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Technical Paper

A Sampling System for the Measurement of PreCatalyst Emissions from Vehicles Operating Under Transient Conditions

A proportional sampler for vehicle feedgas and tailpipe emissions has been developed that extracts a small, constant fraction of the total exhaust flow during rapid transient changes in engine speed. Heated sampling lines are used to extract samples either before or after the catalytic converter. Instantaneous exhaust mass flow is measured by subtracting the CVS dilution air volume from the total CVS volume. This parameter is used to maintain a constant dilution ratio and proportional sample. The exhaust sample is diluted with high-purity air or nitrogen and is delivered into Tedlar sample bags. These transient test cycle weighted feedgas samples can be collected for subsequent analysis of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbon species. This “mini-diluter” offers significant advantages over the conventional CVS system. The concentration of the samples are higher than those collected from the current CVS system because the dilution ratio can be optimized depending on the fuel.
Technical Paper

Central Port Fuel Injection

The primary objective of Central Port Fuel Injection is to be a low cost multi-point fuel injection system with the additional attributes of compactness, packaging flexibility, and reliability. Performance of this fuel system closely resembles that of a simultaneous multi-point fuel injection system in flow control, dynamic range, cylinder-to-cylinder distribution, idle quality, transient response, and emissions. The system provides significantly improved performance in the areas of hot fuel handling, cold startability, vacuum and voltage sensitivity and system noise. This performance comes at a significant cost savings and greater packaging and targeting flexibility over a conventional multi-point fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Chemiluminescence Measurements of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Combustion

A spectroscopic diagnostic system was designed to study the effects of different engine parameters on the chemiluminescence characteristic of HCCI combustion. The engine parameters studied in this work were intake temperature, fuel delivery method, fueling rate (load), air-fuel ratio, and the effect of partial fuel reforming due to intake charge preheating. At each data point, a set of time-resolved spectra were obtained along with the cylinder pressure and exhaust emissions data. It was determined that different engine parameters affect the ignition timing of HCCI combustion without altering the reaction pathways of the fuel after the combustion has started. The chemiluminescence spectra of HCCI combustion appear as several distinct peaks corresponding to emission from CHO, HCHO, CH, and OH superimposed on top of a CO-O continuum. A strong correlation was found between the chemiluminescence light intensity and the rate of heat release.
Technical Paper

Correlating Lube Oil Filtration Efficiencies with Engine Wear

The level of filtration in an engine can have a significant impact on wear rates due to abrasive particles. Tests were conducted to establish a relationship between the level of filtration and abrasive engine wear. Although the tests were run in a laboratory environment, wear was reduced by as much as 70% by going from a 40 micron filter to a 15 micron filter. Testing was performed on a heavy duty diesel engine and later with an automotive gasoline engine. The results from both engines were consistent and showed that the relationship developed can be applied to nearly any internal combustion recipricating engine.
Technical Paper

Development of a PEM Fuel Cell System for Vehicular Application

Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors is performing the first phase of a multiphase development project aimed at demonstrating an electric vehicle based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. This work is sponsored by the Office of Transportation Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) through the DoE's Chicago Field Office (Contract No. DE-AC02-90CH10435). This work complements major efforts under way to produce electric vehicles for reducing pollution in key urban areas. Battery powered vehicles will initially satisfy niche markets where limited range vehicles can meet commuter needs. The PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid using methanol as fuel potentially offers an extremely attractive option to increasing the range, payload, and/or performance of battery powered vehicles.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Odor Its Evaluation and Relation to Exhaust Gas Composition

TECHNIQUES, based on panel estimates, were developed for evaluating the odor and irritation intensities of undiluted diesel-engine exhaust gases or of various dilutions of these gases in air. Along with the estimates, chemical analyses were made to determine the concentrations of total aldehydes, formaldehyde, and oxides of nitrogen. Statistically significant correlations were found between odor or irritation intensity estimates and the analytical data, but these correlations were too weak to permit accurate prediction of odor or irritation from chemical analyses. Effects of some engine variables on diesel odor were studied. Possible means of reducing diesel odor are discussed.
Technical Paper

Diurnal Emissions from In-Use Vehicles

One hundred fifty-one vehicles were recruited from the I/M lane in Mesa, AZ during the summer of 1996, and their 24 hour diurnal emissions were measured in a variable temperature SHED (VT-SHED). The fleet selection included the earliest applications of evaporative emission control, and later technologies that had at least 5 years of exposure. Model years 1971 through 1991 were tested. Fifty-three percent of the sample tested had daily emissions of more than 10 grams. Five of the 151 were over 50 grams per day, and had significant liquid leaks. Twenty-six (17%) of the vehicles had emissions exceeding one gram per hour. Thirty-two of the 151 tested (21%) had identifiable liquid leaks. Carburetor systems had higher emissions than fuel injection systems. The highest emitters had resting losses of more than 0.8 g/hr. These eight highest emitters were considered outliers for the purposes of general analysis, and were not used, as is noted in the report.
Technical Paper

Eco-labels and Eco-Indices. Do They Make Sense?

