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Technical Paper

1D Model for Correcting the Rate of Injection Signal Based on Geometry and Temperature Influence

The fuel consumption and emissions of diesel engines is strongly influenced by the injection rate pattern, which influences the in-cylinder mixing and combustion process. Knowing the exact injection rate is mandatory for an optimal diesel combustion development. The short injection time of no more than some milliseconds prevents a direct flow rate measurement. However, the injection rate is deduced from the pressure change caused by injecting into a fuel reservoir or pipe. In an ideal case, the pressure increase in a fuel pipe correlates with the flow rate. Unfortunately, real measurement devices show measurement inaccuracies and errors, caused by non-ideal geometrical shapes as well as variable fuel temperature and fuel properties along the measurement pipe. To analyze the thermal effect onto the measurement results, an available rate measurement device is extended with a flexible heating system as well as multiple pressure and temperature sensors.
Technical Paper

A CFD Validation Study for Automotive Aerodynamics

A study was conducted using Ford's nine standard CFD calibration models as described in SAE paper 940323. The models are identical from the B-pillar forward but have different back end configurations. These models were created for the purpose of evaluating the effect of back end geometry variations on aerodynamic lift and drag. Detailed experimental data is available for each model in the form of surface pressure data, surface flow visualization, and wake flow field measurements in addition to aerodynamic lift and drag values. This data is extremely useful in analyzing the accuracy of the numerical simulations. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of a digital physics based commercial CFD code, PowerFLOW ® to accurately simulate the physics of the flow field around the car-like benchmark shapes.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Four Methods for Determining the Octane Index and K on a Modern Engine with Upstream, Port or Direct Injection

Combustion in modern spark-ignition (SI) engines is increasingly knock-limited with the wide adoption of downsizing and turbocharging technologies. Fuel autoignition conditions are different in these engines compared to the standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motor Octane Numbers (MON) tests. The Octane Index, OI = RON - K(RON-MON), has been proposed as a means to characterize the actual fuel anti-knock performance in modern engines. The K-factor, by definition equal to 0 and 1 for the RON and MON tests respectively, is intended to characterize the deviation of modern engine operation from these standard octane tests. Accurate knowledge of K is of central importance to the OI model; however, a single method for determining K has not been well accepted in the literature.
Journal Article

A Component Test Methodology for Simulation of Full-Vehicle Side Impact Dummy Abdomen Responses for Door Trim Evaluation

Described in this paper is a component test methodology to evaluate the door trim armrest performance in an Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) side impact test and to predict the SID-IIs abdomen injury metrics (rib deflection, deflection rate and V*C). The test methodology consisted of a sub-assembly of two SID-IIs abdomen ribs with spine box, mounted on a linear bearing and allowed to translate in the direction of impact. The spine box with the assembly of two abdominal ribs was rigidly attached to the sliding test fixture, and is stationary at the start of the test. The door trim armrest was mounted on the impactor, which was prescribed the door velocity profile obtained from full-vehicle test. The location and orientation of the armrest relative to the dummy abdomen ribs was maintained the same as in the full-vehicle test.
Technical Paper

A Computational Investigation of the Effects of Swirl Ratio and Injection Pressure on Mixture Preparation and Wall Heat Transfer in a Light-Duty Diesel Engine

In a recent study, quantitative measurements were presented of in-cylinder spatial distributions of mixture equivalence ratio in a single-cylinder light-duty optical diesel engine, operated with a non-reactive mixture at conditions similar to an early injection low-temperature combustion mode. In the experiments a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) methodology was used to obtain local mixture equivalence ratio values based on a diesel fuel surrogate (75% n-heptane, 25% iso-octane), with a small fraction of toluene as fluorescing tracer (0.5% by mass). Significant changes in the mixture's structure and composition at the walls were observed due to increased charge motion at high swirl and injection pressure levels. This suggested a non-negligible impact on wall heat transfer and, ultimately, on efficiency and engine-out emissions.
Technical Paper

A Finite Element and Experimental Analysis of a Light Truck Leaf Spring System Subjected to Pre-Tension and Twist Loads

In this study the finite element method is used to simulate a light truck multi-leaf spring system and its interaction with a driven axle, u-bolts, and interface brackets. In the first part of the study, a detailed 3-D FE model is statically loaded by fastener pre-tension to determine stress, strain, and contact pressure. The FE results are then compared and correlated to both strain gage and interface pressure measurements from vehicle hardware test. Irregular contact conditions between the axle seat and leaf spring are investigated using a design of experiments (DOE) approach for both convex and discrete step geometries. In the second part of the study, the system FE model is loaded by both fastener pre-tension and external wheel end loads in order to obtain the twist motion response. Torsional deflection, slip onset, and subsequent slip motion at the critical contact plane are calculated as a function of external load over a range of Coulomb friction coefficients.
Technical Paper

