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Technical Paper

A Connectorized Passive Optical Star for Automotive Networking Applications

1994-03-01
940798
This paper introduces for the first time a fully connectorized passive optical star for use with plastic optical fiber that addresses all automotive application requirements. A unique mixing element is presented that offers linear expandability, uniformity of insertion loss, and packaging flexibility. The star is constructed of all plastic molded components to make it low cost and produceable in high volume and is single-ended to facilitate vehicle integration. The star is connectorized to facilitate assembly into the vehicle power and signal distribution system.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Process for Spring Failure Rates in Automotive Parts Applications

1991-02-01
910356
This paper discusses an analytical technique for computing the failure rate of steel springs used in automotive part applications. Preliminary computations may be performed and used to predict spring failure rates quickly at a very early stage of a product development cycle and to establish program reliability impact before commitment. The analytical method is essentially a combination of various existing procedures that are logically sequenced to compute a spring probability of failure under various operational conditions. Fatigue life of a mechanical component can be computed from its S-N curve. For steels, the S-N curve can be approximated by formulae which describe the fatigue life as a function of its endurance limit and its alternating stress. Most springs in service are preloaded and the actual stress fluctuates about a mean level. In order to compute an equivalent alternating stress with zero mean, an analytical method based on the Goodman Diagram is used.
Technical Paper

An Automotive Electronic Climate Control Heating and Air Conditioning System

1980-06-01
800792
The Cadillac Electronic Climate Control heating and air conditioning system provides automatic control of the passenger compartment temperature. It utilizes a microcomputer to control the operation of electrical, mechanical and vacuum components that regulate the amount and temperature of air delivered into the car to maintain the “customer set” comfort level. The first step in the evolution of this new system was to define the performance requirements. With this established, the system was then designed, tested and developed in the laboratory and on the road until this desired performance was achieved.
Technical Paper

Application of Variation Simulation in Body Assembly Process Design

2001-10-16
2001-01-3064
Build variation has long been recognized as one of the most important factors in vehicle performance. In this study an elastic assembly simulation program is used to guide a wheelhouse assembly process design to reduce build variation. Five (5) different clamping schemes are evaluated through the simulation program. From the five proposed process design choices, the best assembly process was identified, which results in reduced assembly variation and less tooling and manufacturing costs. Two different variation simulation approaches, one based on perturbation and the other based on Design of Experiments, were used to predict the assembly variation. Good agreement between the two approaches provided a validity check for the simulation tool.
Technical Paper

Application of a Constrained Layer Damping Treatment to a Cast Aluminum V6 Engine Front Cover

2005-05-16
2005-01-2286
Constrained Layer Damping (CLD) treatments have long provided a means to effectively impart damping to a structure [1, 2 and 3]. Traditionally, CLD treatments are constructed of a very thin polymer layer constrained by a thicker metal layer. Because the adhesion of a thin polymer layer is very sensitive to surface finish, surfaces that a CLD treatment can be effectively applied to have historically been limited to those that are very flat and smooth. New developments in material technology have provided thicker materials that are very effective and less expensive to apply when used as the damping layer in a CLD treatment. This paper documents the effectiveness of such a treatment on a cast aluminum front cover for a V6 engine. Physical construction of the treatment, material properties and design criteria will be discussed. Candidate applications, the assembly process, methods for secondary mechanical fastening will be presented.
Technical Paper

Effect of Simulated Material Properties and Residual Stresses on High Cycle Fatigue Prediction in a Compacted Graphite Iron Engine Block

2010-04-12
2010-01-0016
Casting, machining and structural simulations were completed on a V8 engine block made in Compacted Graphite Iron (CGI) for use in a racing application. The casting and machining simulations generated maps of predicted tensile strength and residual stress in the block. These strength and stress maps were exported to a finite element structural model of the machined part. Assembly and operating loads were applied, and stresses due to these loads were determined. High cycle fatigue analysis was completed, and three sets of safety factors were calculated using the following conditions: uniform properties and no residual stress, predicted properties and no residual stress, and predicted properties plus residual stress.
Technical Paper

