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Journal Article

A Computational Method for Efficient Hub Offset Comparisons with Deflected-Disc Dampers

2013-04-08
2013-01-1357
With deflected-disc dampers, digressive force-velocity shapes are achieved via the combined effects of disc stack stiffness and hub-offset. The degree of digressiveness can be adjusted to alter vehicle performance by changing the proportion of these parameters. Optimizing this relationship can yield substantial vehicle performance improvements, but the time consuming iterative process of developing a new disc stack for each hub-offset discourages experimentation. To enable more efficient digressiveness comparisons, a regression-based computational method has been developed which converts disc stack stiffness from one hub-offset to other offsets directly, without iteration. Once an initial disc stack for one offset has been tuned by traditional methods, stacks for other offsets can be calculated that maintain overall damper control.
Journal Article

Adjoint Method for Aerodynamic Shape Improvement in Comparison with Surface Pressure Gradient Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0151
Understanding the flow characteristics and, especially, how the aerodynamic forces are influenced by the changes in the vehicle body shape, are very important in order to improve vehicle aerodynamics. One specific goal of aerodynamic shape optimization is to predict the local shape sensitivities for aerodynamic forces. The availability of a reliable and efficient sensitivity analysis method will help to reduce the number of design iterations and the aerodynamic development costs. Among various shape optimization methods, the Adjoint Method has received much attention as an efficient sensitivity analysis method for aerodynamic shape optimization because it allows the computation of sensitivity information for a large number of shape parameters simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Automotive AC System Oil Migration HFO-1234yf Vs. R134a

2011-04-12
2011-01-1173
1 As global automotive manufacturers prepare for the introduction of HFO-1234yf as the low Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solution in Europe and North America concerns over compressor durability due to oil migration still remain. This preliminary study evaluates several different variables that affect oil migration. Several compressor suppliers each having their own unique oil formulation for HFO-1234yf were included. Comparisons between vehicle tests and various accelerated lab test methods are made. In R134a automotive system the thresholds that cause compressor warranty are well understood. This study will compare AC systems running with HFO-1234yf at the same time identical systems with R134a are run to understand the relative effect of HFO-1234yf versus R134a.
Journal Article

Boundary Condition Effect on the Correlation of an Acoustic Finite Element Passenger Compartment Model

2011-04-12
2011-01-0506
Three different acoustic finite element models of an automobile passenger compartment are developed and experimentally assessed. The three different models are a traditional model, an improved model, and an optimized model. The traditional model represents the passenger and trunk compartment cavities and the coupling between them through the rear seat cavity. The improved model includes traditional acoustic models of the passenger and trunk compartments, as well as equivalent-acoustic finite element models of the front and rear seats, parcel shelf, door volumes, instrument panel, and trunk wheel well volume. An optimized version of the improved acoustic model is developed by modifying the equivalent-acoustic properties. Modal analysis tests of a vehicle were conducted using loudspeaker excitation to identify the compartment cavity modes and sound pressure response to 500 Hz to assess the accuracy of the acoustic models.
Technical Paper

Comparisons of Current Concepts for Press Hardened Steel Tailor Welded Blanks and Tailor Rolled Blanks on Center Pillar Reinforcements

2011-04-12
2011-01-1059
Press hardened steels (PHS) are commonly used in automotive structural applications because of their combination of extremely high strength, load carrying capacity and the ability to form complex shapes in the press hardening process. Recent adoption of increased roof crush standards, side impact requirements and the increased focus on CO2 emissions and mass reduction have led autmotive manufacturers to significantly increase the amount of PHS being designed into future vehicle designs. As a way to further optimize the use of these steels, multi-gauge welded blanks of PHS and multi-material blanks of PHS to microalloyed steels of various thickness have been developed to help achieve these requirements. More recently, tailor rolled PHS, whereby the steel is rolled such that the thickness changes across the width of the sheet, have been developed.
Technical Paper

Conducting Tire-Coupled (4-Post) Durability Simulations without Road Load Data Acquisition

2011-04-12
2011-01-0225
For decades, the industry standard for laboratory durability simulations has been based on reproducing quantified vehicle responses. That is, build a running vehicle, measure its responses over a variety of durability road surfaces and reproduce those responses in the laboratory for durability evaluation. To bring a vehicle to market quickly, the time between tightening the last bolt on a prototype test vehicle and starting the durability evaluation test must be minimized. A method to derive 4-Post simulator displacements without measuring or predicting vehicle responses is presented.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of Front Bumper System for Low Speed Impact Insurance Industry Impact Test using DFSS and CAE Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0070
In 2006, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) released a new Low Speed Bumper Test Protocol for passenger cars1. The new test protocol included the development of a deformable barrier that the vehicle would impact at low speeds. IIHS positioned the new barrier to improve correlation to low speed collisions in the field, and also to assess the ability of the bumper system to protect the vehicle from damage. The bumper system must stay engaged to the barrier to protect other vehicle components from damage. The challenge is to identify the bumper system design features that minimize additional cost and mass to keep engagement to the barrier. The results of the Design for Six Sigma analysis identified the design features that increase the stiffness of the bumper system enable it to stay engaged to the barrier and reduce the deflection.
Technical Paper