A Method of Predicting Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Maps

A method of predicting brake specific fuel consumption characteristics from limited specifications of engine design has been investigated. For spark ignition engines operating on homogeneous mixtures, indicated specific fuel consumption based on gross indicated power is related to compression ratio and spark timing relative to optimum values. The influence of burn rate is approximately accounted for by the differences in spark timings required to correctly phase combustion. Data from engines of contemporary design shows that indicated specific fuel consumption can be defined as a generic function of relative spark timing, mixture air/fuel ratio and exhaust gas recirculation rate. The additional information required to generate brake specific performance maps is cylinder volumetric efficiency, rubbing friction, auxiliary loads, and exhaust back pressure characteristics.
Technical Paper

A Modified Oil Lubrication System with Flow Control to Reduce Crankshaft Bearing Friction in a Litre 4 Cylinder Diesel Engine

The oil distribution system of an automotive light duty engine typically has an oil pump mechanically driven through the front-endancillaries-drive or directly off the crankshaft. Delivery pressure is regulated by a relief valve to provide an oil gallery pressure of typically 3 to 4 bar absolute at fully-warm engine running conditions. Electrification of the oil pump drive is one way to decouple pump delivery from engine speed, but this does not alter the flow distribution between parts of the engine requiring lubrication. Here, the behaviour and benefits of a system with an electrically driven, fixed displacement pump and a distributor providing control over flow to crankshaft main bearings and big end bearings is examined. The aim has been to demonstrate that by controlling flow to these bearings, without changing flow to other parts of the engine, significant reductions in engine friction can be achieved.
Technical Paper

A NVH CAE approach performed on a vehicle closures pumping issue

The use of finite element modeling (FEM) tools is part of the most of the current product development projects of the automotive industry companies, replacing an important part of the physical tests with lower costs, higher speed and with increasing accuracy by each day. In addition to this, computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools can be either used after the product is released, at any moment of the product life, in many different situation as a new feature release, to validate a more cost-efficient design proposal or to help on solving some manufacturing problem or even a vehicular field issue. Different from the phase where the product is still under development, when standard virtual test procedures are performed in order to validate the vehicle project, in this case, where engineers expertise plays a very important role, before to proceed with any standard test it is fundamental to understand the physics of the phenomena that is causing the unexpected behavior.
Technical Paper

A New Analysis Method for Accurate Accounting of IC Engine Pumping Work and Indicated Work

In order to improve fuel economy, engine manufacturers are investigating various technologies that reduce pumping work in spark ignition engines. Current cylinder pressure analysis methods do not allow valid comparison of pumping work reduction strategies. Existing methods neglect valve timing effects which occur during the expansion and compression strokes, but are actually part of the gas exchange process. These additional pumping work contributions become more significant when evaluating non-standard valve timing concepts. This paper outlines a new analysis method for calculating the pumping work and indicated work of a 4-stroke internal combustion engine. Corrections to PMEP and IMEP are introduced which allow the valid comparison of pumping work and indicated efficiency between engines with different pumping work reduction strategies.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Approach for Vehicle Frame Structure Dynamics Analysis

The capability to drive NVH quality into vehicle frame design is often compromised by the lack of available predictive tools that can be developed and applied within the timeframe during which key architectural design decisions are required. To address this need, a new parametric frame modeling approach was developed and is presented in this paper. This fully parameterized model is capable of fast modal, static stiffness & weight assessments, as well as DSA/optimization for frame design changes. This tool has been proven to be effective in improving speed, quality and impact of NVH hardware decisions.
Technical Paper

A Study on Automatic Transmission System Optimization Using a HMMWV Dynamic Powertrain System Model

This Paper introduces a modular, flexible and user-friendly dynamic powertrain model of the US Army's High Mobility Multi-Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV). It includes the DDC 6.5L diesel engine, Hydra-matic 4L80-E automatic transmission, Torsen differentials, transfer case, and flexible drive and axle shafts. This model is used in a case study on transmission optimization design to demonstrate an application of the model. This study shows how combined optimization of the transmission hardware (clutch capacity) and control strategy (shift time) can be explored, and how the models can help the designer understand dynamic interactions as well as provide useful design guidance early in the system design phase.
Technical Paper

A Study on Charge Motion Requirements for a Class-Leading GTDI Engine

An integral part of combustion system development for previous NA gasoline engines was the optimization of charge motion towards the best compromise in terms of full load performance, part load stability, emissions and, last but not least, fuel economy. This optimum balance may potentially be different in GTDI engines. While it is generally accepted that an increased charge motion level improves the mixture preparation in direct injection gasoline engines, the tradeoff in terms of performance seems to become less dominant as the boosting systems of modern engines are typically capable enough to compensate the flow losses generated by the more restrictive ports. Nevertheless, the increased boost level does not come free; increased charge motion generates higher pumping- and wall heat losses. Hence it is questionable and engine dependent, whether more charge motion is always better.
Technical Paper

