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Journal Article

A Demonstration of Local Heat Treatment for the Preform Annealing Process

2011-04-12
2011-01-0538
The preform annealing process is a two-stage stamping method for shaping non age-hardenable (i.e. 5000 series) aluminum sheet panels in which the panel is heat treated in between the two steps to improve overall formability of the material. The intermediate annealing heat treatment eliminates the cold work accumulated in the material during the first draw. The process enables the ability to form more complex parts than a conventional aluminum stamping process. A demonstration of local annealing for this process was conducted to form a one-piece aluminum liftgate inner panel for a large sport utility vehicle using the steel product geometry without design concessions. In prior work, this process was demonstrated by placing the entire panel in a convection oven for several minutes to completely anneal the cold work.
Technical Paper

A Fatigue Prediction Method for Spot Welded Joints

2013-04-08
2013-01-1208
Generally linear finite element analysis (FEA) is used to predict fatigue life of spot welded joints in a vehicle body structure. Therefore, the effect of plastic deformation at the vicinity of the spot welded joints is not included on fatigue prediction. This study introduces a simple technique to include the plastic deformation effect without performing elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The S-N curve obtained from fatigue test results is modified to consider this effect. Tensile strength test results of spot welded joint specimens were utilized to find the load range for FEA equivalent to the applied load range for fatigue tests. To demonstrate the proposed approach, fatigue test results of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) for lap-shear and coach peel specimens were used. Both the specimen types were tested at various constant amplitudes with the load ratios of R=0.1 and 0.3.
Technical Paper

A Methodology for Evaluating Body Architecture Concepts Using Technical Cost Modeling

2011-04-12
2011-01-0767
The ability to make accurate decisions concerning early body-in-white architectures is critical to an automaker since these decisions often have long term cost and weight impacts. We address this need with a methodology which can be used to assist in body architecture decisions using process-based technical cost modeling (TCM) as a filter to evaluate alternate designs. Despite the data limitations of early design concepts, TCM can be used to identify key trends for cost-effectiveness between design variants. A compact body-in-white architecture will be used as a case study to illustrate this technique. The baseline steel structure will be compared to several alternate aluminum intensive structures in the context of production volume.
Technical Paper

Automotive AC System Oil Migration HFO-1234yf Vs. R134a

2011-04-12
2011-01-1173
1 As global automotive manufacturers prepare for the introduction of HFO-1234yf as the low Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solution in Europe and North America concerns over compressor durability due to oil migration still remain. This preliminary study evaluates several different variables that affect oil migration. Several compressor suppliers each having their own unique oil formulation for HFO-1234yf were included. Comparisons between vehicle tests and various accelerated lab test methods are made. In R134a automotive system the thresholds that cause compressor warranty are well understood. This study will compare AC systems running with HFO-1234yf at the same time identical systems with R134a are run to understand the relative effect of HFO-1234yf versus R134a.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Current Concepts for Press Hardened Steel Tailor Welded Blanks and Tailor Rolled Blanks on Center Pillar Reinforcements

2011-04-12
2011-01-1059
Press hardened steels (PHS) are commonly used in automotive structural applications because of their combination of extremely high strength, load carrying capacity and the ability to form complex shapes in the press hardening process. Recent adoption of increased roof crush standards, side impact requirements and the increased focus on CO2 emissions and mass reduction have led autmotive manufacturers to significantly increase the amount of PHS being designed into future vehicle designs. As a way to further optimize the use of these steels, multi-gauge welded blanks of PHS and multi-material blanks of PHS to microalloyed steels of various thickness have been developed to help achieve these requirements. More recently, tailor rolled PHS, whereby the steel is rolled such that the thickness changes across the width of the sheet, have been developed.
Technical Paper

Conducting Tire-Coupled (4-Post) Durability Simulations without Road Load Data Acquisition

2011-04-12
2011-01-0225
For decades, the industry standard for laboratory durability simulations has been based on reproducing quantified vehicle responses. That is, build a running vehicle, measure its responses over a variety of durability road surfaces and reproduce those responses in the laboratory for durability evaluation. To bring a vehicle to market quickly, the time between tightening the last bolt on a prototype test vehicle and starting the durability evaluation test must be minimized. A method to derive 4-Post simulator displacements without measuring or predicting vehicle responses is presented.
Journal Article

Development of Liftgate Hinge-to-Roof Sealing Gasket Material for Uncoated Steel Roof Panels

