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Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Electrical & Electronics

2004-03-08
2004-01-1259
The Ford GT Program Team was allocated just 22 months from concept to production to complete the Electrical and Electronics systems of the Ford GT. This reduced vehicle program timing - unlike any other in Ford's history -- demanded that the team streamline the standard development process, which is typically 54 months. This aggressive schedule allowed only 12 weeks to design the entire electrical and electronic system architecture, route the wire harnesses, package the components, and manufacture and/or procure all components necessary for the first three-vehicle prototype build.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT Magnesium Instrument Panel Cross Car Beam

2005-04-11
2005-01-0341
Ford GT 2005 vehicle was designed for performance, timing, cost, and styling to preserve Ford GT40 vintage look. In this vehicle program, many advanced manufacturing processes and light materials were deployed including aluminum and magnesium. This paper briefly explains one unique design concept for a Ford GT instrument panel comprised of a structural magnesium cross-car beam and other components, i.e. radio box and console top, which is believed to be the industry's first structural I/P from vehicle crash load and path perspectives. The magnesium I/P design criteria include magnesium casting properties, cost, corrosion protection, crashworthiness assessments, noise vibration harshness performance, and durability. Magnesium die casting requirements include high pressure die cast process with low casting porosity and sound quality, casting dimensional stability, corrosion protection and coating strategy, joining and assembly constraints.
Technical Paper

3D CFD Upfront Optimization of the In-Cylinder Flow of the 3.5L V6 EcoBoost Engine

2009-04-20
2009-01-1492
This paper presents part of the analytical work performed for the development and optimization of the 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system from Ford Motor Company. The 3.5L EcoBoost combustion system is a direct injected twin turbocharged combustion system employing side-mounted multi-hole injectors. Upfront 3D CFD, employing a Ford proprietary KIVA-based code, was extensively used in the combustion system development and optimization phases. This paper presents the effect of intake port design with various levels of tumble motion on the combustion system characteristics. A high tumble intake port design enforces a well-organized stable motion that results in higher turbulence intensity in the cylinder that in turn leads to faster burn rates, a more stable combustion and less fuel enrichment requirement at full load.
Technical Paper

A Benchmark Test for Springback Simulation in Sheet Metal Forming

2000-10-03
2000-01-2657
Springback is a serious problem in sheet metal stamping. It measures the difference between the final shape of the part and the shape of the forming die. Sheet metal forming simulation has made significant progress in predicting springback and several computer simulation codes are commercially available to predict and compensate for it in tool design. The accurate prediction of springback is important and there is a need to validate and verify those predictions with experimental results. Current validation techniques lack standardized procedures, require measurement fixtures that may impose unrealistic restraint on the part, require profiling equipment such as CMM or laser scanning and for the most part produce small springback which reduces measurement accuracy and increases experimental error. A benchmark test has been developed which addresses all these concerns and compares springback predictions by various numerical simulation codes with each other and with experimental results.
Technical Paper

A Benchmark Test for Springback: Experimental Procedures and Results of a Slit-Ring Test

2005-04-11
2005-01-0083
Experimental procedures and results of a benchmark test for springback are reported and a complete suite of obtained data is provided for the validation of forming and springback simulation software. The test is usually referred as the Slit-Ring test where a cylindrical cup is first formed by deep drawing and then a ring is cut from the mid-section of the cup. The opening of the ring upon slitting releases the residual stresses in the formed cup and provides a valuable set of easy-to-measure, easy-to-characterize springback data. The test represents a realistic deep draw stamping operation with stretching and bending deformation, and is highly repeatable in a laboratory environment. In this study, six different automotive materials are evaluated.
Technical Paper

A CAE Study on Side Doors Inner Panel Deflection under Glass Stall Up Forces

2017-11-07
2017-36-0205
Not only well-functioning, but also the way operating everyday items "feel", gauges costumer perception of an automobile robustness. To prevent costumer dissatisfaction with door trim panel movement when operating power windows, deflections must be kept small. Deflections of inner panel are seen through trim panel and are responsible for giving a flimsy idea of the door. In this paper, inner panel movement for a fully stamped door in full glass stall up position is analyzed. Through CAE analyses, inner panel behavior was compared, considering different types of reinforcement for belt region.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Investigation on the High Temperature Fatigue of Three Cast Aluminum Alloys

