities) and actuators (to output energy in desired ways), most of OEM and supplies tend to choose different fault maturing and clearing strategy for sensors and actuators with different physics nature, such as timer-based, counter-based, and other physical-quantity-based strategies.
Technical Paper

A Generic Teaching Case Study for Teaching Design for Six Sigma

2006-04-03
2006-01-0501
There are several reasons why it can be daunting to apply Six Sigma to product creation. Foremost among them, the functional performance of new technologies is unknown prior to starting a project. Although, Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) was developed to overcome this difficulty, a lack of applicable in-class case studies makes it challenging to train the product creation community. The current paper describes an in-class project which illustrates how Six Sigma is applied to a simulated product creation environment. A toy construction set (TCS) project is used to instruct students how to meet customer expectations without violating cost, packaging volume and design-complexity constraints.
Journal Article

A Hydrogen Direct Injection Engine Concept that Exceeds U.S. DOE Light-Duty Efficiency Targets

2012-04-16
2012-01-0653
Striving for sustainable transportation solutions, hydrogen is often identified as a promising energy carrier and internal combustion engines are seen as a cost effective consumer of hydrogen to facilitate the development of a large-scale hydrogen infrastructure. Driven by efficiency and emissions targets defined by the U.S. Department of Energy, a research team at Argonne National Laboratory has worked on optimizing a spark-ignited direct injection engine for hydrogen. Using direct injection improves volumetric efficiency and provides the opportunity to properly stratify the fuel-air mixture in-cylinder. Collaborative 3D-CFD and experimental efforts have focused on optimizing the mixture stratification and have demonstrated the potential for high engine efficiency with low NOx emissions. Performance of the hydrogen engine is evaluated in this paper over a speed range from 1000 to 3000 RPM and a load range from 1.7 to 14.3 bar BMEP.
X