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Technical Paper

1D Model for Correcting the Rate of Injection Signal Based on Geometry and Temperature Influence

2017-03-28
2017-01-0819
The fuel consumption and emissions of diesel engines is strongly influenced by the injection rate pattern, which influences the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. Knowing the exact injection rate is mandatory for an optimal diesel combustion development. The short injection time of no more than some milliseconds prevents a direct flow rate measurement. However, the injection rate is deduced from the pressure change caused by injecting into a fuel reservoir or pipe. In an ideal case, the pressure increase in a fuel pipe correlates with the flow rate. Unfortunately, real measurement devices show measurement inaccuracies and errors, caused by non-ideal geometrical shapes as well as variable fuel temperature and fuel properties along the measurement pipe. To analyze the thermal effect onto the measurement results, an available rate measurement device is extended with a flexible heating system as well as multiple pressure and temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

2005 Ford GT - Vehicle Aerodynamics - Updating a Legend

2004-03-08
2004-01-1254
This paper documents the processes and methods used by the Ford GT team to meet aerodynamic targets. Methods included Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis, wind tunnel experiments (both full-size and scale model), and on-road experiments and measurements. The goal of the team was to enhance both the high-speed stability and track performance of the GT. As a result of the development process, significant front and rear downforce was achieved while meeting the overall drag target.
Technical Paper

3D PIV in Wind Tunnel Applications: Measurements of a Truck Wake

1999-10-19
1999-01-5600
Three-component Particle Image Velocimetry (3D PIV) is a fluid velocity measurement technique that has evolved from the laboratory to become a method appropriate for use in large-scale wind tunnel testing. An example application of 3D PIV in a wind tunnel test is described. The PIV technique was applied to characterize the wake of The Ground Transportation System (GTS) model developed for the Department of Energy (DOE) Heavy Vehicle Drag Reduction (HVDR) program. The test was performed in the Ames/Army 7×10 foot wind tunnel. The objective of the PIV measurements was to validate the HVDR computational fluid dynamics code. The PIV method and PIV system are described. Sample truck wake data with and without boattail attachments are shown. 3D PIV system successfully captured the effects of the boattails on the truck wake.
Technical Paper

A Benchmark Test for Springback Simulation in Sheet Metal Forming

2000-10-03
2000-01-2657
Springback is a serious problem in sheet metal stamping. It measures the difference between the final shape of the part and the shape of the forming die. Sheet metal forming simulation has made significant progress in predicting springback and several computer simulation codes are commercially available to predict and compensate for it in tool design. The accurate prediction of springback is important and there is a need to validate and verify those predictions with experimental results. Current validation techniques lack standardized procedures, require measurement fixtures that may impose unrealistic restraint on the part, require profiling equipment such as CMM or laser scanning and for the most part produce small springback which reduces measurement accuracy and increases experimental error. A benchmark test has been developed which addresses all these concerns and compares springback predictions by various numerical simulation codes with each other and with experimental results.
Technical Paper

A CAE Methodology to Simulate Testing a Rearward Facing Infant Seat during FMVSS 208 Low Risk Deployment

2007-04-16
2007-01-1770
The Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard or FMVSS 208 requires passenger cars, multi-purpose vehicles, trucks with less than unloaded vehicle weight of 2,495 kg either to have an automatic suppression feature or to pass the injury criteria specified under low risk deployment test requirement for a 1 year old dummy in rearward and forward facing restraints as well as a forward facing 3 and 6 year old dummy. A convertible child seat was installed in a sub-system test buck representing a passenger car environment with a one-year- old dummy in it at the passenger side seat and a passenger side airbag was deployed toward the convertible child seat. A MADYMO model was built to represent the test scenario and the model was correlated and validated to the results from the experiment.
Technical Paper