2004-03-08
2004-01-1029
The high temperature fatigue behaviors of three cast aluminum alloys used for cylinder head fabrication - 319, A356 and AS7GU - are compared under isothermal fatigue at room temperature and elevated temperatures. The thermo-mechanical fatigue behavior for both out-of-phase and in-phase loading conditions (100-300°C) has also been investigated. It has been observed that all three of these alloys present a very similar behavior under both isothermal and thermo-mechanical low-cycle fatigue. Under high-cycle fatigue, however, the alloys A356 and AS7GU exhibit superior performance.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Dent Resistance Incorporating Forming Effects

2005-04-11
2005-01-0089
Dent resistance is an important attribute in the automotive panel design, and the ability to accurately predict a panel's dentability requires careful considerations of sheet metal properties, including property changes from stamping process. The material is often work-hardened significantly during forming, and its thickness is reduced somewhat. With increased demand for weight reduction, vehicle designers are seriously pushing to use thinner-gauged advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) as outer body panels such as fenders, hoods and decklids, with the expectation that its higher strength will offset reduced thickness in its dentability. A comparative study is conducted in this paper for a BH210 steel fender as baseline design and thinner DP500 steel as the new design.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Methods for Battery and Supercapacitor Modeling

2003-06-23
2003-01-2290
In future vehicles (e.g. fuel cell vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles), the electrical system will have an important impact on the mechanical systems in the car (e.g. powertrain, steering). Furthermore, this coupling will become increasingly important over time. In order to develop effective designs and appropriate control systems for these systems, it is important that the plant models capture the detailed physical behavior in the system. This paper will describe models of two electrical components, a battery and a supercapacitor, which have been modeled in two ways: (i) modeling the plant and controller using block diagrams in Simulink and (ii) modeling the plant and controller in Dymola followed by compiling this model to an S-function for simulation in Simulink. Both the battery and supercapacitor model are based on impedance spectroscopy measurements and can be used for highly dynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0666
Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Methods for Evaluating Automatic Transmission Fluid Effects on Friction Torque Capacity - A Study by the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

1998-10-19
982672
As part of the International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee's (ILSAC) goal of developing a global automatic transmission fluid (ATF) specification, members have been evaluating test methods that are currently used by various automotive manufacturers for qualifying ATF for use in their respective transmissions. This report deals with comparing test methods used for determining torque capacity in friction systems (shifting clutches). Three test methods were compared, the Plate Friction Test from the General Motors DEXRON®-III Specification, the Friction Durability Test from the Ford MERCON® Specification, and the Japanese Automotive Manufacturers Association Friction Test - JASO Method 348-95. Eight different fluids were evaluated. Friction parameters used in the comparison were breakaway friction, dynamic friction torque at midpoint and the end of engagement, and the ratio of end torque to midpoint torque.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Effect of E85 vs. Gasoline on Exhaust System Surface Temperatures

2007-04-16
2007-01-1392
With concerns over increasing worldwide demand for gasoline and greenhouse gases, many automotive companies are increasing their product lineup of vehicles to include flex-fuel vehicles that are capable of operating on fuel blends ranging from 100% gasoline up to a blend of 15% gasoline/85% ethanol (E85). For the purpose of this paper, data was obtained that will enable an evaluation relating to the effect the use of E85 fuel has on exhaust system surface temperatures compared to that of regular unleaded gasoline while the vehicle undergoes a typical drive cycle. Three vehicles from three different automotive manufacturers were tested. The surface of the exhaust systems was instrumented with thermocouples at specific locations to monitor temperatures from the manifold to the catalytic converter outlet. The exhaust system surface temperatures were recorded during an operation cycle that included steady vehicle speed operation; cold start and idle and wide open throttle conditions.
Journal Article

A Component Test Methodology for Simulation of Full-Vehicle Side Impact Dummy Abdomen Responses for Door Trim Evaluation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1097
Described in this paper is a component test methodology to evaluate the door trim armrest performance in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side impact test and to predict the SID-IIs abdomen injury metrics (rib deflection, deflection rate and V*C). The test methodology consisted of a sub-assembly of two SID-IIs abdomen ribs with spine box, mounted on a linear bearing and allowed to translate in the direction of impact. The spine box with the assembly of two abdominal ribs was rigidly attached to the sliding test fixture, and is stationary at the start of the test. The door trim armrest was mounted on the impactor, which was prescribed the door velocity profile obtained from full-vehicle test. The location and orientation of the armrest relative to the dummy abdomen ribs was maintained the same as in the full-vehicle test.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Door Slam

