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Technical Paper

Automotive AC System Oil Migration HFO-1234yf Vs. R134a

2011-04-12
2011-01-1173
1 As global automotive manufacturers prepare for the introduction of HFO-1234yf as the low Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solution in Europe and North America concerns over compressor durability due to oil migration still remain. This preliminary study evaluates several different variables that affect oil migration. Several compressor suppliers each having their own unique oil formulation for HFO-1234yf were included. Comparisons between vehicle tests and various accelerated lab test methods are made. In R134a automotive system the thresholds that cause compressor warranty are well understood. This study will compare AC systems running with HFO-1234yf at the same time identical systems with R134a are run to understand the relative effect of HFO-1234yf versus R134a.
Technical Paper

Conducting Tire-Coupled (4-Post) Durability Simulations without Road Load Data Acquisition

2011-04-12
2011-01-0225
For decades, the industry standard for laboratory durability simulations has been based on reproducing quantified vehicle responses. That is, build a running vehicle, measure its responses over a variety of durability road surfaces and reproduce those responses in the laboratory for durability evaluation. To bring a vehicle to market quickly, the time between tightening the last bolt on a prototype test vehicle and starting the durability evaluation test must be minimized. A method to derive 4-Post simulator displacements without measuring or predicting vehicle responses is presented.
Technical Paper

Door Check Load Durability - Fatigue Life Prediction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0790
This paper describes an analytical methodology for predicting the fatigue life of a door system for check load durability cycles. A check stop load durability cycle occurs when a customer opens the door beyond the door detent position with a force applied on the check link or hinge check stops. This method combines Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model and fatigue code to compute the durability requirements. The FEA model consists of Door-in-White (DIW) on body with integrated hinge check link or independent check link. Nonlinear material, geometric and parts contact were considered for the door with body-in-white (BIW). Several door hinge designs, with integrated and independent check links, were investigated. Using the Von Mises stress and plastic strain from the above analysis, the fatigue life was predicted and compared with the test data. Integrating FEA and fatigue allows predicting the threshold total strain value, which is developed, for check load durability requirements.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior and Life Prediction for Aluminum Castings in the Absence of Casting Flaws

2011-04-12
2011-01-0193
Cast aluminum alloys are increasingly used in cyclically loaded automotive structural applications for light weight and fuel economy. The fatigue resistance of aluminum castings strongly depends upon the presence of casting flaws and characteristics of microstructural constituents. The existence of casting flaws significantly reduces fatigue crack initiation life. In the absence of casting flaws, however, crack initiation occurs at the fatigue-sensitive microstructural constituents. Cracking and debonding of large silicon (Si) and Fe-rich intermetallic particles and crystallographic shearing from persistent slip bands in the aluminum matrix play an important role in crack initiation. This paper presents fatigue life models for aluminum castings free of casting flaws, which complement the fatigue life models for aluminum castings containing casting flaws published in [1].
Technical Paper

Ferritic Nitrocarburized Brake Rotors

2011-04-12
2011-01-0567
Ferritic Nitrocarburized (FNC) cast iron brake rotors are proposed as a means to improve corrosion resistance, improve brake lining wear, as well as reduce corrosion-induced pulsation of automotive brake rotors. FNC processing of finish machined brake rotors presents challenges with controlling distortion, i.e., lateral run out (LRO). Prior investigations of FNC brake rotors suggested grinding the rotors to correct distortion. Post grinding the FNC processed rotors may reduce the FNC layer with an accompanying reduction in performance. Stress relieving (SR) the casting prior to FNC was found beneficial in providing a dimensionally acceptable rotor. Dimensional analysis of the stress relieved and FNC processed rotors will be presented. Benefits of FNC processed rotors will be reviewed.
Technical Paper

GM Approach to Chassis Based Load Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-0024
Global programs are placing demands on vehicle platforms to achieve structural durability robustness across a broader spectrum of vehicle configurations and use conditions. This robustness is optimally achieved by (a) localizing energy absorption to lower cost components, and (b) narrowing the spread in loads generated during durability events, which in turn minimizes the cost and mass impact to the vehicle platform. A generalized philosophy for conducting load optimization and for improving energy management for various types of events is presented here. Various techniques that have been employed at GM are explained by way of illustration.
Technical Paper

Hood Slam Process Automator

2011-04-12
2011-01-1066
This paper deals with the development of a Hood Slam Process Automator (PA) to automate the pre-processing tasks of the virtual slam assessment with non-linear Nastran Transient Sol. 129 on all types of hoods. The slam analysis generally consumes a lot of analyst's time for building the slam models, typically six hours and is very tedious and has the potential for errors. The Hood Slam PA will automatically create and perform slam analysis pre-processing tasks within HyperMesh software such as creating latch striker interface, creating seals and bumpers with CBUSH1D elements, assigning transient slam speed to the hood and will finally generate the Nastran non-linear transient (Sol.129) hood slam analysis input files. The ready to run analysis input files will be submitted to the Nastran solver and the analysis results will then be post processed using HyperView software.
Technical Paper

