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Technical Paper

1D Model for Correcting the Rate of Injection Signal Based on Geometry and Temperature Influence

The fuel consumption and emissions of diesel engines is strongly influenced by the injection rate pattern, which influences the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. Knowing the exact injection rate is mandatory for an optimal diesel combustion development. The short injection time of no more than some milliseconds prevents a direct flow rate measurement. However, the injection rate is deduced from the pressure change caused by injecting into a fuel reservoir or pipe. In an ideal case, the pressure increase in a fuel pipe correlates with the flow rate. Unfortunately, real measurement devices show measurement inaccuracies and errors, caused by non-ideal geometrical shapes as well as variable fuel temperature and fuel properties along the measurement pipe. To analyze the thermal effect onto the measurement results, an available rate measurement device is extended with a flexible heating system as well as multiple pressure and temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

A CAE Study on Side Doors Inner Panel Deflection under Glass Stall Up Forces

Not only well-functioning, but also the way operating everyday items "feel", gauges costumer perception of an automobile robustness. To prevent costumer dissatisfaction with door trim panel movement when operating power windows, deflections must be kept small. Deflections of inner panel are seen through trim panel and are responsible for giving a flimsy idea of the door. In this paper, inner panel movement for a fully stamped door in full glass stall up position is analyzed. Through CAE analyses, inner panel behavior was compared, considering different types of reinforcement for belt region.
Technical Paper

A CFD Validation Study for Automotive Aerodynamics

A study was conducted using Ford's nine standard CFD calibration models as described in SAE paper 940323. The models are identical from the B-pillar forward but have different back end configurations. These models were created for the purpose of evaluating the effect of back end geometry variations on aerodynamic lift and drag. Detailed experimental data is available for each model in the form of surface pressure data, surface flow visualization, and wake flow field measurements in addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values. This data is extremely useful in analyzing the accuracy of the numerical simulations. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of a digital physics based commercial CFD code, PowerFLOW ® to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around the car-like benchmark shapes.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Technical Paper

A Matrix Array Technique for Evaluation of Adhesively Bonded Joints

Adhesive bonding technology is playing an increasingly important role in automotive industry. Ultrasonic evaluation of adhesive joints of metal sheets is a challenging problem in Non-Destructive Testing due to the large acoustic impedance mismatch between metal and adhesive, variability in the thickness of metal and adhesive layers, as well as variability in joint geometry. In this paper, we present the results from a matrix array of small flat ultrasonic transducers for evaluation of adhesively bonded joints in both laboratory and production environments. The reverberating waveforms recorded by the array elements are processed to obtain an informative parameter, whose two-dimensional distribution can be presented as a C-scan. Energy of the reflected waveform, normalized with respect to the energy obtained from an area with no adhesive, is a robust parameter for discriminating "adhesive/no-adhesive" regions.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Technical Paper

A New Analysis Method for Accurate Accounting of IC Engine Pumping Work and Indicated Work

In order to improve fuel economy, engine manufacturers are investigating various technologies that reduce pumping work in spark ignition engines. Current cylinder pressure analysis methods do not allow valid comparison of pumping work reduction strategies. Existing methods neglect valve timing effects which occur during the expansion and compression strokes, but are actually part of the gas exchange process. These additional pumping work contributions become more significant when evaluating non-standard valve timing concepts. This paper outlines a new analysis method for calculating the pumping work and indicated work of a 4-stroke internal combustion engine. Corrections to PMEP and IMEP are introduced which allow the valid comparison of pumping work and indicated efficiency between engines with different pumping work reduction strategies.
Technical Paper

A Testbed for the Mars Returned Sample Handling Facility

Samples of Mars surface material will return to Earth in 2014. Prior to curation and distribution to the scientific community the returned samples will be isolated in a special facility until their biological safety has been assessed following protocols established by NASA’s Planetary Protection Office. The primary requirements for the pre-release handling of the Martian samples include protecting the samples from the Earth and protecting the Earth from the sample. A testbed will be established to support the design of such a facility and to test the planetary protection protocols. One design option that is being compared to the conventional Biological Safety Level 4 facility is a double walled differential pressure chamber with airlocks and automated equipment for analyzing samples and transferring them from one instrument to another.
Technical Paper