Determination of Vehicle Frontal Area Using Image Processing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0203
The projected frontal area of a vehicle has a significant impact on aerodynamic drag, and thus is an important parameter, for vehicle development, benchmarking, and modeling. However, determining vehicle frontal area can be tedious, time consuming, expensive, or inaccurate. Existing methods include analysis of engineering drawings, vehicle projections, 3D scanners, planimeter measurements from photographs, and estimations using vehicle dimensions. Currently accepted approximation methods can be somewhat unreliable. This study focuses on introducing a method to find vehicle frontal area using digital images and subtraction functions via MATLABs' Image Processing Toolbox. In addition to an overview of the method, this paper describes several variables that were examined to optimize and improve the process such as camera position, surface glare, and vehicle shadow effects.
Technical Paper

Development of Robust CAE Modeling Technique for Decklid Slam Analysis

2011-04-12
2011-01-0242
Engineering has continuously strived to improve the vehicle development process to achieve high quality designs and quick to launch products. The design process has to have the tools and capabilities to help ensure both quick to the market product and a flawless launch. To achieve high fidelity and robust design, mistakes and other quality issues must be addressed early in the engineering process. One way to detect problems early is to use the math based modeling and simulation techniques of the analysis group. The correlation of the actual vehicle performance to the predictive model is crucial to obtain. Without high correlation, the change management process begins to get complicated and costs start to increase exponentially. It is critical to reduce and eliminate the risk in a design up front before tooling begins to kick off. The push to help achieve a high rate of correlation has been initiated by engineering management, seeing this as an asset to the business.
Technical Paper

Door Check Load Durability - Fatigue Life Prediction

2011-04-12
2011-01-0790
This paper describes an analytical methodology for predicting the fatigue life of a door system for check load durability cycles. A check stop load durability cycle occurs when a customer opens the door beyond the door detent position with a force applied on the check link or hinge check stops. This method combines Finite Element Analysis (FEA) model and fatigue code to compute the durability requirements. The FEA model consists of Door-in-White (DIW) on body with integrated hinge check link or independent check link. Nonlinear material, geometric and parts contact were considered for the door with body-in-white (BIW). Several door hinge designs, with integrated and independent check links, were investigated. Using the Von Mises stress and plastic strain from the above analysis, the fatigue life was predicted and compared with the test data. Integrating FEA and fatigue allows predicting the threshold total strain value, which is developed, for check load durability requirements.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Vehicle Durability Simulation and Applications using Modal Stress Methodology

2011-04-12
2011-01-0786
Dynamic modal frequency structural analysis incorporating ADAMS/Flex dynamic load prediction and structural modal stress can provide accurate dynamic stress history for fatigue analysis and synthesis. The amount of data input to finite element analysis is reduced significantly compared to traditional modal & direct transient finite element analysis techniques. Compared to traditional dynamic loads prediction, no additional simulation effort is required except for incorporating flexible body models of structural components into the ADAMS model. This structural analysis technique seamlessly comprehends the correct geometry and force boundary conditions together for long duration dynamic stress calculations. This technique also provided the solution for the deficiency of traditional quasi-static inertia relief method, which is particularly significant for structural system with either significant deformation or articulation.
Journal Article

Evaluation of Prog-Die Wear Properties on Bare DP1180 Steel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0310
The die wear up to 80,800 hits on a prog-die setup for bare DP1180 steel was investigated in real production condition. In total, 31 die inserts with the combination of 11 die materials and 9 coatings were evaluated. The analytical results of die service life for each insert were provided by examining the evolution of surface wear on inserts and formed parts. The moments of appearance of die defects, propagation of die defects, and catastrophic failure were determined. Moreover, the surface roughness of the formed parts for each die insert was characterized using Wyko NT110 machine. The objectives of the current study are to evaluate the die durability of various tooling materials and coatings for flange operations on bare DP 1180 steel and update OEM tooling standards based on the experimental results. The current study provides the guidance for the die material and coating selections in large volume production for next generation AHSSs.
Journal Article

Fatigue Behavior and Life Prediction for Aluminum Castings in the Absence of Casting Flaws

2011-04-12
2011-01-0193
Cast aluminum alloys are increasingly used in cyclically loaded automotive structural applications for light weight and fuel economy. The fatigue resistance of aluminum castings strongly depends upon the presence of casting flaws and characteristics of microstructural constituents. The existence of casting flaws significantly reduces fatigue crack initiation life. In the absence of casting flaws, however, crack initiation occurs at the fatigue-sensitive microstructural constituents. Cracking and debonding of large silicon (Si) and Fe-rich intermetallic particles and crystallographic shearing from persistent slip bands in the aluminum matrix play an important role in crack initiation. This paper presents fatigue life models for aluminum castings free of casting flaws, which complement the fatigue life models for aluminum castings containing casting flaws published in [1].
Technical Paper

