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Technical Paper

A Study of Material Compatibility With Deionized Water

2003-03-03
2003-01-0804
Deionized (DI) water is being used for humidification and cooling on some fuel cell designs. This highly purified water is corrosive, yet the high purity is required to maintain the function and durability of the fuel cell. A study of the deionized water system was undertaken to determine the effect of various materials on water quality, and also to determine the effect of deionized water on each material. The test setup was designed to circulate fluid from a reservoir, similar to an actual application. The fluid temperature, pressure, and flow rate were controlled. The resistivity of the water was observed and recorded. Pre- and post-testing of the water and the materials was performed. The goal is to achieve system cleanliness and durability similar to a stainless steel system using lighter, less expensive materials. This paper describes the test setup, test procedures, and the overall results for the eight materials tested.
Technical Paper

An Approach of the Engine Cylinder Block Material

2013-10-07
2013-36-0113
The increasing demand for energy savings in cars of high production volume, especially those classified as emerging market vehicles, has led the automotive industry to focus on several strategies to achieve higher efficiency levels from their systems and components. One of the most diffuse initiatives is reducing weight through the application of the so-called light alloys. An engine cylinder block can contribute nearly two percent of the vehicle's total mass. Special attention and soon repercussion are given when someone decides to apply a light alloy such as the aluminum to this component. Nonetheless, it is known that peculiarities in terms of physical, chemical and mechanical properties, due to the material nature, associated with regional market characteristics make the initial feasibility analysis study definitely one of the most important stages for the material choice decision.
Technical Paper

Design Enhancement of the Rear Composite Structure for the 2005 Chevrolet Corvette Coupe and Z06

2005-04-11
2005-01-0467
This paper describes the design and development of the rear compartment structure of the sixth generation Corvette, C6, which starts in the 2005 model year. The improved design integrates the rear compartment packaging to address issues seen on fifth generation Corvette, C5. The molded composite fiberglass reinforced, tub and surround panels are similar to the C5. These large panels are modified to fit the new styling theme of the C6, while also addressing the packaging requirements of the updated underbody structure and exhaust system. New composite side support brackets and cross car reinforcement combine to address several desired improvements. These side support brackets are designed to package the rear audio speakers, electrical modules, wiring and cable routing while also addressing build variation and localized stiffness improvement. The side brackets support the surround panel increasing the manufacturing control of the surround panel.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Tests of Un-Notched and Notched Specimens and Life Prediction Using a Variable Critical Distance Method

2019-04-02
2019-01-0801
Fatigue is one of the most common failure mechanism in engineering structures. The statistical nature of fatigue life and the stress gradient are the two challenges among many while designing any component or structure for fatigue. Fatigue lives of the identical components exhibit the considerable variation under the same loading and operating conditions due to the difference in the material micro-structures and other uncontrolled parameters. Stress concentration at the notch causes stress gradient and therefore, applying the plane specimen results for actual engineering components with notches does not give quantitatively reliable results if the stress gradient effects are not considered. The objective of the work presented here was to carry out the fatigue tests of un-notched, U and V-notch specimens which were die cast using aluminum alloy (A380) and to obtain fatigue life using a variable critical distance method which considers the stress gradient due to the notch geometry.
Technical Paper

Forming Limit Curves for the AA5083 Alloy under Quick Plastic Forming Conditions

2011-04-12
2011-01-0235
Forming Limit Curves (FLCs) were developed for the 5083 aluminum alloy at conditions simulating high temperature processes such as superplastic and quick plastic forming. Sheet samples were formed at 450 °C and at a constant strain rate of 5x10-3 s-1, by free bulging into a set of elliptical die inserts with different aspect ratios. Friction-independent formability diagrams, which distinguish between the safe and unsafe deformation zones, were constructed. Although the formability diagrams were confined to the biaxial strain region (right side quadrant of an FLD), the elliptical die insert methodology provides formability maps under conditions where traditional mechanical stretching techniques are limited.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Inventory Study of the UltraLight Steel Auto Body - Advanced Vehicle Concepts Vehicle Product System

