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Technical Paper

1983 Ranger Pickup

The Ford Ranger will be a domestically built, small pickup truck engineered to many design objectives typical of a fullsize pickup, yet with four cylinder engine fuel efficiency. Ranger is a full-function on-and-off road pickup truck with a uniquely smooth ride and a capacity to carry up to a 725.7 kg. (1600 lb.) payload. The truck features a three passenger body-on-frame cab and a double wall pickup box with provision for 1.2m × 2.4m (4 ft. × 8 ft.) sheets of construction material. Featured in this comprehensive paper are the engineering highlights and innovations contributing to the accomplishment of these Small Truck objectives.
Technical Paper

1D Model for Correcting the Rate of Injection Signal Based on Geometry and Temperature Influence

The fuel consumption and emissions of diesel engines is strongly influenced by the injection rate pattern, which influences the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. Knowing the exact injection rate is mandatory for an optimal diesel combustion development. The short injection time of no more than some milliseconds prevents a direct flow rate measurement. However, the injection rate is deduced from the pressure change caused by injecting into a fuel reservoir or pipe. In an ideal case, the pressure increase in a fuel pipe correlates with the flow rate. Unfortunately, real measurement devices show measurement inaccuracies and errors, caused by non-ideal geometrical shapes as well as variable fuel temperature and fuel properties along the measurement pipe. To analyze the thermal effect onto the measurement results, an available rate measurement device is extended with a flexible heating system as well as multiple pressure and temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

2-Door Vehicle Body Local Force Evaluation with the IIHS, EuroNCAP, and LINCAP Side Impact Barriers

Structure enhancement based on data monitored in a traditional side impact evaluation is primarily a trial and error exercise resulting in a large number of computer runs. This is because how the structure gets loaded and the degree of contribution of local structural components to resist the impact while absorbing energy during a side collision is not completely known. Developing real time complete load profiles on a body side during the time span of an impact is not an easy task and these loads cannot be calculated from that calculated at the barrier mounting plate. This paper highlights the load distribution, calculated by a procedure using computer aided engineering (CAE) tools, on a typical 2-door vehicle body side when struck by moving deformable barriers used in the insurance institute for highway safety (IIHS), EuroNCAP and LINCAP side impact evaluations.
Technical Paper

A CAE Optimization Process for Vehicle High Frequency NVH Applications

A CAE SEA-based optimization process for the enhancement of vehicle high frequency NVH applications is developed and validated. The CAE simulation, based on statistical energy analysis (SEA) theory [1], has been used to analyze high frequency NVH responses for the vehicle sound package development. However, engineers have always faced two challenges during the vehicle SEA model development. One is to create a reliable SEA model, which is correlated well with hardware test data. The other is to have a systematic approach by using the correlated model to design effective and cost efficient sound package to improve vehicle interior quietness. The optimization process presented in this paper, which integrates analysis, design sensitivity, and optimization solver, has been developed to address the challenges and to serve the needs. A non-correlated Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) and a correlated midsize car models were used to demonstrate the capability of the proposed optimization process.
Technical Paper

A CAE Study on Side Doors Inner Panel Deflection under Glass Stall Up Forces

Not only well-functioning, but also the way operating everyday items "feel", gauges costumer perception of an automobile robustness. To prevent costumer dissatisfaction with door trim panel movement when operating power windows, deflections must be kept small. Deflections of inner panel are seen through trim panel and are responsible for giving a flimsy idea of the door. In this paper, inner panel movement for a fully stamped door in full glass stall up position is analyzed. Through CAE analyses, inner panel behavior was compared, considering different types of reinforcement for belt region.
Technical Paper

A CFD Validation Study for Automotive Aerodynamics

A study was conducted using Ford's nine standard CFD calibration models as described in SAE paper 940323. The models are identical from the B-pillar forward but have different back end configurations. These models were created for the purpose of evaluating the effect of back end geometry variations on aerodynamic lift and drag. Detailed experimental data is available for each model in the form of surface pressure data, surface flow visualization, and wake flow field measurements in addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values. This data is extremely useful in analyzing the accuracy of the numerical simulations. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of a digital physics based commercial CFD code, PowerFLOW ® to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around the car-like benchmark shapes.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Study of Door Slam