2011-04-12
2011-01-0072
The sealing of a lift gate hinge to the body structure is necessary to avoid both the onset of corrosion and to avoid water intrusion into the interior compartment. The hinge-to-body interface typically involves horizontal metal-to-metal surface contact, creating the perfect environment for moisture entrapment and corrosion initiation. The choice of body panel material (uncoated (bare) steel vs. coated (galvanized) steel) drives different sealing approaches especially when considering corrosion avoidance.
Technical Paper

Door Check Load Durability - Fatigue Life Prediction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0790
This paper describes an analytical methodology for predicting the fatigue life of a door system for check load durability cycles. A check stop load durability cycle occurs when a customer opens the door beyond the door detent position with a force applied on the check link or hinge check stops. This method combines Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model and fatigue code to compute the durability requirements. The FEA model consists of Door-in-White (DIW) on body with integrated hinge check link or independent check link. Nonlinear material, geometric and parts contact were considered for the door with body-in-white (BIW). Several door hinge designs, with integrated and independent check links, were investigated. Using the Von Mises stress and plastic strain from the above analysis, the fatigue life was predicted and compared with the test data. Integrating FEA and fatigue allows predicting the threshold total strain value, which is developed, for check load durability requirements.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior and Life Prediction for Aluminum Castings in the Absence of Casting Flaws

2011-04-12
2011-01-0193
Cast aluminum alloys are increasingly used in cyclically loaded automotive structural applications for light weight and fuel economy. The fatigue resistance of aluminum castings strongly depends upon the presence of casting flaws and characteristics of microstructural constituents. The existence of casting flaws significantly reduces fatigue crack initiation life. In the absence of casting flaws, however, crack initiation occurs at the fatigue-sensitive microstructural constituents. Cracking and debonding of large silicon (Si) and Fe-rich intermetallic particles and crystallographic shearing from persistent slip bands in the aluminum matrix play an important role in crack initiation. This paper presents fatigue life models for aluminum castings free of casting flaws, which complement the fatigue life models for aluminum castings containing casting flaws published in [1].
Technical Paper

Ferritic Nitrocarburized Brake Rotors

2011-04-12
2011-01-0567
Ferritic Nitrocarburized (FNC) cast iron brake rotors are proposed as a means to improve corrosion resistance, improve brake lining wear, as well as reduce corrosion-induced pulsation of automotive brake rotors. FNC processing of finish machined brake rotors presents challenges with controlling distortion, i.e., lateral run out (LRO). Prior investigations of FNC brake rotors suggested grinding the rotors to correct distortion. Post grinding the FNC processed rotors may reduce the FNC layer with an accompanying reduction in performance. Stress relieving (SR) the casting prior to FNC was found beneficial in providing a dimensionally acceptable rotor. Dimensional analysis of the stress relieved and FNC processed rotors will be presented. Benefits of FNC processed rotors will be reviewed.
Journal Article

Formability Analysis Predictions for Preform Annealing of Aluminum Sheet

2011-04-12
2011-01-0533
It is important to understand the accuracy level of the formability analysis for any new process so that correct predictions can be made in product and die design. This report focuses on the formability analysis methodology developed for the preform anneal process. In this process, the aluminum panel is partially formed, annealed to eliminate the cold work from the first step, and then formed to the final shape using the same die. This process has the ability to form more complex parts than conventional aluminum stamping, and has been demonstrated on a complex one-piece door inner and a complex one-piece liftgate inner with AA5182-O3. Both panels only required slight design modifications to the original steel product geometry. This report focuses on the formability analysis correlation with physical panels for the liftgate inner, considering both full panel anneal in a convection oven and local annealing of critical areas.
Technical Paper

GM Approach to Chassis Based Load Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-0024
Global programs are placing demands on vehicle platforms to achieve structural durability robustness across a broader spectrum of vehicle configurations and use conditions. This robustness is optimally achieved by (a) localizing energy absorption to lower cost components, and (b) narrowing the spread in loads generated during durability events, which in turn minimizes the cost and mass impact to the vehicle platform. A generalized philosophy for conducting load optimization and for improving energy management for various types of events is presented here. Various techniques that have been employed at GM are explained by way of illustration.
Technical Paper

Hood Slam Process Automator

2011-04-12
2011-01-1066
This paper deals with the development of a Hood Slam Process Automator (PA) to automate the pre-processing tasks of the virtual slam assessment with non-linear Nastran Transient Sol. 129 on all types of hoods. The slam analysis generally consumes a lot of analyst's time for building the slam models, typically six hours and is very tedious and has the potential for errors. The Hood Slam PA will automatically create and perform slam analysis pre-processing tasks within HyperMesh software such as creating latch striker interface, creating seals and bumpers with CBUSH1D elements, assigning transient slam speed to the hood and will finally generate the Nastran non-linear transient (Sol.129) hood slam analysis input files. The ready to run analysis input files will be submitted to the Nastran solver and the analysis results will then be post processed using HyperView software.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Stamping Tooling Durability for Dual Phase Steels