A Systems Approach to Eliminating Squeal in a Drum Brake

The traditional analysis of squeal noise for drum brakes is done in a separate approach, with CAE and laboratory/experimental techniques done independently or in a non-iterative sequential manner. In this paper, an innovative approach of directing the frequency response testing based on CAE is used and the overall process is embedded in a system approach. The drum brake design was changed to accomplish higher loads in a car. The initial results of the tests came out noise during the vehicle test. After retrieving the noisy parts from the vehicle, it was tested for frequency response, but in a directional manner suggested by the CAE model. This new approach hasn't been done before in industry practice. The CAE identified that two modes (around the noise frequency) swapped their orders compared to the old design and suggested design changes. The new design was evaluated with a mocked up prototype. This was followed by getting cast parts and testing them for frequency response.
Technical Paper

A Systems Engineering Approach to Engine Cooling Design

This paper is divided into two parts: Part 1 - Systems engineering fundamentals Part 2 - Engine cooling design from a systems engineering perspective In Part 1, we explain how the task of designing a complex system can be made easier by the application of Systems Engineering principles. (This part is self contained and may be of general interest to those who have no special interest in engine cooling). Systems Engineering provides three key benefits: It facilitates communication: Requirements define the problem, they allow team members to see their own work in context Key information is standardized and made easier to visualize and verify. An “audit trail” is maintained ensuring that important information is documented, and human memory is no longer relied on for important decisions. Translates requirements into design.
Technical Paper

A Testbed for the Mars Returned Sample Handling Facility

Samples of Mars surface material will return to Earth in 2014. Prior to curation and distribution to the scientific community the returned samples will be isolated in a special facility until their biological safety has been assessed following protocols established by NASA’s Planetary Protection Office. The primary requirements for the pre-release handling of the Martian samples include protecting the samples from the Earth and protecting the Earth from the sample. A testbed will be established to support the design of such a facility and to test the planetary protection protocols. One design option that is being compared to the conventional Biological Safety Level 4 facility is a double walled differential pressure chamber with airlocks and automated equipment for analyzing samples and transferring them from one instrument to another.
Technical Paper

A Three-Dimensional Design Tool for Crescent Oil Pumps

Due to complexities of interaction among gears and crescent-shaped island, a crescent oil pump is one of the most difficult auto components to model using three dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) method. This paper will present a novel approach to address the challenges inherent in crescent oil pump modeling. The new approach is incorporated into the commercial pump design tool PumpLinx from Simerics, Inc.. The new method is applied to simulate a production crescent oil pump with inlet/outlet ports, inner/outer gears, irregular shaped crescent island and tip leakages. The pump performance curve, cavitation effects and pressure ripples are studied using this tool and will be presented in this paper. The results from the simulations are compared to the experiment data with excellent agreement. The present study shows that the proposed computational model is very accurate and robust and can be used as a reliable crescent pump design tool.
Technical Paper

A Transient, Multi-Cylinder Engine Model Using Modelica

This paper describes a transient, thermodynamic, crank angle-based engine model in Modelica that can be used to simulate a range of advanced engine technologies. A single cylinder model is initially presented and described, along with its validation against steady-state dynamometer test data. Issues related to this single cylinder validation are discussed, including the appropriate conservation of hot residual gases under very early intake valve opening (IVO) conditions. From there, the extension from a single cylinder to a multi-cylinder V8 engine model is explained and simulation results are presented for a transient cylinder-deactivation scenario on a V8 engine.
Technical Paper

A Variable Displacement Supercharger Performance Evaluation

The Variable Displacement Supercharger (VDS) is a twin helical screw style compressor that has a feature to change its displacement and its compression ratio actively during vehicle operation. This device can reduce the parasitic losses associated with supercharging and improve the relative fuel economy of a supercharged engine. Supercharging is a boosting choice with several advantages over turbocharging. There is fast pressure delivery to the engine intake manifold for fast engine torque response providing the fun to drive feel. The performance delivered by a supercharger can enable engine fuel economy actions to include engine downsizing and downspeeding. The cost and difficulty of engineering hot exhaust components is eliminated when using only an air side compressor. Faster catalyst warm up can be achieved when not warming the turbine housing of a turbocharger.
Technical Paper

A/C Moan - its Diagnostics and Control

Air-conditioning (A/C) induced moan is a very commonly observed phenomenon in automotive refrigerant systems. Since most of the automotive A/C systems cycle ON/OFF four to six times every minute, the A/C induced moan is quite readily audible under engine idle and even while driving, especially under lower engine/vehicle speeds. It is not unusual for an A/C compressor to moan or not, on some vehicle/s under certain operating conditions. Most of the OEMs resolve or suppress the A/C moan potential to barely audible levels. However, under some unique and extreme operating conditions, A/C moan is quite readily induced and often results in customer complaints. This paper discusses A/C moan related root-causes, sources and paths of propagation. A systematic diagnostic test-procedure is also described to diagnose and develop the needed most cost-effective design-fixes. Finally, based on this case-study - some objective targets are recommended to suppress the A/C moan to acceptable levels.