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Technical Paper

A Rough Road Ride Simulation Assessment with Flexible Vehicle Body

2014-04-01
2014-01-0112
A rough road ride assessment provides an insightful evaluation of vehicle responses beyond the frequency range of suspension or steering modes. This is when body structure influence on the vehicle performance can be detected by vehicle occupants. In this paper, a rough road is used to evaluate vehicle ride performance and multi-body simulation (MBS) models are developed along with finite-element (FE) representations of the vehicle body and structure. To produce high fidelity simulation results in the frequency range of interest, various vehicle subsystem modeling contents are examined. A case study of a vehicle model with two different structures is provided. Time histories and frequency based analyses are used to obtain insights into the effects of body structure on vehicle responses. Finally, two metrics (‘Isolation’ and ‘Shake’) are used to distinguish the vehicle ride performance.
Journal Article

Advancement in Vehicle Development Using the Auto Transfer Path Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0379
This paper presents the most recent advancement in the vehicle development process using the one-step or auto Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) in conjunction with the superelement, component mode synthesis, and automated multi-level substructuring techniques. The goal is to identify the possible ways of energy transfer from the various sources of excitation through numerous interfaces to given target locations. The full vehicle model, consists of superelements, has been validated with the detailed system model for all loadcases. The forces/loads can be from rotating components, powertrain, transfer case, chain drives, pumps, prop-shaft, differential, tire-wheel unbalance, road input, etc., and the receiver can be at driver/passenger ears, steering column/wheel, seats, etc. The traditional TPA involves two solver runs, and can be fairly complex to setup in order to ensure that the results from the two runs are consistent with subcases properly labeled as input to the TPA utility.
Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0419
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
Journal Article

Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0791
A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.
Journal Article

Electric Motor Design of General Motors’ Chevrolet Bolt Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1228
A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) motor is used to design the propulsion system of GM’s Chevrolet Bolt battery electric vehicle (BEV). Magnets are buried inside the rotor in two layer ‘V’ arrangement. The Chevrolet Bolt BEV electric machine rotor design optimizes the magnet placement between the adjacent poles asymmetrically to lower torque ripple and radial force. Similar to Chevrolet Spark BEV electric motor, a pair of small slots are stamped in each rotor pole near the rotor outer surface to lower torque ripple and radial force. Rotor design optimizes the placement of these slots at different locations in adjacent poles providing further reduction in torque ripple and radial force. As a result of all these design features, the Chevrolet Bolt BEV electric motor is able to meet the GM stringent noise and vibration requirements without implementing rotor skew, which (rotor skew) lowers motor performance and adds complexity to the rotor manufacturing and hence is undesirable.
Journal Article

Fuel Octane and Volatility Effects on the Stochastic Pre-Ignition Behavior of a 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1226
Classic, hot-spot induced pre-ignition is a phenomenon that has been observed in gasoline spark ignited engines over the past 60-70 years. With the development of turbocharged, direct-injected (DI) gasoline engines, a new pre-ignition phenomenon occurring at low engine speeds and high loads has been encountered. Termed Stochastic Pre-ignition (SPI), it has become a significant issue to address in allowing for the full potential of gasoline turbo DI technology to improve powertrain efficiency. Many researchers are studying all aspects of the causes of Stochastic Pre-ignition, including causes by oil, fuel and engine hardware systems. The focus of this specific research was to study the relationship of fuel octane and volatility to Stochastic Pre-ignition behavior utilizing a GM 2.0L Gasoline Turbocharged DI engine (LHU).
Technical Paper

Integrated CAE Methods for Perceived Quality Assurance of Vehicle Outer Panels

2014-04-01
2014-01-0366
Oil canning and initial stiffness of the automotive roofs and panels are considered to be sensitive customer ‘perceived quality’ issues. In an effort to develop more accurate objective requirements, respective simulation methods are continuously being developed throughout automotive industries. This paper discusses a latest development on oil canning predictions using LS-DYNA® Implicit, including BNDOUT request, MORTAR contact option and with the stamping process involved, which resulted in excellent correlations especially when it comes to measurements at immediate locations to the feature lines of the vehicle outer panels. Furthermore, in pursuit of light-weighting vehicles with thinner roofs, a new CAE method was recently developed to simulate severe noise conditions exhibited on some of developmental properties while going through a car wash.
Technical Paper

Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Third Generation Advanced High-Strength Steel Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0459
This paper presents an overview of a four-year project focused on development of an integrated computational materials engineering (ICME) toolset for third generation advanced high-strength steels (3GAHSS). Following a brief look at ICME as an emerging discipline within the Materials Genome Initiative, technical tasks in the ICME project will be discussed. Specific aims of the individual tasks are multi-scale, microstructure-based material model development using state-of-the-art computational and experimental techniques, forming, toolset assembly, design optimization, integration and technical cost modeling. The integrated approach is initially illustrated using a 980MPa grade transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) steel, subject to a two-step quenching and partitioning (Q&P) heat treatment, as an example.
Journal Article

Internal Combustion Engine - Automatic Transmission Matching for Next Generation Power Transfer Technology Development in Automotive Applications

