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Technical Paper

1D Model for Correcting the Rate of Injection Signal Based on Geometry and Temperature Influence

2017-03-28
2017-01-0819
The fuel consumption and emissions of diesel engines is strongly influenced by the injection rate pattern, which influences the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. Knowing the exact injection rate is mandatory for an optimal diesel combustion development. The short injection time of no more than some milliseconds prevents a direct flow rate measurement. However, the injection rate is deduced from the pressure change caused by injecting into a fuel reservoir or pipe. In an ideal case, the pressure increase in a fuel pipe correlates with the flow rate. Unfortunately, real measurement devices show measurement inaccuracies and errors, caused by non-ideal geometrical shapes as well as variable fuel temperature and fuel properties along the measurement pipe. To analyze the thermal effect onto the measurement results, an available rate measurement device is extended with a flexible heating system as well as multiple pressure and temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

A CAE Optimization Process for Vehicle High Frequency NVH Applications

2005-05-16
2005-01-2422
A CAE SEA-based optimization process for the enhancement of vehicle high frequency NVH applications is developed and validated. The CAE simulation, based on statistical energy analysis (SEA) theory [1], has been used to analyze high frequency NVH responses for the vehicle sound package development. However, engineers have always faced two challenges during the vehicle SEA model development. One is to create a reliable SEA model, which is correlated well with hardware test data. The other is to have a systematic approach by using the correlated model to design effective and cost efficient sound package to improve vehicle interior quietness. The optimization process presented in this paper, which integrates analysis, design sensitivity, and optimization solver, has been developed to address the challenges and to serve the needs. A non-correlated Sport Utility Vehicle (SUV) and a correlated midsize car models were used to demonstrate the capability of the proposed optimization process.
Technical Paper

A CFD Validation Study for Automotive Aerodynamics

2000-03-06
2000-01-0129
A study was conducted using Ford's nine standard CFD calibration models as described in SAE paper 940323. The models are identical from the B-pillar forward but have different back end configurations. These models were created for the purpose of evaluating the effect of back end geometry variations on aerodynamic lift and drag. Detailed experimental data is available for each model in the form of surface pressure data, surface flow visualization, and wake flow field measurements in addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values. This data is extremely useful in analyzing the accuracy of the numerical simulations. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of a digital physics based commercial CFD code, PowerFLOW ® to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around the car-like benchmark shapes.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

2017-03-28
2017-01-0666
Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-1105
In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

A Development Procedure to Improve the Acoustical Performance of a Dash System

2005-05-16
2005-01-2515
This paper discusses a development procedure that was used to evaluate the acoustical performance of one type of dashpanel construction over another type for a given application. Two very different constructions of dashpanels, one made out of plain steel and one made out of laminated steel, were studied under a series of different test conditions to understand which one performs better, and then to evaluate how to improve the overall performance of the inferior dashpanel for a given application. The poorly performing dashpanel was extensively tested with dashmat and different passthroughs to understand the acoustic strength of different passthroughs, to understand how passthroughs affect the overall performance of the dash system, and subsequently to understand how the performance can be improved by improving one of the passthroughs.
Technical Paper

A Drum Brake Squeal Analysis in the Time Domain

2005-05-16
2005-01-2312
Brake squeal has been a chronic customer complaint, often appearing high on the list of items that reduce customers' satisfaction with their vehicles. Brake squeal can emanate from either a drum brake or a disc brake even though the geometry of the two systems is significantly different. A drum brake generates friction within a cylindrical drum interacting with two semi-circular linings. A disc brake consists of a flat disc and two flat pads. The observed squeal behavior in a vehicle differs somewhat between drum and disc brakes. A drum brake may have a loud noise coming from three or more squeal frequencies, whereas a disc brake typically has one or two major squeal frequencies making up the noise. A good understanding of the operational deflection shapes of the brake components during noise events will definitely aid in design to reduce squeal occurrences and improve product quality.
Technical Paper

A Method of Evaluating the Joint Effectiveness on Contribution to Global Stiffness and NVH Performance of Vehicles

2017-03-28
2017-01-0376
While Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) and the next generation AHSS grades offer improved crash safety and reduced weight for vehicles, the global stiffness and NVH performance are often compromised due to reduced material thickness. This paper discusses an advanced method of evaluating the joint effectiveness on contribution to global stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles. A stiffness contribution ratio is proposed initiatively in this research, which evaluates the current contribution of the joints to the global stiffness and NVH performance of vehicles. Another parameter, joint effectiveness factor, has been used to study the potential of each joint on enhancing the global stiffness. The critical joints to enhance the vehicle stiffness and NVH performance can be identified based on above two parameters, and design changes be made to those critical joints to improve the vehicle performance.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0556
A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Technical Paper