2004-03-08
2004-01-0161
As part of an ongoing technical collaboration between Ford and Rouge Steel Company, a comprehensive study of door slam event was undertaken. The experimental phase of the project involved measurements of accelerations at eight locations on the outer panel and strains on six locations of the inner panel. Although slam tests were conducted with window up and window down, results of only one test is presented in this paper. The CAE phase of the project involved the development of suitable “math” model of the door assembly and analysis methodology to capture the dynamics of the event. The predictability of the CAE method is examined through detailed comparison of accelerations and strains. While excellent agreement between CAE and test results of accelerations on the outer panel is obtained, the analysis predicts higher strains on the inner panel than the test. In addition, the tendency of outer panel to elastically buckle is examined.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

A Computerized Optimization Method Of Engine Mounting System

2003-05-05
2003-01-1461
This paper presents a method for optimization design of an engine mounting system subjected to some constraints. The engine center of gravity, the mount stiffness rates, the mount locations and/or their orientations with respect to the vehicle can be chosen as design variables, but some of them are given in advance or have limitations because of the packaging constraints on the mount locations, as well as the individual mount rate ratio limitations imposed by manufacturability. A computer program, called DynaMount, has been developed that identifies the optimum design variables for the engine mounting system, including decoupling mode, natural frequency placement, etc.. The degree of decoupling achieved is quantified by kinetic energy distributions calculated for each of the modes. Several application examples are presented to illustrate the validity of this method and the computer program.
Technical Paper

A Correlation Study between the Full Scale Wind Tunnels of Chrysler, Ford, and General Motors

2008-04-14
2008-01-1205
A correlation of aerodynamic wind tunnels was initiated between Chrysler, Ford and General Motors under the umbrella of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR). The wind tunnels used in this correlation were the open jet tunnel at Chrysler's Aero Acoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT), the open jet tunnel at the Jacobs Drivability Test Facility (DTF) that Ford uses, and the closed jet tunnel at General Motors Aerodynamics Laboratory (GMAL). Initially, existing non-competitive aerodynamic data was compared to determine the feasibility of facility correlation. Once feasibility was established, a series of standardized tests with six vehicles were conducted at the three wind tunnels. The size and body styles of the six vehicles were selected to cover the spectrum of production vehicles produced by the three companies. All vehicles were tested at EPA loading conditions. Despite the significant differences between the three facilities, the correlation results were very good.
Technical Paper

A Customer Driven Reliability and Quality Methodology for Existing Products

1989-02-01
890811
In order to maximize customer satisfaction in today's global market place, the quality of products and services need to be improved continually. Increased focus on quality, with the attendant proliferation of methods and tools, has created the need for a comprehensive framework to guide the selection of the tools. Individuals within an organization need to know what tools are appropriate in a given situation, and when, where and how the knowledge gained from an effort should be documented. In addition, a common nomenclature to convey quality related information to each other would avoid confusion and improve the communication process thus improving the effectiveness and productivity of the organization. This paper integrates tools that have evolved recently with the old tools that have been in use for a number of years.
Journal Article

A Data-Driven Diagnostic System Utilizing Manufacturing Data Mining and Analytics

2017-03-28
2017-01-0233
The wide applications of automatic sensing devices and data acquisition systems in automotive manufacturing have resulted in a data-rich environment, which demands new data mining methodologies for effective data fusion and information integration to support decision making. This paper presents a new methodology for developing a diagnostic system using manufacturing system data for high-value assets in automotive manufacturing. The proposed method extends the basic attributes control charts with the following key elements: optimal feature subset selection considering multiple features and correlation structure, balancing the type I and type II errors in decision making, on-line process monitoring using adaptive modeling with control charts, and diagnostic performance assessment using shift and trend detection. The performance of the developed diagnostic system can be continuously improved as the knowledge of machine faults is automatically accumulated during production.
Technical Paper

A Design Study to Determine the Impact of Various Parameters on Door Acoustics

2003-05-05
2003-01-1430
Once the design of a door sheetmetal and accessories is confirmed, the acoustics of the door system depends on the sound package assembly. This essentially consists of a watershield which acts as a barrier and a porous material which acts as an absorber. The acoustical performance of the watershield and the reverberant sound build-up in the door cavity control the performance. This paper discusses the findings of a design study that was developed based on design of experiments (DOE) concepts to determine which parameters of the door sound package assembly are important to the door acoustics. The study was based on conducting a minimum number of tests on a five factor - two level design that covered over 16 different design configurations. In addition, other measurements were made that aided in developing a SEA model which is also compared with the findings of the results of the design study.
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