A CAE Optimization Process for Vehicle High Frequency NVH Applications

2005-05-16
2005-01-2422
A CAE SEA-based optimization process for the enhancement of vehicle high frequency NVH applications is developed and validated. The CAE simulation, based on statistical energy analysis (SEA) theory [1], has been used to analyze high frequency NVH responses for the vehicle sound package development. However, engineers have always faced two challenges during the vehicle SEA model development. One is to create a reliable SEA model, which is correlated well with hardware test data. The other is to have a systematic approach by using the correlated model to design effective and cost efficient sound package to improve vehicle interior quietness. The optimization process presented in this paper, which integrates analysis, design sensitivity, and optimization solver, has been developed to address the challenges and to serve the needs. A non-correlated Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) and a correlated midsize car models were used to demonstrate the capability of the proposed optimization process.
Technical Paper

A CFD Validation Study for Automotive Aerodynamics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0129
A study was conducted using Ford's nine standard CFD calibration models as described in SAE paper 940323. The models are identical from the B-pillar forward but have different back end configurations. These models were created for the purpose of evaluating the effect of back end geometry variations on aerodynamic lift and drag. Detailed experimental data is available for each model in the form of surface pressure data, surface flow visualization, and wake flow field measurements in addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values. This data is extremely useful in analyzing the accuracy of the numerical simulations. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of a digital physics based commercial CFD code, PowerFLOW ® to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around the car-like benchmark shapes.
Technical Paper

A Case Study in Hardware-In-the-Loop Testing: Development of an ECU for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-0303
Ford Motor Company has recently implemented a Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) testing system for a new, highly complex, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) Electronic Control Unit (ECU). The implementation of this HIL system has been quick and effective, since it is based on proven Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) automation tools for real-time that allow for a very flexible and intuitive design process. An overview of the HIL system implementation process and the derived development benefits will be shown in this paper. The initial concept for the use of this HIL system was a complete closed-loop vehicle simulation environment for Vehicle System Controller testing, but the paper will show that this concept has evolved to allow for the use of the HIL system for many facets of the design process.
Technical Paper

A Cockpit Display Designed to Enable Limited Flight Deck Separation Responsibility

1999-10-19
1999-01-5567
Cockpit displays need to be substantially improved to serve the goals of situational awareness, conflict detection, and path replanning, in Free Flight. This paper describes the design of such an advanced cockpit display, along with an initial simulation based usability evaluation. Flight crews were particularly enthusiastic about color coding for relative altitude, dynamically pulsing predictors, and the use of 3-D flight plans for alerting and situational awareness.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Two RVE Modelling Methods for Chopped Carbon Fiber SMC

2017-03-28
2017-01-0224
To advance vehicle lightweighting, chopped carbon fiber sheet molding compound (SMC) is identified as a promising material to replace metals. However, there are no effective tools and methods to predict the mechanical property of the chopped carbon fiber SMC due to the high complexity in microstructure features and the anisotropic properties. In this paper, a Representative Volume Element (RVE) approach is used to model the SMC microstructure. Two modeling methods, the Voronoi diagram-based method and the chip packing method, are developed to populate the RVE. The elastic moduli of the RVE are calculated and the two methods are compared with experimental tensile test conduct using Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Furthermore, the advantages and shortcomings of these two methods are discussed in terms of the required input information and the convenience of use in the integrated processing-microstructure-property analysis.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Different Methods for Battery and Supercapacitor Modeling

2003-06-23
2003-01-2290
In future vehicles (e.g. fuel cell vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles), the electrical system will have an important impact on the mechanical systems in the car (e.g. powertrain, steering). Furthermore, this coupling will become increasingly important over time. In order to develop effective designs and appropriate control systems for these systems, it is important that the plant models capture the detailed physical behavior in the system. This paper will describe models of two electrical components, a battery and a supercapacitor, which have been modeled in two ways: (i) modeling the plant and controller using block diagrams in Simulink and (ii) modeling the plant and controller in Dymola followed by compiling this model to an S-function for simulation in Simulink. Both the battery and supercapacitor model are based on impedance spectroscopy measurements and can be used for highly dynamic simulations.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0666
Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