A semi-analytical approach for vehicle ride simulation

Vehicle dynamics CAE capabilities has increased in the past few years, specially, for handling and steering attributes. However, secondary ride simulations are still highly depended on the tire model. Such tire model must be capable to simulate high order phenomenon such as impact and harshness transmissibility in three directions. In order to gather tire information sufficient to cope with these phenomena, one needs to perform a series of specific tests, and so be able to build the intended tire model. Still, there could be correlation issues. This whole process takes a lot of time and resources. This article presents a semi-analytical approach, using data gathered via wheel force transducers (WFTs) that are typically used for load cascading and durability purposes. The method main advantage is that since it relies on measured data at the wheel center, it is independent of a tire model, and, as such, it demands less time and resources.
Technical Paper

Acquisition of Transient Tire Force and Moment Data for Dynamic Vehicle Handling Simulations

This paper describes the issues encountered in using conventionally acquired tire test data for dynamic total vehicle handling simulations and the need for improved methodology. It describes the new test procedure that was used to acquire all three forces and three moments in a transient mode for a matrix of loads, slip and camber angles. A study of the test data supports the premises that the overturning moment, Mx, should not be neglected in dynamic simulations, and that the effects of camber should not be treated as only an independent, linearly additive, camber thrust. Instead of the conventional application of a bi-cubic regression fit to a six region data division, a new algorithm is applied. The data is divided differently into five regions in the α - Fz plane, and a variable format regression equation is applied as appropriate. The resulting regression coefficients matrix is readily usable in dynamic simulations, and is shown to have a superior curve fit to the test data.
Technical Paper

Active Yaw Control of a Vehicle using a Fuzzy Logic Algorithm

Yaw rate of a vehicle is highly influenced by the lateral forces generated at the tire contact patch to attain the desired lateral acceleration, and/or by external disturbances resulting from factors such as crosswinds, flat tire or, split-μ braking. The presence of the latter and the insufficiency of the former may lead to undesired yaw motion of a vehicle. This paper proposes a steer-by-wire system based on fuzzy logic as yaw-stability controller for a four-wheeled road vehicle with active front steering. The dynamics governing the yaw behavior of the vehicle has been modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The fuzzy controller receives the yaw rate error of the vehicle and the steering signal given by the driver as inputs and generates an additional steering angle as output which provides the corrective yaw moment.
Technical Paper

Adaptive EGR Cooler Pressure Drop Estimation

The pre EGR valve pressure is an important measurement for the Diesel engine air handling system. It is commonly used for the EGR flow calculation during engine transient operation. Due to the erosive exhaust gas, an EGR pressure sensor will eventually have gold corrosion resulting in drive-ability issues. Therefore, a software replacement for the EGR pressure sensor is desirable. However, when the EGR valve is on the cold side of the EGR cooler, the accuracy of the EGR pressure estimation deteriorates because of the variability of the pressure drop across the EGR cooler due to EGR cooler fouling. In this paper, an adaptive scheme is developed to improve the accuracy of pre EGR valve pressure estimation in the presence of EGR cooler fouling for diesel engines. The pressure drop across the EGR cooler is shown to be proportional to the velocity pressure of the EGR flow through the cooler.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag Reduction of the Underbody of a Class-8 Tractor-Trailer

