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Technical Paper

Algorithm-in-the-Loop with Plant Model Simulation, Reusable Test Suite in Production Codes Verification and Controller Hardware-in-the-Loop Bench Testing

2010-04-12
2010-01-0367
In a math-based control algorithm design, model-based simulation and testing are very important as an integral part of design process. There are many advantages of using modeling and simulation in the algorithm design. In this paper, Algorithm-in-the-Loop and Hardware-in-the-Loop approaches are adopted for a transmission control algorithm development. A practical approach is introduced on how to test the control algorithms with a reliable plant (virtual engine, transmission, and vehicle) model in the closed-loop simulation. In using combination of open-loop and closed-loop simulations, various key behavior test cases are developed and documented for the success of control algorithms development. Secondly, the same test cases are reused and verified against the production codes, which are automatically generated from the math-based control algorithm models.
Technical Paper

Combined Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Technique for Measurement of Austenite Transformation with Strain in TRIP-Assisted Steels

2016-04-05
2016-01-0419
The strain-induced diffusionless shear transformation of retained austenite to martensite during straining of transformation induced plasticity (TRIP) assisted steels increases strain hardening and delays necking and fracture leading to exceptional ductility and strength, which are attractive for automotive applications. A novel technique that provides the retained austenite volume fraction variation with strain with improved precision is presented. Digital images of the gauge section of tensile specimens were first recorded up to selected plastic strains with a stereo digital image correlation (DIC) system. The austenite volume fraction was measured by synchrotron X-ray diffraction from small squares cut from the gage section. Strain fields in the squares were then computed by localizing the strain measurement to the corresponding region of a given square during DIC post-processing of the images recorded during tensile testing.
Journal Article

Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

2014-04-01
2014-01-0791
A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.
Technical Paper

Development of the ASTM Sequence IIIE Engine Oil Oxidation and Wear Test

1988-10-01
881576
The ASTM Sequence IIID engine-dynamometer test has been used to evaluate the high-temperature protection provided by engine oils with respect to valve train wear, viscosity increase (oil thickening), deposits, and oil consumption. The obsolescence of the engine used in this test along with the need to define even higher levels of performance associated with a new oil category (SG) prompted efforts at developing a replacement test. This paper describes the hardware and procedure development of this replacement test, the ASTM Sequence IIIE test. Test precision and correlation with field and Sequence IIID results on a series of reference oils is also discussed.
Technical Paper

Effect of Pre-treatment on Corrosion Performance of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Panel

2010-04-12
2010-01-0725
AZ31B Mg sheet is being considered for automotive applications. This study investigates the effect of pre-treatments, such as heat-treatments and surface treatments, on the corrosion performance of AZ31B sheet, with a goal of learning which pre-treatment can improve corrosion resistance of the sheet material in production. It is found that the heat-treatment and oxidation during a warm and hot forming (WHF) process will not deteriorate the corrosion performance of the AZ31B sheet; polishing and acid etching can clean the surface and significantly increase the corrosion resistance, but corrosion can be accelerated by sandblasting which contaminates the surface. The change in corrosion performance can be associated with surface cleaning or contamination of the sheet by these pre-treatments. Furthermore, the influence of a pre-treatment on the uncoated AZ31B sheet may affect its corrosion behavior after coating.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gasoline and Ethanol Fuel Corrosion Inhibitors and Fuel Detergents on Powertrain Intake Valve Deposits

2014-04-01
2014-01-1383
Corrosion inhibitors (CIs) have been used for years to protect the supply and distribution systems used for transportation of fuel from refineries. They are also used to buffer the potential organic acids present in an ethanol blended fuel to enhance storage stability. The impact of the types of inhibitors on spark-ignition engine fuel systems, specifically intake valve deposits, is known and presented in open literature. However, the relationship of the corrosion inhibitors to the powertrain intake valve deposit performance is not understood. This paper has two purposes: to present and discuss a survey of corrosion inhibitors and how they vary in concentration in the final blended fuel, specifically E85 (Ethanol Fuel Blends); and to show how variation in concentration of components of CIs and detergents impact intake valve deposit formation.
Technical Paper

Electric Traction Motors for Cadillac CT6 Plugin Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1220
The Cadillac CT6 plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) power-split transmission architecture utilizes two motors. One is an induction motor type while the other is a permanent magnet AC (PMAC) motor type referred to as motor A and motor B respectively. Bar-wound stator construction is utilized for both motors. Induction motor-A winding is connected in delta and PMAC motor-B winding is connected in wye. Overall, the choice of induction for motor A and permanent magnet for motor B is well supported by the choice of hybrid system architecture and the relative usage profiles of the machines. This selection criteria along with the design optimization of electric motors, their electrical and thermal performances, as well as the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance are discussed in detail. It is absolutely crucial that high performance electric machines are coupled with high performance control algorithms to enable maximum system efficiency and performance.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Aluminum Alloys under Multiaxial Loading