Life Cycle Assessments (LCA) of complex systems, such as vehicles and vehicle components, are based on the quantification of the energy, wastes, and emissions associated with the material production, manufacturing, use and end of life of the product. However, the volume of information needed to provide a comprehensive assessment of the environmental burdens is large and complicates the decision process in choosing among alternatives. For this reason people have attempted to simplify the information by collapsing it into a single index, which essentially assigns a score to a product of being “good” or “bad”. Even though such an approach looks attractive to the decision-makers that want simple answers based on meaningful data, the results may be misleading.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds Using Dibutyl Maleate and Tripropylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Diesel Fuel Additives to Lower NOx Emissions

A previous paper reported (SAE Paper 2002-01-2884) that it was possible to decrease mode-weighted NOx emissions compared to the OEM calibration with corresponding increases in particulate matter (PM) emissions. These PM emission increases were partially overcome with the use of oxygenated diesel fuel additives. We wanted to know if compounds of toxicological concern were emitted more or less using oxygenated diesel fuel additives that were used in conjunction with a modified engine operating strategy to lower engine-out NOx emissions. Emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from fuels containing triproplyene glycol monomethyl ether and dibutyl maleate were the same or lower compared to a low sulfur fuel (15 ppm sulfur) even under engine operating conditions designed to lower engine-out NOx emissions.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of a High Speed, High Resolution Gas Chromatography Instrument for Exhaust Hydrocarbon Speciation

The ozone forming potential (OFP) and specific reactivity (SR) of tailpipe exhaust are among the factors that determine the environmental impact of a motor vehicle. OFP and SR measurements require a lengthy determination of about 190 non-methane hydrocarbon species. A rapid gas chromatography (GC) instrument has been constructed to separate both the light (C2 - C4) and the midrange (C5 - C12) hydrocarbons in less than 10 minutes. The limit of detection is about 0.002 parts per million carbon (ppmC). Thirty exhaust samples from natural gas vehicles (NGV's) were analyzed to compare the rapid GC method with the standard GC method, which required 40-minute analyses on two different instruments. In general, evaluation of the commercial prototype from Separation Systems, Inc., indicates that a high speed, high resolution gas chromatograph can meet the need for fast, efficient exhaust hydrocarbon speciation.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Trends and Catalytic Devices

In 1968, a major oil company cancelled its annual automobile economy run after sponsoring it for 18 consecutive years -presumably due to lack of interest from the public and the press. Almost coincident with that cancellation was the beginning of production automobile exhaust emission control on a national basis and a downward inflection in the historic trend of automobile fuel economy. In contrast, the past year has seen a major revival of interest, by both the public and the press, in fuel economy. In the next few weeks, the nation will be introduced to a new direction in automotive exhaust emission control which will profoundly affect the fuel economy trend. Perhaps equally, or even more important, the next few months are expected to see major national decisions on future automobile emission control which will likely have a significant influence on the direction taken by automobile fuel economy a few years hence.
Technical Paper

General Motors High Performance 4.3L V6 Engine

FIGURE 1 The 200 HP high performance 4.3L Vortec V6 engine has been developed to satisfy the need for a fuel efficient performance powerplant in the General Motors small truck platforms. Marketing requirements included strong low and mid range torque, relatively high specific power, smoothness and noise comparable to the best competitive six cylinder engines, excellent driveability, and a new technology image. Maintaining the 4.3L engine record of high reliability and customer satisfaction was an absolute requirement. Fuel economy and exhaust emission performance had to meet expected customer and legislated requirements in the mid 1990's.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fuels and Ambient Conditions on IM240 Emissions

This paper describes an investigation of the impact of various fuels, soak and test conditions on the emissions performance of a MY1996 Corsica TLEV on an IM240 test. The study also probes the impact of turning the engine off just prior to the IM240 test under these conditions. We found using a Wintertime federal fuel with a sulfur content of 485 ppm that the HC, CO and NOx emissions were increased when compared with similar tests at the same temperature of 16°C using the California Phase 2 fuel with a sulfur content of 32 ppm. When tests using the Wintertime fuel were performed at temperatures lower than 16°C, the emissions increased dramatically. In control tests, the engine ran at a constant idle for 15 min. prior to the IM240 with no engine turn-off. However, when the engine was turned-off just prior to the IM240, slight increases in tailpipe emissions resulted at 23°C and 16°C using California RFG.
Technical Paper

Improved Emissions Speciation Methodology for Phase II of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program - Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates

