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Technical Paper

Acoustic Design and Performance of Turbojet Test Facilities

THE high noise level associated with turbojet testing creates two noise problems: 1. The reduction of noise in the neighborhood of the installation to an acceptable level. 2. The protection of operating personnel from excessive noise. Desirable sound levels are established and, on the basis of these levels, specifications are written for the acoustic treatment of the turbojet facilities. The acoustic treatment must not only be satisfactory from the point of view of noise reduction, but it must also be able to withstand the very rigorous operating conditions. High-temperature and high-velocity flow of gases through the exhaust stack makes for these rigorous conditions. Designs which meet these specifications are discussed in this paper, together with performance data obtained on these designs.
Technical Paper

Development of Hot-Isostatically Pressed and Forged P/M Rene 95 for Turbine Disc Application

Previous studies had demonstrated the economic and technical feasibility of producing high-quality forgings for aircraft turbine engine parts from hot-isostatically pressed (HIP) Rene 95 powder billets. The present program was aimed at developing a production practice for making HIP + forged turbine discs. The major goal was improved product fabricability and reliability with minimum cost. The program was conducted using argon atomized Rene 95 powder. Experimental studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of powder characteristics, HIP parameters, preform design, and forging conditions on forgeability, microstructure, and mechanical properties. The results of these studies were incorporated into a pilot production run in which 10 disc forgings were made and evaluated. The selected process involved the consolidation of -60 mesh powder to full density by hot-isostatic pressing at a temperature above the γ' solvus temperature.
Technical Paper

High Temperature Turbine Design Considerations

The major technological developments which have made possible the trend towards higher temperatures in modern aircraft gas turbine engines are discussed. The relative importance of manufacturing processes, material developments, cooling techniques, analytical design procedures, rupture and cyclic life considerations, and aerodynamic and mechanical design improvements are discussed along with illustrative examples and technical data. The need for a balanced design approach is stressed, and examples are given where trade-offs can be made. It is noted that the advances in aircraft engines during the last 10 years have been based on the evolution of sound engineering principles, extensive component and engine development, and careful consideration of the operational requirements rather than a tremendous breakthrough or revolutionary concept in any one area.
Technical Paper

Inspection of Turbine Blades Using Computer Aided Laser Technology

Measurement of dimensional characteristics of airfoil parts is primarily a manual, labor intensive operation. It employs a wide variety of gages that vary from very expensive optical comparitors to inexpensive pin gages. An automatic non-contacting inspection gage capable of measuring most dimensional characteristics would be cost effective, simplify inspection operations, consolidate a number of gages into one, and improve overall inspection reliability by minimizing human involvement. This paper presents the results of the design and development of a demonstrator semi-automatic laser gage dimensional inspection system that addresses this problem.
Technical Paper

Lateral Joint Movement Capability - The Key to Durable Formed-In-Place Gasketing

A new silicone rubber formed-in-place gasketing concept has been developed which has greatly reduced the incidence of warranty oil leaks in engine and drive train components. This concept utilizes a combination of joint configuration and unique cured properties of the silicone formed-in-place gasketing material to achieve leak-free performance over the life of the component.
Technical Paper

Re-Establishment of RTG Unicouple Production

The approach that was utilized to start up and requalify manufacture of the thermoelectric unicouple devices for the Cassini RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) program are described in this paper. Key elements involved in this effort were: engineering review of specifications; training of operators; manufacturing product verification runs; and management review of results. Appropriately, issues involved in activating a fabrication process that has been idle for nearly a decade, such as upgrading equipment, adhering to updated environmental, health, and safety requirements, or approving new vendors, are also addressed. The cumulative results of the startup activities have verified that a production line for this type of device can be reopened successfully.
Technical Paper

Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites in Transportation Applications

An acceleration of metal replacement to reinforce thermoplastic composites is positioned to impact the transportation markets through a joint venture between PPG Industries and GE Plastics, called AZDEL, Inc. The strength of both companies' strong technological base in glass and engineering thermoplastic resins is the key. The resulting long continuous glass thermoplastic composites have high strength to weight ratios, provide tough durable products, facilitate combining functions in design, and because of its high speed manufacturing processes, is cost effective. In addition, these materials can be post fabricated during the assembly phase, easily repaired and conveniently recycled. Value added secondary operations for both the captive or custom molders provide another avenue for cost reductions.
Technical Paper

Reliabilty Through Statistical Material Property Definition

Reliability can be improved by the careful definition of the mechanical properties of engineering materials. Methods to define these properties for design functions by the use of statistics and probability concepts are presented. In addition, methods will be presented for quantitatively measuring the effects of specification screening on the improved properties of the acceptable materials. By selection of the proper design allowables based on required failure rate, reliability can be designed into components using the techniques discussed and illustrated.
Technical Paper