2003-10-27
2003-01-2838
A life cycle inventory (LCI) study evaluates the environmental performance of the ULSAB-AVC (UltraLight Steel Auto Body - Advanced Vehicle Concepts) vehicle product system. The LCI quantifies the inputs and outputs of each life cycle stage of the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-gas engine vehicle (998 kg) over the 193,000 km service lifetime of the vehicle. The use phase of the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-diesel engine variant (1031 kg) is also quantified. The data categories measured for each life cycle phase include resource and energy consumption, air and water pollutant emissions, and solid waste production. The ULSAB-AVC LCI study is based on the methods, model and data from the 1999 study by the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP), a consortium within the United States Council for Automotive Research. This model was modified to represent the ULSAB-AVC PNGV-gas engine vehicle for each life cycle phase as well as the use phase of the PNGV-diesel engine variant.
Technical Paper

Magnesium Powertrain Mount Brackets: New Application of Material Being used in this Sub-System for Vehicle Mass Reduction

2007-04-16
2007-01-1031
The need for fuel economy gains is crucial in todays automotive market. There is also growing interest and knowledge of greenhouse gases and their effect on the environment. Paulstra's magnesium powertrain brackets were a solution that was presented not just to reduce the weight of the engine mounting system (which was already under its weight target before magnesium introduction), but in response of the OEM's desire to further reduce the weight of the vehicle for CAFE and weight class impact. This new engine mounting system has three powertrain mount brackets that are high-pressure die cast AZ91D magnesium alloy. This paper will show that these brackets to have a dramatic weight reduction compared to the standard aluminum die-cast material that they replaced. This paper describes the process of approval: concept and material sign-off by the OEM, FEA for strength and modal performance, corrosion, and the final product.
Technical Paper

Objective Characterization of Vehicle Brake Feel

1994-03-01
940331
Historically, vehicle brake feel has usually been evaluated in a subjective manner. If an objective measure was used, it was pedal force versus the deceleration rate of the vehicle. Stopping distance is almost always used to characterize vehicle braking performance by the automotive press. This represents limit braking performance, but ignores braking performance under normal driving conditions experienced by customers most of the time. Evaluation of pedal feel by the press is generally limited to subjective adjectives such as “mushy”, “positive”, and “responsive”. A method will be presented, which is being used by General Motors, to translate customer brake feel expectations into objective performance metrics. These metrics are correlated to actual subjective ratings and are used to set objective, measurable requirements for performance.
Technical Paper

Perforation Corrosion Performance of Autobody Steel Sheet in On-Vehicle and Accelerated Tests

2003-03-03
2003-01-1238
The Auto/Steel Partnership Corrosion Project Team has completed a perforation corrosion test program consisting of on-vehicle field exposures and various accelerated tests. Steel sheet products with eight combinations of metallic and organic coatings were tested, utilizing a simple crevice coupon design. On-vehicle exposures were conducted in St. John's and Detroit for up to seven years to establish a real-world performance standard. Identical test specimens were exposed to the various accelerated tests, and the results were compared to the real-world standard. This report documents the results of these tests, and compares the accelerated test results (including SAE J2334, GM9540P, Ford APGE, CCT-I, ASTM B117, South Florida Modified Volvo, and Kure Beach (25-meter) exposures) to the on-vehicle tests. The results are compared in terms of five criteria: extent of corrosion, rank order of material performance, degree of correlation, acceleration factor, and control of test environment.
Technical Paper

Recycling Study of Post-Consumer Radiator End Caps

1999-03-01
1999-01-0666
In June 1997, the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) and the American Plastics Council (APC) asked MBA Polymers to conduct a study to determine the technical and economic feasibility of recovering metals and plastics from end-of-life radiator end caps (RECs). The VRP worked with the Institute of Scrap Recycling Industries (ISRI) to obtain samples of RECs from two metal recycling companies, SimsMetal America and Aaron Metals. MBA performed its standard Recyclability Assessment on the materials, which included a detailed density and material characterization study and an actual processing study using its pilot processing line. It was found that the polyamide from RECs could be recovered in reasonably high yield and purity using tight density separations. The recycling of the REC samples used for this study generated about 40% nonferrous metal, 19% mixed ferrous and nonferrous metal and about 20% polyamide flakes.
Technical Paper