A New Analysis Method for Accurate Accounting of IC Engine Pumping Work and Indicated Work

2004-03-08
2004-01-1262
In order to improve fuel economy, engine manufacturers are investigating various technologies that reduce pumping work in spark ignition engines. Current cylinder pressure analysis methods do not allow valid comparison of pumping work reduction strategies. Existing methods neglect valve timing effects which occur during the expansion and compression strokes, but are actually part of the gas exchange process. These additional pumping work contributions become more significant when evaluating non-standard valve timing concepts. This paper outlines a new analysis method for calculating the pumping work and indicated work of a 4-stroke internal combustion engine. Corrections to PMEP and IMEP are introduced which allow the valid comparison of pumping work and indicated efficiency between engines with different pumping work reduction strategies.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Methodology to Estimate Chassis Force Transmissibility and Applications to Road NVH Improvement

2003-05-05
2003-01-1711
The performance of structure-borne road NVH can be cascaded down to three major systems: 1) vehicle body structure, 2) chassis/suspension, 3) tire/wheel. The forces at the body attachment points are controlled by the isolation efficiency of the chassis/suspension system and the excitation at the spindle/knuckle due to the tire/road interaction. The chassis force transmissibility is a metric to quantify the isolation efficiency. This paper presents a new experimental methodology to estimate the chassis force transmissibility from a fully assembled vehicle. For the calculation of the transmissibility, the spindle force/moment estimation and the conventional Noise Path Analysis (NPA) methodologies are utilized. A merit of the methodology provides not only spindle force to body force transmissibility but also spindle moment to body force transmissibility. Hence it enables us to understand the effectiveness of the spindle moments on the body forces.
Technical Paper

A New Experimental Methodology to Estimate Tire/Wheel Blocked Force for Road NVH Application

2005-05-16
2005-01-2260
Past studies have shown that NVH CAE tire model quality is not adequate to correctly capture a mid-frequency range (100-300 Hz). A new methodology has been developed to estimate tire forces that are independent of dynamic characteristics of vehicle suspension and rig test fixture. The forces are called tire blocked forces and defined as a force generated by a tire/wheel system whose boundary condition is constrained. The tire blocked force is estimated by removing the dynamic effect of the tire force measurement fixture. The blocked forces can be applied to CAE models to predict vehicle road NVH responses. This new method can also be used as a target setting tool. Tire suppliers can check the blocked tire forces from the rig testing data against a force target before they submit tires to automotive manufacturers for evaluations on a prototype vehicle.
Technical Paper

A New Wavelet Technique for Transient Sound Visualization and Application to Automotive Door Closing Events

1999-05-17
1999-01-1682
Transient automotive sounds often possess a complex internal structure resulting from one or more impacts combined with mechanical and acoustic cavity resonances. This structure can be revealed by a new technique for obtaining translation-invariant scalograms from orthogonal discrete wavelet transforms. These scalograms are particularly well suited to the visualization of complex sound transients which span a wide dynamic range in time (ms to s) and frequency (∼100Hz to ∼10kHz). As examples, scalograms and spectrograms of door latch closing events from a variety of automotive platforms are discussed and compared in light of the subjective rankings of the sounds.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Approach for Vehicle Frame Structure Dynamics Analysis

2007-05-15
2007-01-2335
The capability to drive NVH quality into vehicle frame design is often compromised by the lack of available predictive tools that can be developed and applied within the timeframe during which key architectural design decisions are required. To address this need, a new parametric frame modeling approach was developed and is presented in this paper. This fully parameterized model is capable of fast modal, static stiffness & weight assessments, as well as DSA/optimization for frame design changes. This tool has been proven to be effective in improving speed, quality and impact of NVH hardware decisions.
Technical Paper