2016-04-05
2016-01-1099
Development of the next generation internal combustion engines and automatic transmissions for automotive applications is a mandatory powertrain engineering activity required now and in the coming years to meet forthcoming global emissions regulations. This paper details a preliminary investigation into possible synergies for fuel consumption reduction considering emerging automotive technologies integrated into the next generation combustion engine and automatic transmission architectures. A range of hypothetical gasoline engines were created and paired with a generalized set of step gear automatic transmissions designed to meet the performance requirements of high volume longitudinal full size truck application. These designs were then run through a design of experiments orthogonal array for prediction of fuel consumption on the WLTP test schedule and stand still acceleration to 100 kph.
Journal Article

Locating Wire Short Fault for In-Vehicle Controller Area Network with Resistance Estimation Approach

2016-04-05
2016-01-0065
Wire shorts on an in-vehicle controller area network (CAN) impact the communication between electrical control units (ECUs), and negatively affects the vehicle control. The fault, especially the intermittent fault, is difficult to locate. In this paper, an equivalent circuit model for in-vehicle CAN bus is developed under the wire short fault scenario. The bus resistance is estimated and a resistance-distance mapping approach is proposed to locate the fault. The proposed approach is implemented in an Arduino-based embedded system and validated on a vehicle frame. The experimental results are promising. The approach presented in this paper may reduce trouble shooting time for CAN wire short faults and may enable early detection before the customer is inconvenienced.
Journal Article

Mapping of Global Road Systems Based on Statistical Discriminant Analysis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0924
Automotive manufacturers are facing continuously changing Global environment. Traditionally, these manufacturers relied on structural and general durability tests to validate vehicles. For these tests to remain representative of customer usage in a Global environment, the overall surface conditions of the Global road systems must be studied. Understanding and classifying these road systems conditions is an important step in dealing with vehicle durability in the Global environment. In this paper, an approach to mapping the world road systems into Established Roads (ER) and Developing Roads (DR), utilizing Statistical Discriminant Analysis (SDA), is presented. The classification of Global regions as DR and ER road systems can be effectively used to recommend appropriate development and validation tests for each road system. A few examples are presented to demonstrate how the ER vs.
Journal Article

Methodology for Sizing and Validating Life of Brake Pads Analytically

2014-09-28
2014-01-2495
An area of brake system design that has remained continually resistant to objective, computer model based predictive design and has instead continued to rely on empirical methods and prior history, is that of sizing the brake pads to insure satisfactory service life of the friction material. Despite advances in CAE tools and methods, the ever-intensifying pressures of shortened vehicle development cycles, and the loss of prototype vehicle properties, there is still considerable effort devoted to vehicle-level testing on public roads using “customer-based” driving cycles to validate brake pad service life. Furthermore, there does not appear to be a firm, objective means of designing the required pad volume into the calipers early on - there is still much reliance on prior experience.
Journal Article

Process Robustness of Laser Braze-Welded Al/Cu Connectors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1198
Laser welding of dissimilar metals such as Aluminum and Copper, which is required for Li-ion battery joining, is challenging due to the inevitable formation of the brittle and high electrical-resistant intermetallic compounds. Recent research has shown that by using a novel technology, called laser braze-welding, the Al-Cu intermetallics can be minimized to achieve superior mechanical and electrical joint performance. This paper investigates the robustness of the laser braze-welding process. Three product and process categories, i.e. choice of materials, joint configurations, and process conditions, are studied. It is found that in-process effects such as sample cleanness and shielding gas fluctuations have a minor influence on the process robustness. Furthermore, many pre-process effects, e.g. design changes such as multiple layers or anodized base material can be successfully welded by process adaption.
Journal Article

Strain Field Measurement in the Vicinity of Ductile Rupture from Digital Image Correlation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0856
A methodology that enables two-dimensional strain field measurement in the vicinity of ductile rupture is described. Fully martensitic steel coupons were strained to fracture using a miniature tensile stage with custom data and image acquisition systems. Rupture initiated near the center of each coupon and progressed slowly toward the gage section edges. A state-of-the-art digital image correlation technique was used to compute the true strain field before rupture initiation and ahead of the resulting propagating macroscopic crack before final fracture occurred. True strains of the order of 95% were measured ahead of the crack at later stages of deformation.
Journal Article

Subsystem Rollover Tests for the Evaluation of ATD Kinematics and Restraints

2010-04-12
2010-01-0518
The development of a repeatable dynamic rollover test methodology with meaningful occupant protection performance objectives has been a longstanding and unmet challenge. Numerous studies have identified the random and chaotic nature of rollover crashes, and the difficulty associated with simulating these events in a laboratory setting. Previous work addressed vehicle level testing attempting to simulate an entire rollover event but it was determined that this test methodology could not be used for development of occupant protection restraint performance objectives due to the unpredictable behavior of the vehicle during the entire rollover event. More recent efforts have focused on subsystem tests that simulate distinct phases of a rollover event, up to and including the first roof-to-ground impact.
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