SP-100 Controller Development Paradigm

To facilitate the development of the Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) controller, a rapid prototyping and multi-phased development methodology is being utilized. The rapid prototyping environment used in the development models both the controller and the system being controlled. Since the validation of the SRPS control strategies is a long lead activity to ensure the required safety and control features, the SRPS controller development is carried out in phases, starting with normal modes of operation and followed by transient and off-normal modes. In every phase, the rapid prototyping of the control strategies is used (1) to establish well-defined controller requirements, (2) to perform fast identification of changes and refinement of the strategies, and (3) to conduct in-phase correction and optimization of the strategy and component development.
Technical Paper

SP-100 Initial Startup and Restart Control Strategy

Recent Generic Flight System (GFS) updates have necessitated revisions in the initial startup and restart control strategies. The design changes that have had the most impact on the control strategies are the addition of the Auxiliary Cooling and Thaw (ACT) system for preheating the lithium filled components, changes in the reactivity worths of the reflectors and safety-rods such that initial cold criticality is achieved with only a small amount of reflector movement following the withdrawal of the safety-rods, and the removal of the scram function from the reflectors. Revised control and operating strategies have been developed and tested using the SP-100 dynamic simulation model, ARIES-GFS. The change in the total reactivity worths of the reflectors and safety-rods has eliminated the need for the use of fast and slow reflector drive speeds during the initial on-orbit approach to criticality.
Technical Paper

SP-100 Nuclear Subsystem Hardware and Testing

The term “SP-100” is synonymous with a set of technologies that can be utilized to provide long lifetime, reliable, safe space power over the range of kilowatts to megawatts [1] using a nuclear reactor as the heat source. This paper describes recent development progress in a number of technology areas such as fuel, materials, reactivity control mechanisms and sensors. Without exception, excellent technical progress is being accomplished in all areas under development to optimize spacecraft performance characteristics.
Technical Paper

SP-100 Space Reactor Power System Readiness

The SP-100 Space Reactor Power System is being developed by GE, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, to provide electrical power in the range of 10's to 100's of kW. The system represents an enabling technology for a wide variety of earth orbital and interplanetary science missions, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) stages, and lunar/Mars surface power for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI). An effective infrastructure of Industry, National Laboratories and Government agencies has made substantial progress since the 1988 System Design Review. Hardware development and testing has progressed to the point of resolving all key technical feasibility issues. The technology and design is now at a state of readiness to support the definition of early flight demonstration missions. Of particular importance is that SP-100 meets the demanding U.S. safety, performance, reliability and life requirements.
Technical Paper

SP-100 Technology Scales from Kilowatts to Megawatts

System level design studies of space applications ranging in power from 77 kWt to 200 MWt have indicated no practical limit to the thermal power that can be reliably generated by a space reactor system based on the technologies being developed in the SP-100 program. These technologies include uranium nitride fuel, PWC-11/rhenium bonded fuel cladding, PWC-11 structural material for the lithium coolant boundary, electromagnetic coolant pumps, safety and reactivity control drive mechanisms, sensors, shielding materials, etc. at operating temperatures up to 1400K. The physical arrangements and characteristics of the nuclear reactor materials are described. The physical size of components and the arrangement of components change, but the basic technologies required are generally the same, irrespective of the total power output.
Technical Paper

Space Simulation Using Computer Generated Imagery

Researchers now have the means to evolve complex manned and unmanned space missions using all of their complex support systems in a fully adaptive visual environment. The expected interactive nature of space missions requires powerful, flexible and comprehensive simulation hardware and software to develop and verify concepts, systems, and procedures. Correlation of visual, sensor, and radar imagery is essential due to new sensor blending and fusion techniques that characterize complex systems and missions. Only through total visual, non-visual and mission environment simulation, combined with analytical tools, can reliable systems and missions be developed. The same can be said of the simulation-based training programs that must be developed for ground and flight mission crews. If maximum situational awareness cannot be trained through simulation, it may be too risky, too expensive or even too late to acquire during a mission.
Technical Paper

Tungsten/Tungsten-Rhenium Thermocouple Research and Development

The purpose of this paper is to discuss the status of refractory metal thermocouples and recent efforts toward solving the problems associated with thermoelements, insulators, and sheathing in high temperature applications. Because of the continuing research in this field and the rapid advance of the state of the art, the author cautions that all concerned with specific applications should maintain contact with these programs so that variables associated with their problems may be considered in prescribing proper use of these elements.