Experimental measurements of a 1:20-scale tractor-trailer configuration were obtained in the 48- by 32-Inch Subsonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames Research Center. The model included significant details of the underbody geometries of both the tractor and trailer. In addition, the tractor included a flow-through grill and a simplified engine block to provide an approximation of the flow through the engine compartment. The experiment was conducted at a Reynolds Number of 430,000 for yaw angles between ±14 deg. The measurements included forces and moments and static surface pressures for various underbody configurations. Simple fairings on the underbodies of the tractor and trailer both yielded a reduction in the wind-averaged drag coefficient of 0.018 (2.7%) when tested separately. A horizontal plate designed to block vertical flow in the tractor-trailer gap provided marginally higher drag reduction (0.021, or 3.2%).
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Drag of Engine-Cooling Airflow With External Interference

This report examines the aerodynamic drag and external interference of engine cooling airflow. Much of the report is on inlet interference, a subject that has not been discussed in automotive technical literature. It is called inlet spillage drag, a term used in the aircraft industry to describe the change in inlet drag with engine airflow. The analysis shows that the reduction in inlet spillage drag, from the closed front-end reference condition, is the primary reason why cooling drag measurements are lower than would be expected from free stream momentum considerations. In general, the free stream momentum (or ram drag) is the upper limit and overstates the cooling drag penalty. An analytical expression for cooling drag is introduced to help the understanding and interpretation of cooling drag measurements, particularly the interference at the inlet and exit.
Technical Paper

Air Charge Estimation in Camless Engines

An electromechanically driven valve train offers unprecedented flexibility to optimize engine operation for each speed load point individually. One of the main benefits is the increased fuel economy resulting from unthrottled operation. The absence of a restriction at the entrance of the intake manifold leads to wave propagation in the intake system and makes a direct measurement of air flow with a hot wire air meter unreliable. To deliver the right amount of fuel for a desired air-fuel ratio, we therefore need an open loop estimate of the air flow based on measureable or commanded signals or quantities. This paper investigates various expressions for air charge in camless engines based on quasi-static assumptions for heat transfer and pressure.
Technical Paper

Air Charge and Residual Gas Fraction Estimation for a Spark-Ignition Engine Using In-Cylinder Pressure

An accurate estimation of cycle-by-cycle in-cylinder mass and the composition of the cylinder charge is required for spark-ignition engine transient control strategies to obtain required torque, Air-Fuel-Ratio (AFR) and meet engine pollution regulations. Mass Air Flow (MAF) and Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) sensors have been utilized in different control strategies to achieve these targets; however, these sensors have response delay in transients. As an alternative to air flow metering, in-cylinder pressure sensors can be utilized to directly measure cylinder pressure, based on which, the amount of air charge can be estimated without the requirement to model the dynamics of the manifold.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Dependence of Random and Deterministic Cyclic Variability in a Spark-Ignited Engine

One important design goal for spark-ignited engines is to minimize cyclic variability. A small amount of cyclic variability (slow burns) can produce undesirable engine vibrations. A larger amount of cyclic variability (incomplete burns) leads to increased hydrocarbon consumption/emissions. Recent studies have reported deterministic patterns in cyclic variability under extremely lean (misfiring) operating conditions. The present work is directed toward more realistic non-misfiring conditions. Production engine test results suggest that deterministic patterns in cyclic variability are the consequence of incomplete combustion, hence control algorithms based on the occurrence of these patterns are not expected to be of significant practical value.
Technical Paper

An Adaptive Delay-Compensated PID Air Fuel Ratio Controller

In this work, a discrete,time-based, delay-compensated, adaptive PID control algorithm for air fuel ratio control in an SI engine is presented. The controller operates using feedback from a wide-ranging Universal Exhaust Gas Oxygen (UEGO) sensor situated in the exhaust manifold. Time delay compensation is used to address the difficulties traditionally associated with the relatively long and time-varying time delay in the gas transport process and UEGO sensor response. The delay compensation is performed by computing a correction to the current control move based on the current delay and the corresponding values of the past control moves. The current delay is determined from the measured engine speed and load using a two dimensional map. In order to achieve good servo operation during target changes without compromising regulator performance a two degree of freedom controller design has been developed by adding a pre-filter to the air fuel ratio target.