2014-04-01
2014-01-0972
Fatigue behavior of aluminum alloys under multiaxial loading was investigated with both cast aluminum A356-T6 and wrought alloy 6063-T6. The dominant multiaxial fatigue crack preferentially nucleates from flaws like porosity and oxide films located near the free surface of the material. In the absence of the flaws, the cracking/debonding of the second phase particles dominates the crack initiation and propagation. The number of cracked/debonded particles increases with the number of cycles, but the damage rate depends on loading paths. Among various loading paths studied, the circle loading path shows the shortest fatigue life due to the development of complex dislocation substructures and severe stress concentration near grain/cell boundaries and second phase particles.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior of Neat and Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymers under Two-Step Loadings and Periodic Overloads

2016-04-05
2016-01-0373
An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the variable amplitude fatigue behavior of a neat polymer (polypropylene impact co-polymer) and a polymer composite made of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) with 30 wt% short glass fibers. Fatigue tests were conducted on un-notched and notched specimens at room temperatures. Plate-type specimens were prepared in the transverse direction with respect to the injection mold flow direction and a circular hole was drilled in the center of notched specimens. Two-step loadings (high-low and low-high) tests at two damage ratio of 0.2 and 0.5 at stress ratios of R = 0.1 and -1 were conducted to investigate load sequence effects and prediction accuracy of the linear damage rule. Different behaviors were observed for unreinforced and short glass fiber reinforced polymers under the two-step loading tests.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Life Prediction of Friction Stir Linear Welds for Magnesium Alloys

2016-04-05
2016-01-0386
Friction stir linear welding (FSLW) is widely used in joining lightweight materials including aluminum alloys and magnesium alloys. However, fatigue life prediction method for FSLW is not well developed yet for vehicle structure applications. This paper is tried to use two different methods for the prediction of fatigue life of FSLW in vehicle structures. FSLW is represented with 2-D shell elements for the structural stress approach and is represented with TIE contact for the maximum principal stress approach in finite element (FE) models. S-N curves were developed from coupon specimen test results for both the approaches. These S-N curves were used to predict fatigue life of FSLW of a front shock tower structure that was constructed by joining AM60 to AZ31 and AM60 to AM30. The fatigue life prediction results were then correlated with test results of the front shock tower structures.
Journal Article

Impact of a Diesel High Pressure Common Rail Fuel System and Onboard Vehicle Storage on B20 Biodiesel Blend Stability

2016-04-05
2016-01-0885
Adoption of high-pressure common-rail (HPCR) fuel systems, which subject diesel fuels to higher temperatures and pressures, has brought into question the veracity of ASTM International specifications for biodiesel and biodiesel blend oxidation stability, as well as the lack of any stability parameter for diesel fuel. A controlled experiment was developed to investigate the impact of a light-duty diesel HPCR fuel system on the stability of 20% biodiesel (B20) blends under conditions of intermittent use and long-term storage in a relatively hot and dry climate. B20 samples with Rancimat induction periods (IPs) near the current 6.0-hour minimum specification (6.5 hr) and roughly double the ASTM specification (13.5 hr) were prepared from a conventional diesel and a highly unsaturated biodiesel. Four 2011 model year Volkswagen Passats equipped with HPCR fuel injection systems were utilized: one on B0, two on B20-6.5 hr, and one on B20-13.5 hr.
Journal Article

Lab Evaluation and Comparison of Corrosion Performance of Mg Alloys

2010-04-12
2010-01-0728
More Mg alloys are being considered for uses in the automotive industry. Since the corrosion performance of Mg alloy components in practical service environments is unknown, long term corrosion testing at automotive proving grounds will be an essential step before Mg alloy components can be implemented in vehicles. However, testing so many Mg alloy candidates for various parts is labor intensive for the corrosion engineers at the proving grounds. This report presents preliminary results in evaluating corrosion performance of Mg alloys based on rapid corrosion and electrochemical tests in the lab. In this study, four Mg alloy candidates for transmission cases and oil pans: AE44, AXJ530, MRI153M and MRI230D were tested in the lab and at General Motors Corporation Milford Proving Ground and their corrosion results were compared.
Journal Article

Methods for Sizing Brake Pads for High Performance Brakes

2015-09-27
2015-01-2679
An aspect of high performance brake design that has remained strikingly empirical is that of determining the correct sizing of the brake pad - in terms of both area and volume - to match well with a high performance vehicle application. Too small of a pad risks issues with fade and wear life on the track, and too large has significant penalties in cost, mass, and packaging space of the caliper, along with difficulties in maintaining adequate caliper stiffness and its impact on pedal feel and response time. As most who have spent time around high performance brakes can attest to, there methods for determining minimum brake pad area, usually related in some form or another to the peak power the brake must absorb (functions of vehicle mass and top speed are common). However, the basis for these metrics are often lost (or closely guarded), and provide very little guidance for the effects of the final design (pad area) deviating from the recommended value.
Technical Paper