As part of an ongoing technical collaboration between Ford and Rouge Steel Company, a comprehensive study of door slam event was undertaken. The experimental phase of the project involved measurements of accelerations at eight locations on the outer panel and strains on six locations of the inner panel. Although slam tests were conducted with window up and window down, results of only one test is presented in this paper. The CAE phase of the project involved the development of suitable “math” model of the door assembly and analysis methodology to capture the dynamics of the event. The predictability of the CAE method is examined through detailed comparison of accelerations and strains. While excellent agreement between CAE and test results of accelerations on the outer panel is obtained, the analysis predicts higher strains on the inner panel than the test. In addition, the tendency of outer panel to elastically buckle is examined.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Component Rollover Crash Test System

Full vehicle dynamic crash tests are commonly used in the development of rollover detection sensors, algorithms and occupant protection systems. However, many published studies have utilized component level rollover test fixtures for rollover related occupant kinematics studies and restraint system evaluation and development. A majority of these fixtures attempted to replicate only the rotational motion that occurs during the free flight phase of a typical full vehicle rollover crash test. In this paper, a description of the methods used to design a new dynamic component rollover test device is presented. A brief summary of several existing rollover component test methods is included. The new system described in this paper is capable of replicating the transfer of lateral energy into rotational vehicle motion that is present in many tripped laboratory based rollover crash tests.
Journal Article

A Geometrically Exact Isogeometric Blended Shell: Formulation, Benchmarking, and Automotive Application

We present a geometrically exact isogeometric blended shell formulation. In other words, all geometric quantities appearing in the blended theory are evaluated exactly and no approximations are employed. The blended approach allows higher-order shell theories, like Kirchhoff-Love, to be combined with Reissner-Mindlin shell formulations, which have rotational degrees of freedom. In this way, rotations can be employed only where needed to simplify shell modeling such as at kinks and intersections. Away from these regions shear locking free formulations can be employed to improve robustness, accuracy, and efficiency. We compare our approach to standard shell elements commonly used in industry on several benchmarks to explore the behavior of the element. We then model an inner car hood to demonstrate our ability to handle complex CAD geometry in a simple manner without geometry cleanup and mesh generation steps.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Journal Article

A Model Based Approach for Electric Steering Tuning to Meet Vehicle Steering Performance Targets

Subjective steering feel tuning and objective verification tests are conducted on vehicle prototypes that are a subset of the total number of buildable combinations of body style, drivetrain and tires. Limited development time, high prototype vehicle cost, and hence limited number of available prototypes are factors that affect the ability to tune and verify all the possible configurations. A new model-based process and a toolset have been developed to enhance the existing steering development process such that steering tuning efficiency and performance robustness can be improved. The innovative method utilizes the existing vehicle dynamics simulation and/or physical test data in conjunction with steering system control models, and provides users with simple interfaces which can be used by either CAE or development engineers to perform virtual tuning of the vehicle steering feel to meet performance targets.
Technical Paper

A NVH CAE approach performed on a vehicle closures pumping issue

The use of finite element modeling (FEM) tools is part of the most of the current product development projects of the automotive industry companies, replacing an important part of the physical tests with lower costs, higher speed and with increasing accuracy by each day. In addition to this, computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools can be either used after the product is released, at any moment of the product life, in many different situation as a new feature release, to validate a more cost-efficient design proposal or to help on solving some manufacturing problem or even a vehicular field issue. Different from the phase where the product is still under development, when standard virtual test procedures are performed in order to validate the vehicle project, in this case, where engineers expertise plays a very important role, before to proceed with any standard test it is fundamental to understand the physics of the phenomena that is causing the unexpected behavior.
Technical Paper

A New Analysis Method for Accurate Accounting of IC Engine Pumping Work and Indicated Work

