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Technical Paper

Laminated Steel Forming Modeling Techniques and Experimental Verifications

Laminated steel sheets sandwiched with a polymer core are increasingly used for automotive applications due to their vibration and sound damping properties. However, it has become a major challenge in finite element modeling of laminated steel structures and forming processes due to the extremely large differences in mechanical properties and in the gauges of the polymer core and the steel skins. In this study, circular cup deep drawing and V-bending experiments using laminated steels were conducted in order to develop a modeling technique for laminate forming processes. The effectiveness of several finite element modeling techniques was investigated using the commercial FEM code LS-Dyna. Furthermore, two production parts were selected to verify the modeling techniques in real world applications.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hot Stamping Process With Advanced Material Modeling

Advanced material modeling was conducted to describe the thermal-mechanical behavior of Boron Steel during hot stamping, a process in which blanks at 900 °C are formed and quenched between cold dies. Plastic deformation, thermal dilatation and phase transformation were incorporated in the constitutive model and a user-defined subroutine was developed to interface with LS-DYNA. Simulation was conducted on the hot stamping process of a door intrusion beam to gain insight into the physics of the process. Results showed significant influence of the thermal cycle on final product. It was also demonstrated that the program developed can be used as an early feasibility tool to determine baseline processing parameters and to detect potential defects in products without physical prototyping.
Technical Paper

Specifying Steel Properties and Incorporating Forming Effects in Full Vehicle Impact Simulation

Mechanical properties of as-rolled steels used in a vehicle vary with many parameters including gages, steel suppliers and manufacturing processes. The residual forming and strain rate effects of automotive components have been generally neglected in full vehicle crashworthiness analyses. Not having the above information has been considered as one of the reasons for the discrepancy between the results from computer simulation models and actual vehicle tests. The objective of this study is to choose the right material property for as-rolled steels for stamping and crash computer simulation, and investigate the effect of forming and strain rate on the results of full vehicle impact analyses. Major Body-in-White components which were in the crash load paths and whose material property would change in the forming process were selected in this study. The post-formed thickness and yield stress distributions on the components were estimated using One Step forming analyses.
Technical Paper

Stamping Simulation in Pentium PC and Linux Environment

This paper describes the performance improvement and cost savings achieved by the Stamping Technology Department at DaimlerChrysler Corporation (Chrysler group), in migrating from Unix workstations with RISC technology to Linux PCs with Intel Pentium technology. Performance comparisons of various engineering applications running on these two system configurations are analyzed. The major aspects such as hardware configuration, operating system, software availability, compatibility, reliability, accuracy and consistency of simulation results are discussed. The improvement in computing speed and deviations in simulation results between MPP LS-Dyna and SMP LS-Dyna are presented.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Welded Aluminum Blanks for Liftgate Inner

Tailor welded steel blanks have long been applied in stamping of automotive parts such as door inner, b-pillar, rail, sill inner and liftgate inner, etc. However, there are few known tailor welded aluminum blanks in production. Traditional laser welding equipment simply does not have the capability to weld aluminum since aluminum has much higher reflectivity than steel. Welding quality is another issue since aluminum is highly susceptible to pin holes and undercut which leads to deterioration in formability. In addition, high amount of springback for aluminum panels can result in dimension control problem during assembly. A tailor-welded aluminum blank can help reducing dimension variability by reducing the need for assembly. In this paper, application of friction stir and plasma arc welded blanks on a liftgate inner will be discussed.