2011-04-12
2011-01-1060
Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) have become an essential part of the lightweighting strategy for automotive body structures. The ability to fully realize the benefits of AHSS depends upon the ability to aggressively form, trim, and pierce these steels into challenging parts. Tooling wear has been a roadblock to stamping these materials. Traditional die materials and designs have shown significant problems with accelerated wear, galling and die pickup, and premature wear and breakage of pierce punches. [1] This paper identifies and discusses the tribological factors that contribute to the successful stamping of AHSS. This includes minimizing tool wear and galling/die pick-up; identifying the most effective pierce clearance (wear vs. burr height) when piercing AHSS; and determining optimal die material and coating performance for tooling stamping AHSS.
Technical Paper

Lightweight MacPherson Strut Suspension Front Lower Control Arm Design Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0562
The paper will discuss the results of a study to develop lightweight steel proof-of-concept front lower control arm (FLCA) designs that are less expensive and achieve equivalent structural performance relative to a baseline forged aluminum FLCA assembly. A current production forged aluminum OEM sedan FLCA assembly was selected as an aggressive mass target based on competitive benchmarking of vehicles of its size. CAE structural optimization methods were used to determine the initial candidate sheet steel and forged designs. Two (2) sheet steel FLCA designs and one (1) forged steel FLCA design were selected and developed to meet specified performance criteria. An iterative optimization strategy was used to minimize the mass of each design while meeting the specified stiffness, durability, extreme load, and longitudinal buckling strength requirements.
Journal Article

Modeling of Residual Stresses in Quenched Cast Aluminum Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0539
Cast aluminum alloys are normally quenched after solution treatment or solidification process to improve aging responses. Rapid quenching can lead to high residual stress and severe distortion which significantly affects dimension stability, functionality and particularly performance of the product. To simulate residual stress and distortion induced during quenching, a finite element based approach was developed by coupling an iterative zone-based transient heat transfer algorithm with material thermo-viscoplastic constitutive model. With the integrated models, the numeric predictions of residual stresses and distortion in the quenched aluminum castings are in a good agreement with experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Scratch Resistance for Molded in Color Interior Thermoplastic Olefin Injection Molded Plastics

2011-04-12
2011-01-0464
As customer dissatisfaction with interior trim components is tracked by the JDPowers question on “surface durability”, there is a need to increase the durability of the parts that are molded in color. In particular, door trim panel lowers are susceptible to surface damage which results in an unfavorable appearance. To address this issue, an assessment of the various factors that can affect surface durability was conducted using talc filled TPO materials in order to determine the optimum set of physical properties. The team used Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. A Taguchi orthogonal experiment was used and included control system factors of material, grain, gloss, and color. Noise factors included molding process parameters, aging, and piece to piece variation. The output was a measure of the scratch resistance of the molded plaque which was defined by a Delta L calculation.
Technical Paper

Random Frequency Response Analysis of Battery Systems Using ‘Virtual Shaker Table’

2011-04-12
2011-01-0665
This paper presents ‘Virtual Shaker Table’: a CAE method that enables random frequency structural response and random vibration fatigue analyses of a battery system. The Virtual Shaker Table method is a practical and systematic procedure that effectively assesses battery system vibration performance prior to final design, build and testing. A random structural frequency response analysis identifies the critical frequencies and modes at which the battery system is excited by random inputs. Fatigue life may be predicted after PSD stresses have been ascertained. This method enables frequency response analysis techniques to be applied quickly and accurately, thereby allowing assessment of multiple design alternatives. Virtual Shaker Table facilitates an elegant solution to some of the significant challenges inherent to complex battery system design and integration.
Journal Article

Self-Pierce Riveting of Magnesium to Aluminum Alloys

2011-04-12
2011-01-0074
Magnesium and aluminum alloys offer lightweighting opportunities in automotive applications. Joining of dissimilar materials, however, generally requires methods that do not involve fusion. This paper explores the use of self-pierce riveting (SPR) to join magnesium to aluminum alloys for structural and closure applications. The preliminary results indicate that SPR is a viable option for joining aluminum extrusions to magnesium die castings, as well as stamped sheet aluminum to quick-plastic-formed (QPF) sheet magnesium.
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