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Technical Paper

A Comparison New Car Assessment Program NCAP Requirements and Procedures Around the World

2013-10-07
2013-36-0499
The New Car Assessment Program (NCAP), introduced in 1979 by the U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, is a vehicle safety rating system that conducts crash test and provides motoring consumers with an assessment of the safety performance of new cars. Similar programs were then developed around the world, initially for Europe (EuroNCAP), Australia (ANCAP), Japan (JNCAP), China (CNCAP) and Korea (KNCAP). NCAP most recently reached Latin America (LatinNCAP) and Southeast Asia (AseanNCAP). Although the roots are similar, many NCAP programs have significant differences on the test procedures and rating schemes. This paper is a comparative analysis of the recent NCAP protocols to highlight the most important technical differences.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Approach to Evaluate the Aerodynamic Performance of Vehicle Exterior Surfaces

2011-04-12
2011-01-0180
This paper outlines a process to assess the aerodynamic performance of different vehicle exterior surfaces. The initial section of the paper summarizes the details of white-light scanning process that maps entire vehicle to points in Cartesian co-ordinate system which is followed by the conversion of scanned points to theme surface. The concept of point-cloud modeling is employed to generate a smooth theme surface from scanned points. Theme surfaces thus developed are stitched to under-body/under-hood (UB/UH) parts of the base vehicle and the numerical simulations were carried out to understand the aerodynamic efficiency of the surfaces generated. Specifics of surface/volume mesh generated, boundary conditions imposed and numerical scheme employed are discussed in detail. Flow field over vehicle exterior is thoroughly analyzed. A comparison study highlighting the effect of front grilles in unblocked condition along with air-dam on flow field has been provided.
Technical Paper

ASIL Decomposition: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly

2013-04-08
2013-01-0195
ASIL decomposition is a method described in the ISO 26262 standard for the assignment of ASILs to redundant requirements. Although ASIL decomposition appears to have similar intent to the hardware fault tolerance concept of IEC 61508-2, ASIL decomposition is not intended to reduce ASIL assignments to hardware elements for random hardware failures, but instead focuses on functions and requirements in the context of systematic failures. Based on our participation in the development of the standard, the method has been applied in different ways in practice, not all of which are fully consistent with the intent of the standard. Two potential reasons that may result in the use of “modified” ASIL algebra include the need of OEMs to partition a system and specify subsystem requirements to suppliers and the need for designers to construct systems bottom up.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Life Test Methodology for Li-Ion Batteries in Automotive Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1548
Determining Li-ion battery life through life modeling is an excellent tool in determining and estimating end-of-life performance. Achieving End-of-Life (EOL) can be challenging since it is difficult to achieve both cycle and calendar life during the same test without years of testing. The plan to correlate testing with the model included three (3) distinct temperature ranges, beginning with the four-Season temperature profile, an aggressive profile with temperatures in the 50 to 55°C range, and using a mid-temperature range (40-45°C) as a final comparison test. A high duty-cycle drive profile was used to cycle all of the batteries as quickly as possible to reach the one potential definition of EOL; significant increases in resistance or capacity fade.
Technical Paper

Advanced Field Study of Rollover Sensor Equipped Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-1113
General Motors (GM), OnStar and the University of Michigan International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) have formed a partnership to investigate and analyze real world rollover crashes involving GM vehicles equipped with rollover sensing technology and rollover-capable roof rail airbag systems. Candidates for the study are initially identified by OnStar, who receive notification of a rollover crash through the vehicle's Automatic Crash Response system. If the customer agrees to participate in the study, medical, vehicle and crash scene information are quickly gathered. This information is then reviewed by the medical and GM engineering communities to provide field relevant learning on injury mechanisms and vehicle system performance in rollover events. This paper provides a detailed review of the field case studies collected to date.
Technical Paper

An Engineering Approach to Predict Fracture and Tearing

2011-04-12
2011-01-0002
An engineering approach was developed to extract the failure plastic strain, thinning failure strain, and major in plane failure strain for finite element simulation applications. This approach takes into account the failure strain dependency on the element size when element deletion scheme is invoked in the simulation of material fracture. Both localized necking fracture and tensile shear fracture can be predicted when appropriate elements and material models are used in LS-DYNA simulations. This leads to a more accurate prediction of fracture and tearing in the finite element simulation of vehicle structure and crash loading conditions.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Study of the Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of an Extruded Magnesium Alloy at 450 °C and Varied Strain Rates