Free Form Fabrication Beginners Workshop

1994-04-01
941230
Free form fabrication, or rapid prototyping as it is commonly known, is the creation of a physical entity, directly from numerical description, using an additive process. The mathematical data used is typically in the form of a 3D CAD file, but it may also be obtained from a reverse engineering process. This paper presents a review of three of the leading FFF (free form fabrication) systems which are commercially available. Time constraints will allow us to describe only three of these products. Although this does not do justice to a technology where there are more than 30 different systems in various stages of development, these examples represent the vast majority of machines which are in the marketplace today.
Technical Paper

General Motors Passenger Tire Performance Criteria

1976-02-01
762008
The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the process of selection, development and approval of General Motors original equipment TPC passenger car tires. We have attempted to minimize detail in each specific area, but intend to provide a general comprehension of the thought processes involved and the procedures used to select the proper tire size and type for a vehicle. We will then describe the tire performance criteria involved in the overall development and approval process and will subsequently consider tire noise requirements in somewhat greater detail. The paper will conclude by describing the General Motors Tire Performance Criteria (TPC) System, which is a documentation of the General Motors Tire Performance requirements and test procedures.
Technical Paper

Glass Drop Design for Automobile Windows - Design of Glass Contour, Shape, Drop Motion, and Motion Guidance Systems

1995-04-01
951110
This paper presents a new computerized approach for designing the automobile window glass contour, the glass drop motion, and the regulator systems. The three-dimensional geometrical relationship of the glass contour, the drop path, and its guidance system have been studied. Methods for barrel and helical drops are presented for optimizing the glass profile and drop path trajectories. Criteria for perfecting the glass contour are developed for shaping the profile of the vehicle clay model. Methods for correcting the glass contour and shape are presented. Examples are provided to illustrate how to improve the design. This approach integrates the development works of glass contour, drop motion and regulator systems. Through this design approach the window glass can fit and move perfectly in the door assembly.
Book

IDB-C Data Bus

2002-04-15
By using descriptive charts and graphs, this report provides an analysis of the IDB-C network at the Subsystem level and at the vehicle level, using data comparison between modeling and simulation of the network and measurement and analysis on physical systems.
Technical Paper

Lead-time Reduction in Stamping CAE and Die Face Development using Massively Parallel Processing in Forming Simulations

2007-04-16
2007-01-1678
Since 1997, General Motors Body Manufacturing Engineering - Die Engineering Services (BME-DES) has been working jointly with our software vendor to develop and implement a parallel version of stamping simulation software for mass production analysis applications. The evolution of this technology and the insight gained through the implementation of DMP/MPP technology as well as performance benchmarks are discussed in this publication.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Management in the Auto Manufacturing Industry - A Report from President Clinton's Council on Sustainable Development Auto Team

1995-10-01
951871
An assessment of automobile painting at General Motor's Lake Orion, Michigan, USA assembly facility from a life cycle perspective was conducted. The Orion Facility produces the new Oldsmobile Aurora and Buick Riviera models. Improvements in on-site pollution prevention, energy conservation and regulatory barriers to technology innovation were identified. The environmental implications of auto body substrate material choice were analyzed. A life cycle inventory framework was developed for paint suppliers and other parts of the auto painting life cycle. An Alternative Regulatory System was proposed for the entire U.S. auto industry that will, if implemented, facilitate the integration of environmental management into core business strategies and planning.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear FE Centric Approach for Vehicle Structural Integrity Study

2004-03-08
2004-01-1344
This report summarizes the methodology used in automotive industry for virtual evaluation of vehicle structural integrity under abusive load cases. In particular, the development of a nonlinear finite element (FE) centric approach is covered that is based on the functions implemented in ABAQUS (by ABAQUS Inc.). An overview is also given for comparative study of the ABAQUS capability with the existing ADAMS (MSC Software) based methods.
Technical Paper