Ferritic Nitrocarburized Brake Rotors

2011-04-12
2011-01-0567
Ferritic Nitrocarburized (FNC) cast iron brake rotors are proposed as a means to improve corrosion resistance, improve brake lining wear, as well as reduce corrosion-induced pulsation of automotive brake rotors. FNC processing of finish machined brake rotors presents challenges with controlling distortion, i.e., lateral run out (LRO). Prior investigations of FNC brake rotors suggested grinding the rotors to correct distortion. Post grinding the FNC processed rotors may reduce the FNC layer with an accompanying reduction in performance. Stress relieving (SR) the casting prior to FNC was found beneficial in providing a dimensionally acceptable rotor. Dimensional analysis of the stress relieved and FNC processed rotors will be presented. Benefits of FNC processed rotors will be reviewed.
Technical Paper

GM Approach to Chassis Based Load Management

2011-04-12
2011-01-0024
Global programs are placing demands on vehicle platforms to achieve structural durability robustness across a broader spectrum of vehicle configurations and use conditions. This robustness is optimally achieved by (a) localizing energy absorption to lower cost components, and (b) narrowing the spread in loads generated during durability events, which in turn minimizes the cost and mass impact to the vehicle platform. A generalized philosophy for conducting load optimization and for improving energy management for various types of events is presented here. Various techniques that have been employed at GM are explained by way of illustration.
Technical Paper

High Voltage Hybrid Battery Tray Design Optimization

2011-04-12
2011-01-0671
Hybrid high voltage battery pack is not only heavy mass but also large in dimension. It interacts with the vehicle through the battery tray. Thus the battery tray is a critical element of the battery pack that interfaces between the battery and the vehicle, including the performances of safety/crash, NVH (modal), and durability. The tray is the largest and strongest structure in the battery pack holding the battery sections and other components including the battery disconnect unit (BDU) and other units that are not negligible in mass. This paper describes the mass optimization work done on one of the hybrid batteries using CAE simulation. This was a multidisciplinary optimization project, in which modal performance and fatigue damage were accessed through CAE analysis at both the battery pack level, and at the vehicle level.
Technical Paper

Hood Slam Process Automator

2011-04-12
2011-01-1066
This paper deals with the development of a Hood Slam Process Automator (PA) to automate the pre-processing tasks of the virtual slam assessment with non-linear Nastran Transient Sol. 129 on all types of hoods. The slam analysis generally consumes a lot of analyst's time for building the slam models, typically six hours and is very tedious and has the potential for errors. The Hood Slam PA will automatically create and perform slam analysis pre-processing tasks within HyperMesh software such as creating latch striker interface, creating seals and bumpers with CBUSH1D elements, assigning transient slam speed to the hood and will finally generate the Nastran non-linear transient (Sol.129) hood slam analysis input files. The ready to run analysis input files will be submitted to the Nastran solver and the analysis results will then be post processed using HyperView software.
Technical Paper

Lightweight MacPherson Strut Suspension Front Lower Control Arm Design Development

2011-04-12
2011-01-0562
The paper will discuss the results of a study to develop lightweight steel proof-of-concept front lower control arm (FLCA) designs that are less expensive and achieve equivalent structural performance relative to a baseline forged aluminum FLCA assembly. A current production forged aluminum OEM sedan FLCA assembly was selected as an aggressive mass target based on competitive benchmarking of vehicles of its size. CAE structural optimization methods were used to determine the initial candidate sheet steel and forged designs. Two (2) sheet steel FLCA designs and one (1) forged steel FLCA design were selected and developed to meet specified performance criteria. An iterative optimization strategy was used to minimize the mass of each design while meeting the specified stiffness, durability, extreme load, and longitudinal buckling strength requirements.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Occupant Pocketing Kinematics During Whiplash Assessments

2011-04-12
2011-01-0270
This study documents a method developed for dynamically measuring occupant pocketing during various low-speed rear impact, or “whiplash” sled tests. This dynamic pocketing measurement can then be related to the various test parameters used to establish the performance rating or compliance results. Consumer metric and regulatory tests discussed within this paper as potential applications of this technique include, but are not limited to, the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) rating, Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) 202a, and European New Car Assessment Program (EURO-NCAP) whiplash rating. Example metrics are also described which may be used to assist in establishing the design position of the head restraint and optimize the balance between low-speed rear impact performance and customer comfort.
Journal Article

Methods and Tools for Calculating the Flexibility of Automotive HW/SW Architectures

2012-04-16
2012-01-0005
To cope with the increasing number of advanced features (e.g., smart-phone integration and side-blind zone alert.) being deployed in vehicles, automotive manufacturers are designing flexible hardware architectures which can accommodate increasing feature content with as fewer as possible hardware changes so as to keep future costs down. In this paper, we propose a formal and quantitative definition of flexibility, a related methodology and a tool flow aimed at maximizing the flexibility of an automotive hardware architecture with respect to the features that are of greater importance to the designer. We define flexibility as the ability of an architecture to accommodate future changes in features with no changes in hardware (no addition/replacement of processors, buses, or memories). We utilize an optimization framework based on mixed integer linear programming (MILP) which computes the flexibility of the architecture while guaranteeing performance and safety requirements.
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