Analytical procedures for the speciation of hydrocarbons and oxygenates (ethers, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols) in vehicle evaporative and tailpipe exhaust emissions have been improved for Phase II studies of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP). One gas chromatograph (GC) was used for measurement of C1-C4 species and a second GC for C4-C12 species. Detection limits for this technique are 0.005 ppm C or 0.1 mg/mile exhaust emission level at a chromatographic signal-to-noise ratio of 3/1, a ten-fold improvement over the Phase I technique. The Phase I library was modified to include additional species for a total of 154 species. A 23-component gas standard was used to establish a calibration scale for automated computer identification of species. This method identifies 95±3% of the total hydrocarbon mass measured by GC for a typical exhaust sample. Solid adsorbent cartridges or impingers were used to collect aldehydes and ketones.
Technical Paper

Improvement on Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variation Using a Cylinder Balancing Control Strategy in Gasoline HCCI Engines

Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion offers significant efficiency improvements compared to conventional gasoline engines. However, due to the nature of HCCI combustion, traditional HCCI engines show some degree of sensitivity to in-cylinder thermal conditions; thus higher cylinder-to-cylinder variation was observed especially at low load and high load operating conditions due to different injector characteristics, different amount of reforming as well as non-uniform EGR distribution. To address these issues, a cylinder balancing control strategy was developed for a multi-cylinder engine. In particular, the cylinder balancing control strategy balances CA50 and AF ratio at high load and low load conditions, respectively. Combustion noise was significantly reduced at high load while combustion stability was improved at low load with the cylinder balancing control.
Technical Paper

Life Cycle Analysis Framework; A Comparison of HFC-134a, HFC-134a Enhanced, HFC-152a, R744, R744 Enhanced, and R290 Automotive Refrigerant Systems

The goal of this study is to assess the total Life Cycle Global Warming Impact of the current HFC-134a (R134a) refrigeration system and compare it with the effect of proposed alternatives, HFC-134a Enhanced, HFC-152 (R152a), R744, R744 Enhanced and R290, based on life cycle analysis (LCA). The enhanced systems include control strategies to elevate the compressor suction pressure as the evaporator load is reduced. The hydrofluorocarbons HFC-134a and HFC-152a are greenhouse gases (GHGs) and are subject to the Kyoto Protocol timetables, which when the treaty takes effect will require participating developed countries to reduce their overall CO2 equivalent emissions of six GHGs by at least 5% by 2012 from 1990 levels.
Technical Paper

Plasma Jet Ignition of Lean Mixtures

The development of a plasma jet ignition system is described on a 4-cyl, 140 in3 engine. Performance was evaluated on the basis of combustion flame photographs in a single-cylinder engine at 20/1 A/F dynamometer tests on a modified 4-cyl engine, and cold start emissions, fuel economy, and drivability in a vehicle at 19/1 air fuel ratio. In addition to adjustable engine variables such as air-fuel ratio and spark advance, system electrical and mechanical parameters were varied to improve combustion of lean mixtures. As examples, the air-fuel ratio range was 16-22/1, secondary ignition current was varied from 40 to 6000 mA, and plasma jet cavity and electrode geometry were optimized. It is shown that the plasma jet produces on ignition source which penetrates the mixture ahead of the initial flame front and reduces oxides of nitrogen emission, in comparison to a conventional production combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Rapid Hydrocarbon Speciation and Exhaust Reactivity Measurements using High Speed, High Resolution Gas Chromatography

The ozone forming potential (OFP) and specific reactivity (SR) of tailpipe exhaust are among the regulated factors that determine the environmental impact of a motor vehicle. OFP and SR measurements require a lengthy determination of about 160 non-methane hydrocarbon species. A rapid gas chromatography (GC) instrument has been constructed to separate both the light (C2 - C4) and the midrange (C5 - C12) hydrocarbons in less than 10 minutes. The limit of detection was about 0.002 parts per million carbon (ppmC). Twelve exhaust samples from two vehicles were analyzed to compare the rapid GC method with the standard GC method, which required 40-minute analyses on two different instruments. Speciation and reactivity data from the two methods were comparable. The increased sample throughput of rapid GC promises to improve OFP and SR measurements, particularly when good statistical data are necessary to insure accurate, precise results for low emission vehicles
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

Selection and Development of a Particulate Trap System for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

In order to meet progressively stringent regulations on particulate emission from diesel engines, GM has developed and tested a variety of trap oxidizer systems over the years. A particulate trap system for a light duty diesel engine has been selected and developed based on this experience, with particular emphasis on production feasibility. The system components have been designed and developed in collaboration with potential suppliers, to the extent possible. The technical performance of this system has been demonstrated by successful system durability testing in the test cell and vehicle experience in computer controlled automatic operation mode. Although the system shows promise, its production readiness will require more development and extensive vehicle validation under all operating conditions.