2013-04-08
2013-01-0976
An extruded Mg-Al-Mn (AM30) magnesium alloy was subjected to uniaxial compression along the extrusion direction (ED) and the extrusion radial direction (RaD) at 450 °C and different strain rates. The microstructure and texture of the AM30 alloy under different deformation conditions were examined. Texture evolution was characterized by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The activity of different deformation modes including twinning were simulated using the visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) and the simplistic Sachs polycrystal plasticity models. The results show that the microstructure and the mechanical property of the Mg alloy strongly depend on the strain rate, with twinning activated at strain rates >0.5 s−1. Dynamic recrystallization and twinning interacted with each other and affected the final microstructure and mechanical property of the magnesium alloy.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Propulsion System Architectures for Future Urban Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0861
Today, nearly half of the world population lives in urban areas. As the world population continues to migrate to urban areas for increased economic opportunities, addressing personal mobility challenges such as air pollution, Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) and traffic congestion in these regions will become even a greater challenge especially in rapidly growing nations. Road transportation is a major source of air pollution in urban areas causing numerous health concerns. Improvements in automobile technology over the past several decades have resulted in reducing conventional vehicle tailpipe emissions to exceptionally low levels. This transformation has been attained mainly through advancements in engine and transmission technologies and through partial electrification of vehicles. However, the technological advancements made so far alone will not be able to mitigate the issues due to increasing GHGs and air pollution in urban areas.
Technical Paper

Application of Insulation Standards to High Voltage Automotive Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1528
Insulation coordination requirements for electrical equipment applications are defined in various standards. The standards are defined for application to stationary mains connected equipment, like IT, power supply or industrial equipment. Protection from an electric shock is considered the primary hazard in these standards. These standards have also been used in the design of various automotive components. IEC 60664-1 is an example of the standard. Automobiles are used across the world, in various environments and in varied usage by the customers. Automobiles need to consider possible additional hazards including electric shock. This paper will provide an overview of how to adapt these standards for automotive application in the design of High Voltage (HV) automotive components, including High Voltage batteries and other HV components connected to the battery. The basic definitions from the standards and the principles are applied for usage in automotive applications.
Technical Paper

Application of Mizenboushi (GD3) Method of Problem Prevention to Vehicle, Component and Subsystem Validation

2011-04-12
2011-01-1275
The GD₃ or GD Cubed method of problem prevention has been applied to product changes and to test results at the component, subsystem and vehicle level. GD₃ stands for Good Design - Good Discussion - Good Dissection. Good Discussion of changes (Design Review Based on Failure Mode) identifies BUDS of PROBLEMS that may arise from interfaces and areas of change. Good Dissection (Design Review Based on Test Results) is applied to physical test samples during and after tests to identify Buds of Problems that may not be obvious from inspection of the parts or test results. The paper first describes implementation of the GD₃ principles and methods supporting Good Discussion (DRBFM) and Good Dissection, and then discusses how they are applied and embedded in the Vehicle Development Process at General Motors Co.
Journal Article

Application of System Safety Engineering Processes to Advanced Battery Safety

2011-04-12
2011-01-1369
The battery system in the Chevrolet Volt is very complex and must balance a variety of performance criteria, including the safety of vehicle occupants and other users. In order to assure a thorough approach to battery system safety, a system safety engineering process was applied and found to provide a useful framework. This methodical approach began with the preliminary hazard analysis and continued through requirements definition, design development and, finally, validation. Potentially hazardous conditions related directly to functional safety (for example, charge control) and primary physical safety (for example, short circuit conditions) can all be addressed in this manner. Typical battery abuse testing, as well as newly defined limit testing, supported the effort. Extensive documentation, traceability and peer reviews helped to verify that all issues were addressed.
Technical Paper

Automotive AC System Oil Migration HFO-1234yf Vs. R134a

2011-04-12
2011-01-1173
1 As global automotive manufacturers prepare for the introduction of HFO-1234yf as the low Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solution in Europe and North America concerns over compressor durability due to oil migration still remain. This preliminary study evaluates several different variables that affect oil migration. Several compressor suppliers each having their own unique oil formulation for HFO-1234yf were included. Comparisons between vehicle tests and various accelerated lab test methods are made. In R134a automotive system the thresholds that cause compressor warranty are well understood. This study will compare AC systems running with HFO-1234yf at the same time identical systems with R134a are run to understand the relative effect of HFO-1234yf versus R134a.
Technical Paper

Balance of Electrical Power Requirements through Smart Electric Power Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-0042
This paper examines Smart Electric Power Management as it pertains to when the vehicle charging system is active. Over the past decade there have been several factors at play which have stressed the demands placed upon the vehicle electrical power system. Many of these factors present challenges to electrical power that are at cross-purposes with one another. For example, demands of new and existing electrical loads, customer expectations about load performance and battery life, and the push by governments' world-wide for increased fuel economy (FE) and reduced CO2 emissions all have direct impact and can be directly impacted by decisions made in electric power design. As the electrification of the vehicle has progressed we now have much more specific vehicle state data available and the means to share this information among on-board computers through serial data link connectivity.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Mechanical Behavior of Thermoplastics with Local Deformation Measurement