Nylon RIM Development for Automotive Body Panels

1985-02-01
850157
The performance and production requirements for future passenger vehicles has increased the efforts to replace metal body panels with plastic materials. This has been accomplished, to a large extent on some production vehicles that have been introduced recently. Unfortunately, these plastic body applications have necessitated special off-line handling or low temperature paint processing. However, the advantages of RIM nylon, offer the potential for uniquely new plastic body designs, that can be processed through existing assembly plants, much like the steel panels they are intended to replace. The intent of this paper is to discuss the rationale for future plastic body panel material selection and related nylon RIM development efforts.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Maintainability of Machinery and Equipment for Effective Maintenance

1993-03-01
930569
Typically, “Reliability and Maintainability (R&M)” is perceived as a tool for products alone. Putting emphasis on reliability only at the cost of maintainability is another archetype. Inclusion of both reliability and maintainability (R&M) in all the phases of the machinery and equipment (M&E) life cycle is required in order to be world competitive in manufacturing. R&M is mainly a design function and it should be a part of any design review. Inclusion of the R&M concept early in the life cycle of M&E is key to cost effective and competitive manufacturing. Neither responsive manufacturing nor preventive maintenance can raise it above the level of inherent R&M.
Technical Paper

Road Transducer - Objective Brake Balance Measurement Without Vehicle Instrumentation

1987-02-01
870266
During braking, the ability to utilize available tire-road friction is determined by brake balance. Previous methods for objectively measuring balance require various degrees of vehicle instrumentation and modification. The Road Transducer is a new measurement technique based on instrumented sections of roadway. Individual braking forces developed by each wheel are measured without vehicle instrumentation, modification, or special set up. This facilitates assessment of many vehicles required for statistical analyses. Brake balance data for several hundred vehicles are presented and provide insight to the nominal levels and variability of braking efficiencies found in the field.
Technical Paper

Robust Process Design for a Four-Bar Decklid Hinge System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0878
Auto components with large manufacturing variation may cause vehicle quality problems after they are assembled. The impact of this variation depends on the assembly process used. If the assembly process is sensitive to the component variation, the impact may be more significant. In this case, an assembly process with lower sensitivity to component variation will solve the problem. This paper presents an example where the component variation largely impacted the quality of the car, and a more robust assembly process solved the problem.
Technical Paper

Significance of Intersection Crashes for Older Drivers

1996-02-01
960457
As the driving population ages, there is a need to understand the accident patterns of older drivers. Previous research has shown that side impact collisions, usually at an intersection, are a serious problem for the older driver in terms of injury outcome. This study compares the frequency of side impact, intersection collisions of different driver age groups using state and national police-reported accident data as well as an in-depth analysis of cases from a fatal accident study. All data reveal that the frequency of intersection crashes increases with driver age. The state and national data show that older drivers have an increase frequency of intersection crashes involving vehicles crossing paths prior to the collision compared to their involvement in all crash types. When taking into account traffic control devices at an intersection, older drivers have the greatest involvement of multiple vehicle crashes at a signed intersection.
Technical Paper

The Application of Direct Body Excitation Toward Developing a Full Vehicle Objective Squeak and Rattle Metric

2001-04-30
2001-01-1554
In order to engineer Squeak & Rattle (S&R) free vehicles it is essential to develop an objective measurement method to compare and correlate with customer satisfaction and subjective S&R assessments. Three methods for exciting S&Rs -type surfaces. Excitation methods evaluated were road tests over S&R surfaces, road simulators, and direct body excitation (DBE). The principle of DBE involves using electromagnetic shakers to induce controlled, road-measured vibration into the body, bypassing the tire patch and suspension. DBE is a promising technology for making objective measurements because it is extremely quiet (test equipment noise does not mask S&Rs), while meeting other project goals. While DBE is limited in exposing S&Rs caused by body twist and suspension noises, advantages include higher frequency energy owing to electro-dynamic shakers, continuous random excitation, lower capital cost, mobility, and safety.
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