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Technical Paper

An Advanced Diesel Fuels Test Program

2001-03-05
2001-01-0150
This paper reports on DaimlerChrysler's participation in the Ad Hoc Diesel Fuels Test Program. This program was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy and included major U.S. auto makers, major U.S. oil companies, and the Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to identify diesel fuels and fuel properties that could facilitate the successful use of compression ignition engines in passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the United States at Tier 2 and LEV II tailpipe emissions standards. This portion of the program focused on minimizing engine-out particulates and NOx by using selected fuels, (not a matrix of fuel properties,) in steady state dynamometer tests on a modern, direct injection, common rail diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Application of Urea SCR to Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles

2001-09-24
2001-01-3623
Diesel vehicles have significant advantages over their gasoline counterparts including a more efficient engine, higher fuel economy, and lower emissions of HC, CO, and CO2. However, NOx control is more difficult on a diesel because of the high O2 concentration in the exhaust, making conventional three-way catalysts ineffective. The most promising technology for continuous NOx reduction onboard diesel vehicles is Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) using aqueous urea. Recent work with urea SCR has involved aftertreatment for the 1.2L DIATA common-rail diesel engine. This engine was used in Ford's hybrid-electric vehicle, the Prodigy, which was developed under the PNGV (Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles) program. An emission control system consisting of a diesel particulate filter followed by an underbody SCR system was used successfully to meet ULEV emission standards (0.2 g/mi NOx, 0.04 g/mi particulate matter (PM)).
Technical Paper

Brake Dynamometer Measurement of Airborne Brake Wear Debris

2002-03-04
2002-01-1280
In order to assess the amount of airborne particulate matter (PM) attributable to vehicle disk brakes, a system was devised for collecting brake wear debris on a laboratory brake dynamometer. The brake dynamometer test hardware was enclosed and vented through a duct in which the airflow was controlled to ensure isokinetic sampling. Two brake dynamometer simulations were implemented: urban driving (low velocity, low g) and the Auto Motor und Sport (AMS, high velocity, high g). These test procedures were performed repeatedly on the brake system hardware of vehicles utilizing three different friction material types: low-metallic, semi-metallic, and non-asbestos organic (NAO). Airborne brake wear was collected on filters and via other airborne PM sampling techniques. Larger, non-airborne wear debris was collected from the wheel, below the brake, and brushed off the hardware. Considering the effect of the wheel, 50-70% of the collected wear debris was airborne PM.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Direct Injection Gasoline Spray Wall Impingement at Elevated Temperature Conditions

1999-10-25
1999-01-3662
The direct injection gasoline spray-wall interaction was characterized inside a heated pressurized chamber using various visualization techniques, including high-speed laser-sheet macroscopic and microscopic movies up to 25,000 frames per second, shadowgraph, and doublespark particle image velocimetry. Two hollow cone high-pressure swirl injectors having different cone angles were used to inject gasoline onto a heated plate at two different impingement angles. Based on the visualization results, the overall transient spray impingement structure, fuel film formation, and preliminary droplet size and velocity were analyzed. The results show that upward spray vortex inside the spray is more obvious at elevated temperature condition, particularly for the wide-cone-angle injector, due to the vaporization of small droplets and decreased air density. Film build-up on the surface is clearly observed at both ambient and elevated temperature, especially for narrow cone spray.
Technical Paper

Composition of Clusters Formed by Plasma Discharge in Simulated Engine Exhaust

2000-10-16
2000-01-2967
Previously reported experiments revealed the presence of a small number of clusters or very small particles in the effluent of a nonthermal plasma reactor when treating a simulated engine exhaust mixture. These clusters are smaller than 7 nm. The quantity of clusters is orders of magnitude smaller than the particulate diesel or gasoline engine exhaust typically contains. In this report, we describe further experiments designed to determine the chemical composition of the clusters. Clusters were collected on the surface of a silicon substrate by exposing it to the effluent flow for extended time periods. The resulting deposits were analyzed by high mass resolution SIMS and by XPS. The SIMS analysis reveals NH4+, CH6N+, SO-, SO2-, SO3- and HSO4- ions. XPS reveals the presence of N and S at binding energies consistent with that of ammonium sulfate.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Simulator: Design and Application to Plasma Discharge Testing

2003-03-03
2003-01-1184
A diesel fuel and air diffusion flame burner system has been designed for laboratory simulation of diesel exhaust gas. The system consists of mass flow controllers and a fuel pump, and employs several unique design and construction features. It produces particulate emissions with size, number distribution, and morphology similar to diesel exhaust. At the same time, it generates NOx emissions and HC similar to diesel. The system has been applied to test plasma discharges. Different design discharge devices have been tested, with results indicating the importance of testing devices with soot and moisture. Both packed bed reactor and flat plate dielectric barrier discharge systems remove some soot from the gas, but the designs tested are susceptible to soot fouling and related electrical failures. The burner is simple and stable, and is suitable for development and aging of plasma and catalysts systems in the laboratory environment.
Technical Paper

Effects of Port-Injection Timing and Fuel Droplet Size on Total and Speciated Exhaust Hydrocarbon Emissions

1993-03-01
930711
The requirement of reducing HC emissions during cold start and improving transient performance has prompted a study of the fuel injection process. Port-fuel-injection with the Intake-valve open using small droplets is a potentially feasible option to achieve the goals. To gain a better understanding of the injection process, the effects of droplet size, injection timing, and coolant temperature on the total and speciated HC emissions were tested In a Single-cylinder engine. It was found that droplet size plays an important role in the total HC emission increase during open-valve injection, especially with cold operation. Large droplets (300 μm SMD) produced a substantial HC increase while small droplets (14 μm SMD) produced no observable increase. Increase In the total HC emissions was always accompanied by an increase in the heavy fuel components in the exhaust gases.
Technical Paper

Plasma-Catalysis for Diesel Exhaust Treatment: Current State of the Art

2001-03-05
2001-01-0185
Nonthermal plasma discharges in combination with catalysts are being developed for diesel aftertreatment. NOx conversion has been shown over several different catalyst materials. Particulate removal has also been demonstrated. The gas phase chemistry of the plasma discharge is described. The plasma is oxidative. NO is converted to NO2, CH3ONO2 and HNO3. Hydrocarbons are partially oxidized resulting in aldehydes and CO along with various organic species. Soot will oxidize if it is held in the plasma. When HC is present, SO2 is not converted to sulfates. Suitable plasma-catalysts can achieve NOx conversion over 70%, with a wider effective temperature range than non-plasma catalysts. NOx conversion requires HC and O2. Electrical power consumption and required exhaust HC levels increase fuel consumption by several percent. A plasma catalyst system has demonstrated over 90% particulate removal in vehicle exhaust.
Technical Paper

Using Diesel Aftertreatment Models to Guide System Design for Tier II Emission Standards

2002-06-03
2002-01-1868
Ford Motor Company is participating in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to explore the development of innovative emission control systems for advanced compression-ignition direct-injection (CIDI) transportation engines. CIDI (or diesel) engines have the advantages of a potential 40% fuel economy improvement and 20% less CO2 emissions than current gasoline counterparts. To support this goal, Ford plans to demonstrate an exhaust emission control system that provides high efficiency particulate matter (PM) and NOx reduction. Very low sulfur diesel fuel will be used to enable low PM emissions, reduce the fuel economy penalty associated with the emission control system, and increase the long-term durability of the system. The end result will allow vehicles with CIDI engines to be Tier II emissions certified at a minimum cost to the consumer.
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