In order to improve fuel economy, engine manufacturers are investigating various technologies that reduce pumping work in spark ignition engines. Current cylinder pressure analysis methods do not allow valid comparison of pumping work reduction strategies. Existing methods neglect valve timing effects which occur during the expansion and compression strokes, but are actually part of the gas exchange process. These additional pumping work contributions become more significant when evaluating non-standard valve timing concepts. This paper outlines a new analysis method for calculating the pumping work and indicated work of a 4-stroke internal combustion engine. Corrections to PMEP and IMEP are introduced which allow the valid comparison of pumping work and indicated efficiency between engines with different pumping work reduction strategies.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Methodology to Estimate Tire/Wheel Blocked Force for Road NVH Application

Past studies have shown that NVH CAE tire model quality is not adequate to correctly capture a mid-frequency range (100-300 Hz). A new methodology has been developed to estimate tire forces that are independent of dynamic characteristics of vehicle suspension and rig test fixture. The forces are called tire blocked forces and defined as a force generated by a tire/wheel system whose boundary condition is constrained. The tire blocked force is estimated by removing the dynamic effect of the tire force measurement fixture. The blocked forces can be applied to CAE models to predict vehicle road NVH responses. This new method can also be used as a target setting tool. Tire suppliers can check the blocked tire forces from the rig testing data against a force target before they submit tires to automotive manufacturers for evaluations on a prototype vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Nonlinear Transient CAE Method for Vehicle Shift Quality Prediction

Automatic transmission gear changes are transient disturbances in a non-linear system, during which the effective ratio of the transmission is continually changing. In addition, vehicle characteristics can very strongly influence customer perception of the shift event. Further, the interface elements between the vehicle and powertrain are often crucial in determining the quality of shift feel. This paper presents a validated CAE method that employs the ADAMS software to predict the intricate dynamics of the vehicle response due to transmission shift events. First principles of the transmission modeling elements are described. Model simulation results are compared to vehicle test data. A method to quantify the customer's perception of vehicle shift quality is discussed. Model simulation results for a FWD vehicle application are also analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Systems Approach to Eliminating Squeal in a Drum Brake

The traditional analysis of squeal noise for drum brakes is done in a separate approach, with CAE and laboratory/experimental techniques done independently or in a non-iterative sequential manner. In this paper, an innovative approach of directing the frequency response testing based on CAE is used and the overall process is embedded in a system approach. The drum brake design was changed to accomplish higher loads in a car. The initial results of the tests came out noise during the vehicle test. After retrieving the noisy parts from the vehicle, it was tested for frequency response, but in a directional manner suggested by the CAE model. This new approach hasn't been done before in industry practice. The CAE identified that two modes (around the noise frequency) swapped their orders compared to the old design and suggested design changes. The new design was evaluated with a mocked up prototype. This was followed by getting cast parts and testing them for frequency response.
Technical Paper

A Testbed for the Mars Returned Sample Handling Facility

Samples of Mars surface material will return to Earth in 2014. Prior to curation and distribution to the scientific community the returned samples will be isolated in a special facility until their biological safety has been assessed following protocols established by NASA’s Planetary Protection Office. The primary requirements for the pre-release handling of the Martian samples include protecting the samples from the Earth and protecting the Earth from the sample. A testbed will be established to support the design of such a facility and to test the planetary protection protocols. One design option that is being compared to the conventional Biological Safety Level 4 facility is a double walled differential pressure chamber with airlocks and automated equipment for analyzing samples and transferring them from one instrument to another.
Technical Paper

Adaptive EGR Cooler Pressure Drop Estimation

The pre EGR valve pressure is an important measurement for the Diesel engine air handling system. It is commonly used for the EGR flow calculation during engine transient operation. Due to the erosive exhaust gas, an EGR pressure sensor will eventually have gold corrosion resulting in drive-ability issues. Therefore, a software replacement for the EGR pressure sensor is desirable. However, when the EGR valve is on the cold side of the EGR cooler, the accuracy of the EGR pressure estimation deteriorates because of the variability of the pressure drop across the EGR cooler due to EGR cooler fouling. In this paper, an adaptive scheme is developed to improve the accuracy of pre EGR valve pressure estimation in the presence of EGR cooler fouling for diesel engines. The pressure drop across the EGR cooler is shown to be proportional to the velocity pressure of the EGR flow through the cooler.