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Technical Paper

1D Model for Correcting the Rate of Injection Signal Based on Geometry and Temperature Influence

2017-03-28
2017-01-0819
The fuel consumption and emissions of diesel engines is strongly influenced by the injection rate pattern, which influences the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. Knowing the exact injection rate is mandatory for an optimal diesel combustion development. The short injection time of no more than some milliseconds prevents a direct flow rate measurement. However, the injection rate is deduced from the pressure change caused by injecting into a fuel reservoir or pipe. In an ideal case, the pressure increase in a fuel pipe correlates with the flow rate. Unfortunately, real measurement devices show measurement inaccuracies and errors, caused by non-ideal geometrical shapes as well as variable fuel temperature and fuel properties along the measurement pipe. To analyze the thermal effect onto the measurement results, an available rate measurement device is extended with a flexible heating system as well as multiple pressure and temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

A CFD Validation Study for Automotive Aerodynamics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0129
A study was conducted using Ford's nine standard CFD calibration models as described in SAE paper 940323. The models are identical from the B-pillar forward but have different back end configurations. These models were created for the purpose of evaluating the effect of back end geometry variations on aerodynamic lift and drag. Detailed experimental data is available for each model in the form of surface pressure data, surface flow visualization, and wake flow field measurements in addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values. This data is extremely useful in analyzing the accuracy of the numerical simulations. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of a digital physics based commercial CFD code, PowerFLOW ® to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around the car-like benchmark shapes.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0666
Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

A Generic Fault Maturing and Clearing Strategy for Continuous On-Board Diagnostic Monitoring

2016-04-05
2016-01-0633
Per California Air Resources Board (CARB) regulations, On-board diagnostic (OBD) of vehicle powertrain systems are required to continuously monitor key powertrain components, such as the circuit discontinuity of actuators, various circuit faults of sensors, and out-of-range faults of sensors. The maturing and clearing of these continuous monitoring faults are critical to simplification of algorithm design, save of engineering cost (i.e., calibration), and reduction of warranty issues. Due to the nature of sensors (to sense different physical quantities) and actuators (to output energy in desired ways), most of OEM and supplies tend to choose different fault maturing and clearing strategy for sensors and actuators with different physics nature, such as timer-based, counter-based, and other physical-quantity-based strategies.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0556
A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Technical Paper

A New Analysis Method for Accurate Accounting of IC Engine Pumping Work and Indicated Work

2004-03-08
2004-01-1262
In order to improve fuel economy, engine manufacturers are investigating various technologies that reduce pumping work in spark ignition engines. Current cylinder pressure analysis methods do not allow valid comparison of pumping work reduction strategies. Existing methods neglect valve timing effects which occur during the expansion and compression strokes, but are actually part of the gas exchange process. These additional pumping work contributions become more significant when evaluating non-standard valve timing concepts. This paper outlines a new analysis method for calculating the pumping work and indicated work of a 4-stroke internal combustion engine. Corrections to PMEP and IMEP are introduced which allow the valid comparison of pumping work and indicated efficiency between engines with different pumping work reduction strategies.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Approach to Analysis of Crash Sensor Performance

2009-04-20
2009-01-0372
Understanding the variation in the deployment times for crash sensor systems is important to ensure robust performance of a crash sensor system. Increases in both the numbers of crash modes and deployable devices have reduced the margins for the decisions about when to deploy any given device. Currently, the industry practice is to run a sweep over the potential sources of variation, recording the minimum and maximum deployment time. Questions such as: “How often do the extremes occur?” or “Are there multiple peaks in the deployment time?” can not be answered. This work uses numerical analysis methods to build on the current sweep methodology to obtain information on the distribution of the deployment times so that questions such as these can be answered when evaluating sensor calibrations. The end result is better informed engineering decisions during the calibration development.
Technical Paper

A Testbed for the Mars Returned Sample Handling Facility

2001-07-09
2001-01-2412
Samples of Mars surface material will return to Earth in 2014. Prior to curation and distribution to the scientific community the returned samples will be isolated in a special facility until their biological safety has been assessed following protocols established by NASA’s Planetary Protection Office. The primary requirements for the pre-release handling of the Martian samples include protecting the samples from the Earth and protecting the Earth from the sample. A testbed will be established to support the design of such a facility and to test the planetary protection protocols. One design option that is being compared to the conventional Biological Safety Level 4 facility is a double walled differential pressure chamber with airlocks and automated equipment for analyzing samples and transferring them from one instrument to another.
Technical Paper