Lightweight MacPherson Strut Suspension Front Lower Control Arm Design Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0562
The paper will discuss the results of a study to develop lightweight steel proof-of-concept front lower control arm (FLCA) designs that are less expensive and achieve equivalent structural performance relative to a baseline forged aluminum FLCA assembly. A current production forged aluminum OEM sedan FLCA assembly was selected as an aggressive mass target based on competitive benchmarking of vehicles of its size. CAE structural optimization methods were used to determine the initial candidate sheet steel and forged designs. Two (2) sheet steel FLCA designs and one (1) forged steel FLCA design were selected and developed to meet specified performance criteria. An iterative optimization strategy was used to minimize the mass of each design while meeting the specified stiffness, durability, extreme load, and longitudinal buckling strength requirements.
Journal Article

Modeling of Residual Stresses in Quenched Cast Aluminum Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0539
Cast aluminum alloys are normally quenched after solution treatment or solidification process to improve aging responses. Rapid quenching can lead to high residual stress and severe distortion which significantly affects dimension stability, functionality and particularly performance of the product. To simulate residual stress and distortion induced during quenching, a finite element based approach was developed by coupling an iterative zone-based transient heat transfer algorithm with material thermo-viscoplastic constitutive model. With the integrated models, the numeric predictions of residual stresses and distortion in the quenched aluminum castings are in a good agreement with experimental measurements.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Scratch Resistance for Molded in Color Interior Thermoplastic Olefin Injection Molded Plastics

2011-04-12
2011-01-0464
As customer dissatisfaction with interior trim components is tracked by the JDPowers question on “surface durability”, there is a need to increase the durability of the parts that are molded in color. In particular, door trim panel lowers are susceptible to surface damage which results in an unfavorable appearance. To address this issue, an assessment of the various factors that can affect surface durability was conducted using talc filled TPO materials in order to determine the optimum set of physical properties. The team used Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology. A Taguchi orthogonal experiment was used and included control system factors of material, grain, gloss, and color. Noise factors included molding process parameters, aging, and piece to piece variation. The output was a measure of the scratch resistance of the molded plaque which was defined by a Delta L calculation.
Technical Paper

Random Frequency Response Analysis of Battery Systems Using ‘Virtual Shaker Table’

2011-04-12
2011-01-0665
This paper presents ‘Virtual Shaker Table’: a CAE method that enables random frequency structural response and random vibration fatigue analyses of a battery system. The Virtual Shaker Table method is a practical and systematic procedure that effectively assesses battery system vibration performance prior to final design, build and testing. A random structural frequency response analysis identifies the critical frequencies and modes at which the battery system is excited by random inputs. Fatigue life may be predicted after PSD stresses have been ascertained. This method enables frequency response analysis techniques to be applied quickly and accurately, thereby allowing assessment of multiple design alternatives. Virtual Shaker Table facilitates an elegant solution to some of the significant challenges inherent to complex battery system design and integration.
Journal Article

Self-Pierce Riveting of Magnesium to Aluminum Alloys

2011-04-12
2011-01-0074
Magnesium and aluminum alloys offer lightweighting opportunities in automotive applications. Joining of dissimilar materials, however, generally requires methods that do not involve fusion. This paper explores the use of self-pierce riveting (SPR) to join magnesium to aluminum alloys for structural and closure applications. The preliminary results indicate that SPR is a viable option for joining aluminum extrusions to magnesium die castings, as well as stamped sheet aluminum to quick-plastic-formed (QPF) sheet magnesium.
Journal Article

Structural Evaluation of an Experimental Aluminum/Magnesium Decklid

2011-04-12
2011-01-0075
Experimental decklids for the Cadillac STS sedan were made with Al AA5083 sheet outer panels and Mg AZ31B sheet inner panels using regular-production forming processes and hardware. Joining and coating processes were developed to accommodate the unique properties of Mg. Assembled decklids were evaluated for dimensional accuracy, slam durability, and impact response. The assemblies performed very well in these tests. Explicit and implicit finite element simulations of decklids were conducted, and showed that the Al/Mg decklids have good stiffness and strength characteristics. These results suggest the feasibility of using Mg sheet closure panels from a structural perspective.
Journal Article

Virtual Manufacturability Analyzer for Casting Components

2011-04-12
2011-01-0528
There is an increasing demand in automated manufacturability analysis of metal castings at the initial stages of their design. This paper presents a system developed for virtual manufacturability analysis of casting components. The system can be used by a casting designer to evaluate manufacturability of a part designed for various manufacture processes including casting, heat treatment, and machining. The system uses computational geometrics and geometric reasoning to extract manufacturing features and geometry characteristics from a part CAD model. It uses an expert system and a design database consisting of metal casting, heat treatment and machining process knowledge and rules to present manufacturability analysis results and advice to the designer. Application of the system is demonstrated for the manufacturability assessment of automotive cast aluminum components.
Technical Paper

Wrought Magnesium Components for Automotive Chassis Applications

2011-04-12
2011-01-0077
Automotive structural components are exposed to high loads, impact situations and corrosion. In addition, there may be temperature excursions that introduce creep as well as reduced modulus (stiffness). These issues have limited the use of light metals in automotive structural applications primarily to aluminum alloys, and primarily to cast wheels and knuckles (only a few of which are forged), cast brake calipers, and cast control arms. This paper reports on research performed at Chongqing University, Chongqing China, under the auspices of General Motors engineering and directed by the first author, to develop a protocol that uses wrought magnesium in control arms. The goal was to produce a chassis part that could provide the same engineering function as current cast aluminum applications; and since magnesium is 33% less dense than aluminum, would be lighter.
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