Simplified Approach for Formability Simulation of Automotive Body Structures

2001-10-16
2001-01-3048
This paper presents a simplified approach for formability simulation of automotive body structural sections in the early design stage of vehicle development process. Plane strain approach is investigated for its applicability and accuracy by comparing the analytical results with the measured results of automotive body side panel. The plane strain approach was tried based on the fact that for a certain section location of a stamped panel, the minor strains are relatively small and negligible compared to the major strains. The state of plane strain can be induced mainly through symmetry and applied boundary conditions. This approach is both cost effective and time saving for analyzing sheet metal formability in early vehicle development stage, since only few sections of the entire panel need be analyzed.
Technical Paper

Structural and Cost Evaluation of Snap Fits used in Connections of Vehicle Door Trim Panel Components with FEA Assist

2017-11-07
2017-36-0195
Among the most important finishing structures of a vehicle interior, the door trim panels reduce external noises, present ergonomic concepts generating comfort, improve appearance, and provide objects storage, knobs and buttons. The panels usually composed of several molded parts (trim, armrest, etc.) connected to each other also have structural function as support closing loads, protect occupants of door internal mechanisms, energy absorption in side impacts and resist misuse conditions. Therefore, these trims usually made of polymeric materials must to present good structural integrity, demanding appropriate connections between components to have good load distribution. The connections between parts can be made using bolts, interference fits (like self-locking), welding tubular plastic towers (heat stakes), or clips (such as snap fits) and last two are the most common due to be cheap and with good retention.
Journal Article

Tensile Deformation and Fracture of TRIP590 Steel from Digital Image Correlation

2010-04-12
2010-01-0444
Quasi-static tensile properties of TRIP590 steels from three different manufacturers were investigated using digital image correlation (DIC). The focus was on the post-uniform elongation behavior which can be very different for steels of the same grade owing to different manufacturing processes. Miniature tensile specimens, cut at 0°, 45°, and 90° relative to the rolling direction, were strained to failure in an instrumented tensile stage. True stress-true strain curves were computed from digital strain gages superimposed on digital images captured from one gage section surface during tensile deformation. Microstructural phases in undeformed and fracture specimens were identified with optical microscopy using the color tint etching process. Fracture surface analyses conducted with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to investigate microvoids and inclusions in all materials.
Technical Paper

The Modified Martempering and its Effect on the Impact Toughness of a Cold Work Tool Steel

2011-10-04
2011-36-0325
The so-called Modified Martempering discussed in this work differs from the standard martempering by that the temperature of the quenching bath is below the Ms point. In spite of the fact the lower temperature increases the severity of quenching, this also usually avoids the bainite formation, and by this reason, it is possible to make a fair comparison between different processes, which result in different microstructures. The present study shows the results in terms of mechanical properties, impact resistance in special of a cold work tool steel class, after being heat treated by the isothermal modified martempering process, as well as a comparison with the conventional quenching and tempering process and the austempering as well.
Technical Paper

Weathering of Black Plastics for Automotive Exteriors

2003-03-03
2003-01-1191
Ten mold-in-color black polymers were evaluated for exterior weathering in an attempt to improve the specifications for exterior mold-in-color plastics to meet five year durability for a 95th percentile sunbelt customer. Four different weathering methods were utilized including Arizona exposure, Florida exposure, and Xenon arc exposures per the GMNA and the GM Europe methods. Colorfastness, gloss retention and other material property changes due to weathering were measured and analyzed against two GM durability standards. For the appearance attributes, correlations between actual exposure and accelerated exposure were attempted. Test results before and after polishing were also analyzed. Finally, in addition to comparing the performance of the ten polymers, the four weathering methods are compared and discussed with recommendations for the preferred testing regimen.
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