AUREATE: An Augmented Reality Test Environment for Realistic Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-1080
Automated driving is currently one of the most active areas of research worldwide. While the general progress in developing specific algorithms for perception, planning and control tasks is very advanced, testing and validation of the resulting functions is still challenging due to the large number of possible scenarios and generation of ground-truth. Currently, real world testing and simulations are used in combination to overcome some of these challenges. While real world testing does not suffer from imperfect sensor models and environments, it is expensive, slow and not accurately repeatable and therefore unable to capture all possible scenarios. However, simulation models are not sophisticated enough to fully replace real world testing. In this paper, we propose a workflow that is capable of augmenting real sensor-level data with simulated sensor data.
Technical Paper

Adaptive EGR Cooler Pressure Drop Estimation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0624
The pre EGR valve pressure is an important measurement for the Diesel engine air handling system. It is commonly used for the EGR flow calculation during engine transient operation. Due to the erosive exhaust gas, an EGR pressure sensor will eventually have gold corrosion resulting in drive-ability issues. Therefore, a software replacement for the EGR pressure sensor is desirable. However, when the EGR valve is on the cold side of the EGR cooler, the accuracy of the EGR pressure estimation deteriorates because of the variability of the pressure drop across the EGR cooler due to EGR cooler fouling. In this paper, an adaptive scheme is developed to improve the accuracy of pre EGR valve pressure estimation in the presence of EGR cooler fouling for diesel engines. The pressure drop across the EGR cooler is shown to be proportional to the velocity pressure of the EGR flow through the cooler.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Temperature Control for Diesel Particulate Filter Regeneration

2013-04-08
2013-01-0517
The regeneration process of a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) consists of an increase in the engine exhaust gas temperature by using post injections and/or exhaust fuel injection during a period of time in order to burn previously trapped soot. The DPF regeneration is usually performed during a real drive cycle, with continuously changing driving conditions. The quantity of post injection/exhaust fuel to use for regeneration is calculated using a combination of an open loop term based on engine speed, load and exhaust gas flow and a closed loop term based on an exhaust gas temperature target and the feedback from a number of sensors. Due to the nature of the system and the slow response of the closed loop term for correcting large deviations, the authority of the fuel calculation is strongly biased to the open loop. However, the open loop fuel calculation might not be accurate enough to provide adequate temperature tracking due to several disturbances in the system.
Technical Paper

Air Charge Estimation in Camless Engines

2001-03-05
2001-01-0581
An electromechanically driven valve train offers unprecedented flexibility to optimize engine operation for each speed load point individually. One of the main benefits is the increased fuel economy resulting from unthrottled operation. The absence of a restriction at the entrance of the intake manifold leads to wave propagation in the intake system and makes a direct measurement of air flow with a hot wire air meter unreliable. To deliver the right amount of fuel for a desired air-fuel ratio, we therefore need an open loop estimate of the air flow based on measureable or commanded signals or quantities. This paper investigates various expressions for air charge in camless engines based on quasi-static assumptions for heat transfer and pressure.
Technical Paper

Air Charge and Residual Gas Fraction Estimation for a Spark-Ignition Engine Using In-Cylinder Pressure

2017-03-28
2017-01-0527
An accurate estimation of cycle-by-cycle in-cylinder mass and the composition of the cylinder charge is required for spark-ignition engine transient control strategies to obtain required torque, Air-Fuel-Ratio (AFR) and meet engine pollution regulations. Mass Air Flow (MAF) and Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been utilized in different control strategies to achieve these targets; however, these sensors have response delay in transients. As an alternative to air flow metering, in-cylinder pressure sensors can be utilized to directly measure cylinder pressure, based on which, the amount of air charge can be estimated without the requirement to model the dynamics of the manifold.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Dependence of Random and Deterministic Cyclic Variability in a Spark-Ignited Engine