2012-04-16
2012-01-0040
In quasi-static tension and compression tests of thermoplastics, full-field strain distribution on the gage section of the specimen can be captured using the two-dimensional digital image correlation method. By loading the test specimens made of a talc-filled and impact-modified polypropylene up to tensile failure and large compressive strains, this study has revealed that inhomogeneous deformation within the gage section occurs quite early for both test types. This leads to the challenge of characterizing the mechanical properties - some mechanical properties such as stress-strain relationship and fracture strain could depend on the measured section length and location. To study this problem, the true stress versus true strain curves determined locally in different regions within the gage length are compared.
Technical Paper

Co-Development of Chevy Volt Tire Properties to Balance Performance and Electric Vehicle Range

2011-04-12
2011-01-0096
As an innovative electric vehicle with some new approaches to energy usage and vehicle performance balance, the Chevy Volt required a special relationship between the OEM and tire supplier community. This paper details this relationship and how advanced tools and technology were leveraged between OEM and supplier to achieve tire component and overall vehicle performance results.
Technical Paper

Communication Requirements for Plug-In Electric Vehicles

2011-04-12
2011-01-0866
This paper is the second in the series of documents designed to record the progress of a series of SAE documents - SAE J2836™, J2847, J2931, & J2953 - within the Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communication Task Force. This follows the initial paper number 2010-01-0837, and continues with the test and modeling of the various PLC types for utility programs described in J2836/1™ & J2847/1. This also extends the communication to an off-board charger, described in J2836/2™ & J2847/2 and includes reverse energy flow described in J2836/3™ and J2847/3. The initial versions of J2836/1™ and J2847/1 were published early 2010. J2847/1 has now been re-opened to include updates from comments from the National Institute of Standards Technology (NIST) Smart Grid Interoperability Panel (SGIP), Smart Grid Architectural Committee (SGAC) and Cyber Security Working Group committee (SCWG).
Technical Paper

Communication for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1036
This paper is the third in the series of documents designed to record the progress on the SAE Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) communication task force. The initial paper (2010-01-0837) introduced utility communications (J2836/1™ & J2847/1) and how the SAE task force interfaced with other organizations. The second paper (2011-01-0866) focused on the next steps of the utility requirements and added DC charging (J2836/2™ & J2847/2) along with initial effort for Reverse Power Flow (J2836/3™ & J2847/3). This paper continues with the following: 1. Completion of DC charging's 1st step publication of J2836/2™ & J2847/2. 2. Completion of 1st step of communication requirements as it relates to PowerLine Carrier (PLC) captured in J2931/1. This leads to testing of PLC products for Utility and DC charging messages using EPRI's test plan and schedule. 3. Progress for PEV communications interoperability in J2953/1.
Technical Paper

Comprehensive Overview of Human Interface for an Extended Range Electric Vehicle

2011-04-12
2011-01-1023
An Extended Range Electric vehicle brings a wealth of new features since it is capable of driving on battery alone, has a range extending engine, and has a high voltage battery pack that can be recharged by plugging into wall power. The customer is able to interact with the vehicle's plug-in charging system through mobile applications. Along with all these new features is the challenge of designing a driver interface to provide important information to the customer. This paper will describe the unique customer interface features added to the vehicle, and will include some additional specifics related to the hardware used to provide the information.
Technical Paper

Conducting Tire-Coupled (4-Post) Durability Simulations without Road Load Data Acquisition

2011-04-12
2011-01-0225
For decades, the industry standard for laboratory durability simulations has been based on reproducing quantified vehicle responses. That is, build a running vehicle, measure its responses over a variety of durability road surfaces and reproduce those responses in the laboratory for durability evaluation. To bring a vehicle to market quickly, the time between tightening the last bolt on a prototype test vehicle and starting the durability evaluation test must be minimized. A method to derive 4-Post simulator displacements without measuring or predicting vehicle responses is presented.
Technical Paper

Correlating Measured Combustion Performance with CFD Predicted In-Cylinder Flows for a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection (SIDI) Engine with Enhanced Charge Motion

2013-04-08
2013-01-1090
A numerical and corresponding experimental study was undertaken to identify the ability to accurately predict combustion performance using our 3-D numerical tools for a direct-injection homogeneous-charge engine. To achieve a significant range of combustion rates, the evaluation was conducted for the engine operating with and without enhanced charge motion. Five charge motion configurations were examined, each having different levels of swirl and tumble flow leading to different turbulence generation and decay characteristics. A detailed CFD analysis provides insight into the in-cylinder flow requirements as well as the accuracy of the submodels. The in-cylinder air-fuel distribution, the mass-averaged swirl and tumble levels along with mean flow and turbulent kinetic energies are calculated throughout the induction and compression processes.
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