A Survey of Sound and Vibration Interaction

2005-05-16
2005-01-2472
When driving or riding in a vehicle, the customer is bombarded with sensory stimuli. These include tactile, auditory, olfactory and visual. In addition, the customer may be asked to perform various routine driving tasks that can have an influence on the perception of each of the aforementioned senses. Or perhaps, the influence of one sense may affect the perception of another. Since sound rarely occurs void of felt vibration and vice-versa, there is reason to believe one may influence the perception of the other, or that the two may interact in some way when the customer is exposed to a particular NVH (Noise Vibration and Harshness) event in a vehicle. The NVH engineer wishes to gage a sound or vibration's impact on the customer and make a determination as to whether corrective actions on the vehicle are necessary. NVH issues routinely show up as top warranty and customer satisfaction concerns.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Approach to Preparing Drive Files for Squeak and Rattle Evaluations of Subsystems or Components

2007-05-15
2007-01-2269
Many decisions need to be made when test track data is used to set up Squeak & Rattle evaluations of subsystems or components. These decisions are judgment-based so different people with different backgrounds and experience levels will make different decisions - few of which can be called right or wrong - but they are different which causes problems. Squeak & Rattle evaluation has become more scientific in recent years as subjective evaluation has been replaced by quantitative methods like N10 Loudness and shakers have become quiet. It is the authors' contention that the variations caused by different judgment calls can no longer be tolerated. Therefore a methodical process was developed which assures that different people will get the same results from the same set of test track data.
Technical Paper

A Systems Approach to Eliminating Squeal in a Drum Brake

2008-10-12
2008-01-2531
The traditional analysis of squeal noise for drum brakes is done in a separate approach, with CAE and laboratory/experimental techniques done independently or in a non-iterative sequential manner. In this paper, an innovative approach of directing the frequency response testing based on CAE is used and the overall process is embedded in a system approach. The drum brake design was changed to accomplish higher loads in a car. The initial results of the tests came out noise during the vehicle test. After retrieving the noisy parts from the vehicle, it was tested for frequency response, but in a directional manner suggested by the CAE model. This new approach hasn't been done before in industry practice. The CAE identified that two modes (around the noise frequency) swapped their orders compared to the old design and suggested design changes. The new design was evaluated with a mocked up prototype. This was followed by getting cast parts and testing them for frequency response.
Technical Paper

A Testbed for the Mars Returned Sample Handling Facility

2001-07-09
2001-01-2412
Samples of Mars surface material will return to Earth in 2014. Prior to curation and distribution to the scientific community the returned samples will be isolated in a special facility until their biological safety has been assessed following protocols established by NASA’s Planetary Protection Office. The primary requirements for the pre-release handling of the Martian samples include protecting the samples from the Earth and protecting the Earth from the sample. A testbed will be established to support the design of such a facility and to test the planetary protection protocols. One design option that is being compared to the conventional Biological Safety Level 4 facility is a double walled differential pressure chamber with airlocks and automated equipment for analyzing samples and transferring them from one instrument to another.
Technical Paper

A Topographically Structural Optimization Methodology for Improving Noise Radiation in Transaxles

2007-05-15
2007-01-2287
In this paper, a new technology for the design of silent transaxles is developed, where topography optimization is adopted and an artificial parameter called β is proposed as an objective function, representing an upper bound of the surface velocity. The strategy of the optimization is to minimize β while getting the surface velocities less than β. as the constraints. A numerical example of reducing transaxle's radiated noise by using the new optimization technology is given in the paper. In the example, an entire Ford transaxle system was modeled numerically, where most internal components were included. First a modal frequency velocity analysis was conducted. Then an acoustic power analysis based on the Acoustic Transfer Vector (ATV) was carried out. Finally, a topography optimization based on the β - method for the transaxle was performed to minimize the radiated noise.
Technical Paper

A/C Moan - its Diagnostics and Control

2009-05-19
2009-01-2054
Air-conditioning (A/C) induced moan is a very commonly observed phenomenon in automotive refrigerant systems. Since most of the automotive A/C systems cycle ON/OFF four to six times every minute, the A/C induced moan is quite readily audible under engine idle and even while driving, especially under lower engine/vehicle speeds. It is not unusual for an A/C compressor to moan or not, on some vehicle/s under certain operating conditions. Most of the OEMs resolve or suppress the A/C moan potential to barely audible levels. However, under some unique and extreme operating conditions, A/C moan is quite readily induced and often results in customer complaints. This paper discusses A/C moan related root-causes, sources and paths of propagation. A systematic diagnostic test-procedure is also described to diagnose and develop the needed most cost-effective design-fixes. Finally, based on this case-study - some objective targets are recommended to suppress the A/C moan to acceptable levels.
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