Minimum Cycle Requirement for SAE J2562

2014-04-01
2014-01-0073
SAE J2562 defines the background, apparatus and the directions for modifying the Scaled Base Load Sequence for a given a wheel rated load for a wheel design. This practice has been conducted on multiple wheel designs and over one hundred wheel specimens. All of the wheels were tested to fracture. Concurrently, some of the wheel designs were found to be unserviceable in prior or subsequent proving grounds on-vehicle testing. The remainder of the wheel designs have sufficient fatigue strength to sustain the intended service for the life of the vehicle. This is termed serviceable. Using the empirical data with industry accepted statistics a minimum requirement can be projected, below which a wheel design will likely have samples unserviceable in its intended service. The projections of serviceability result in a recommendation of a minimum cycle requirement for SAE J2562 Ballasted Passenger Vehicle Load Sequence.
Technical Paper

Self-deposited E-coating for Mg Alloys

2010-04-12
2010-01-0727
Magnesium alloys are not corrosion resistant in many applications and they require coating protection. In this study, we developed an electroless E-coating technique for magnesium alloys and discussed a cathodic E-coating deposition mechanism for the electroless E-coating process. This coating can be formed within a few seconds by dipping a magnesium alloy (i.e., AZ91D) in an E-coat bath without applying a current or voltage. The deposited electroless coat can offer good protection to the AZ91D magnesium alloy in 5 wt% NaCl corrosive solution as well as in a phosphating bath. The most interesting finding is that the electroless coating is not sensitive to local damage. No preferential corrosion attack occurred along the scratches made on the coating.
Journal Article

Strain Field Measurement in the Vicinity of Ductile Rupture from Digital Image Correlation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0856
A methodology that enables two-dimensional strain field measurement in the vicinity of ductile rupture is described. Fully martensitic steel coupons were strained to fracture using a miniature tensile stage with custom data and image acquisition systems. Rupture initiated near the center of each coupon and progressed slowly toward the gage section edges. A state-of-the-art digital image correlation technique was used to compute the true strain field before rupture initiation and ahead of the resulting propagating macroscopic crack before final fracture occurred. True strains of the order of 95% were measured ahead of the crack at later stages of deformation.
Technical Paper

Technological Comparison for Dual Phase and Advanced High Strength Low Alloy Steels Regarding Weldability and Mechanical Properties

2014-04-01
2014-01-0988
This paper presents a technological comparison of weldability and mechanical properties between a dual phase steel (DP) and an advanced high strength low alloy steel (AHSLA) used for automotive structural parts in order to demonstrate some unclear characteristics of each. Samples were spot welded and had their hardness and microstructure analyzed, also a shear test was applied on the weld button area. The edge stretchability was analyzed using hole expansion tests and tensile tests to determine the tensile and yield strength, anisotropic coefficients and total elongation. Data were used to estimate crash energy absorption. The results showed an AHSLA steel with higher than typical ductility. Finally, while DP showed improved stretchability, it was also concluded that such AHSLA could perform better bendability, drawability, flangeability and weldability.
Technical Paper

Tensile and Fatigue Behaviors of Two Thermoplastics Including Strain Rate, Temperature, and Mean Stress Effects

2014-04-01
2014-01-0901
An experimental investigation was conducted to evaluate tensile and fatigue behaviors of two thermoplastics, a neat impact polypropylene and a mineral and elastomer reinforced polyolefin. Tensile tests were performed at various strain rates at room, −40°C, and 85°C temperatures with specimens cut parallel and perpendicular to the mold flow direction. Tensile properties were determined from these tests and mathematical relations were developed to represent tensile properties as a function of strain rate and temperature. For fatigue behavior, the effects considered include mold flow direction, mean stress, and temperature. Tension-compression as well as tension-tension load-controlled fatigue tests were performed at room temperature, −40°C and 85°C. The effect of mean stress was modeled using the Walker mean stress model and a simple model with a mean stress sensitivity factor.
Journal Article

Tuning Dampers for Ride and Handling of Production Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-1589
The goal of this paper is to discuss the critical aspects of damper tuning for production vehicles. These aspects include ride and handling performance attributes, damper basics, conflicts in achieving desirable results, tuning philosophies, and the influence of the damper design. The marketplace has become increasingly competitive. Customer preference, cost, mass and regulatory pressures often conflict. Yet each year more vehicles are required to do all these things well. Damper tuning can play a significant role in resolving these conflicts. Although many papers have been written on the theory behind damper design and capabilities, there has been very little written about the techniques of tuning dampers for production vehicles. This paper attempts to discuss the critical aspects of damper tuning for production vehicles in four sections. The first section discusses the performance attributes of ride and handling. The second section provides a basic understanding of dampers.
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