A Cost-Effective Offline Routing Optimization Approach to Employee Shuttle Services

2017-03-28
2017-01-0240
Ride Hailing service and Dynamic Shuttle are two key smart mobility practices, which provide on-demand door-to-door ride-sharing service to customers through smart phone apps. On the other hand, some big companies spend millions of dollars annually in third party vendors to offer shuttle services to pick up and drop off employees at fixed locations and provide them daily commutes for employees to and from work. Efficient fixed routing algorithms and analytics are the key ingredients for operating efficiency behind these services. They can significantly reduce operating costs by shortening bus routes and reducing bus numbers, while maintaining the same quality of service. This study developed an off-line optimization routing method for employee shuttle services including regular work shifts and demand based shifts (e.g. overtime shifts) in some regions.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

2005-11-01
2005-01-3568
In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Journal Article

A Geometrically Exact Isogeometric Blended Shell: Formulation, Benchmarking, and Automotive Application

2017-03-28
2017-01-1329
We present a geometrically exact isogeometric blended shell formulation. In other words, all geometric quantities appearing in the blended theory are evaluated exactly and no approximations are employed. The blended approach allows higher-order shell theories, like Kirchhoff-Love, to be combined with Reissner-Mindlin shell formulations, which have rotational degrees of freedom. In this way, rotations can be employed only where needed to simplify shell modeling such as at kinks and intersections. Away from these regions shear locking free formulations can be employed to improve robustness, accuracy, and efficiency. We compare our approach to standard shell elements commonly used in industry on several benchmarks to explore the behavior of the element. We then model an inner car hood to demonstrate our ability to handle complex CAD geometry in a simple manner without geometry cleanup and mesh generation steps.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0556
A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Modeling Analysis of Fibrous Media for Gasoline Particulate Filters

2017-03-28
2017-01-0967
With an emerging need for gasoline particulate filters (GPFs) to lower particle emissions from gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, studies are being conducted to optimize GPF designs in order to balance filtration efficiency, backpressure penalty, filter size, cost and other factors. Metal fiber filters could offer additional designs to the GPF portfolio, which is currently dominated by ceramic wall-flow filters. However, knowledge on their performance as GPFs is still limited. In this study, modeling on backpressure and filtration efficiency of fibrous media was carried out to determine the basic design criteria (filtration area, filter thickness and size) for different target efficiencies and backpressures at given gas flow conditions. Filter media with different fiber sizes (8 - 17 μm) and porosities (80% - 95%) were evaluated using modeling to determine the influence of fiber size and porosity.
Technical Paper

A Modular HMMWV Dynamic Powertrain System Model

1999-03-01
1999-01-0740
A dynamic powertrain system model of the High Mobility Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV) was created in the Powertrain Control Research Laboratory (PCRL) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Simulink graphical programming software was used to create the model. This dynamic model includes a Torsen differential model and a Hyrda-matic 4L80-E automatic transmission model as well as several other powertrain component models developed in the PCRL. Several component inertias and shaft stiffnesses are included in the dynamic model. The concepts of modularity, flexibility, and user-friendliness were emphasized during model development so that the system model would be a useful design tool. Simulation results from the model are shown.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Objective Optimization and Robustness Assessment Framework for Passenger Airbag Shape Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-1505
A passenger airbag is an important part of a vehicle restraint system which provides supplemental protection to an occupant in a crash event. New Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards No. 208 requires considering multiple crash scenarios at different speeds with various sizes of occupants both belted and unbelted. The increased complexity of the new requirements makes the selection of an optimal airbag shape a new challenge. The aim of this research is to present an automated optimization framework to facilitate the airbag shape design process by integrating advanced tools and technologies, including system integration, numerical optimization, robust assessment, and occupant simulation. A real-world frontal impact application is used to demonstrate the methodology.
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