1999-10-25
1999-01-3513
One important design goal for spark-ignited engines is to minimize cyclic variability. A small amount of cyclic variability (slow burns) can produce undesirable engine vibrations. A larger amount of cyclic variability (incomplete burns) leads to increased hydrocarbon consumption/emissions. Recent studies have reported deterministic patterns in cyclic variability under extremely lean (misfiring) operating conditions. The present work is directed toward more realistic non-misfiring conditions. Production engine test results suggest that deterministic patterns in cyclic variability are the consequence of incomplete combustion, hence control algorithms based on the occurrence of these patterns are not expected to be of significant practical value.
Technical Paper

Airport Remote Tower Sensor Systems

2001-09-11
2001-01-2651
Remote Tower Sensor Systems are proof-of-concept prototypes being developed by NASA/Ames Research Center (NASA/ARC) with collaboration with the FAA and NOAA. RTSS began with the deployment of an Airport Approach Zone Camera System that includes real-time weather observations at San Francisco International Airport. The goal of this research is to develop, deploy, and demonstrate remotely operated cameras and sensors at several major airport hubs and un-towered airports. RTSS can provide real-time weather observations of airport approach zone. RTSS will integrate and test airport sensor packages that will allow remote access to real-time airport conditions and aircraft status.
Technical Paper

An Adaptive Delay-Compensated PID Air Fuel Ratio Controller

2007-04-16
2007-01-1342
In this work, a discrete,time-based, delay-compensated, adaptive PID control algorithm for air fuel ratio control in an SI engine is presented. The controller operates using feedback from a wide-ranging Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen (UEGO) sensor situated in the exhaust manifold. Time delay compensation is used to address the difficulties traditionally associated with the relatively long and time-varying time delay in the gas transport process and UEGO sensor response. The delay compensation is performed by computing a correction to the current control move based on the current delay and the corresponding values of the past control moves. The current delay is determined from the measured engine speed and load using a two dimensional map. In order to achieve good servo operation during target changes without compromising regulator performance a two degree of freedom controller design has been developed by adding a pre-filter to the air fuel ratio target.
Technical Paper

An Air Meter Based Cylinder Air Charge Estimator

1999-03-01
1999-01-0856
A manifold filling model is used to derive a real time cylinder air charge estimate for mass air flow rate sensor equipped vehicles. The derivation shows that a simple first order linear difference equation in the discrete cylinder event domain is obtained from a coupled set of nonlinear differential equations.
Technical Paper

An Artificial UEGO Sensor for Engine Cold Start - Methodology, Design, and Performance

2000-03-06
2000-01-0541
The AFR control accuracy in the cold start is crucial to lowering emissions from IC-engine vehicles. An artificial UEGO “sensor” for estimating the real-time AFR during the engine cold start has been developed on the basis of a fuel-perturbation algorithm at Ford Scientific Research Labs. The AFR values calculated by the artificial UEGO sensor have been used in the closed-loop fuel control. Considering that the engine cold start AFR is an uncertain, non-linear problem, some other techniques for optimizing the input stimulation signal and the output-filtering model are integrated together with the fuel perturbation. This artificial sensor was realized and its performance was tested on a Ford vehicle for EPA75 cold 505 test. The assessment of the artificial sensor was quite different in comparison with that of a real UEGO sensor.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Procedure for Simulating an SC03 Emissions Test with Air Conditioner On

2004-03-08
2004-01-0594
In a continuing effort to include real-world emissions in regulatory testing, the USEPA has included air conditioning operation as part of the Supplemental Federal Test Procedure (SFTP). Known as the SC03, these tests require automobile manufacturers to construct and maintain expensive environmental chambers. However, the regulations make allowances for a simulation test, if one can be shown to demonstrate correlation with the SFTP results. We present the results from an experiment on a 1998 Ford sedan, which simulates the heat load of a full environmental chamber. Moreover, the test procedure is simpler and more cost effective. The process essentially involves heating the condenser of the air conditioning system by using the heat of the engine, rather than heating the entire vehicle. The results indicate that if the head pressure is used as a feedback signal to the radiator fan, the load generated by a full environmental chamber can be duplicated.
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