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Technical Paper

1958 Chevrolet LEVEL AIR SUSPENSION

1958-01-01
580049
CHEVROLET has made its new air-suspension system easily interchangeable in production line assembly with standard full-coil suspension by adopting a 4-link-type rear suspension with short and long arms. A feature of the system is the mounting of the leveling valves within the air-spring assemblies. These valves correct riding height continually at a moderate rate, regardless of whether the springs are leveling or operating in ride motion. The system provides constant frequency ride—ride comfort remains the same whether the car is occupied by the driver alone or is fully loaded.
Technical Paper

1988 Lincoln Continental Variable-Assist Power Steering System

1988-02-01
880707
Conventional power steering systems can be “tailored” to provide light steering efforts for parking and low speed, or high steering efforts for stability and “road feel” at high speed. In either case, the customer's preferred steering efforts are not provided at all times. Compromises are required. The need for a speed-sensitive steering effort system has prompted the introduction of several innovative variable-assist steering systems in the past few years, which are currently used in some European and Japanese vehicles. This paper describes a Ford-patented variable-assist system used on the 1988 Lincoln Continental, the first application of vehicle speed-sensitive steering to an American-designed and manufactured vehicle. The Ford Variable-Assist Power Steering System is a “rotary steering valve” system. It uses a modification of the current rotary valve to provide low steering efforts (low torsion bar twist) at low speed and higher efforts (more twist) as vehicle speed increases.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Effects of Fuel Properties of Non-Petroleum Fuels on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions

1984-10-01
841334
A single cylinder indirect injection diesel engine was used to evaluate the emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay of non-petroleum liquid fuels derived from coal, shale, and tar sands. Correlations were made relating fuel properties with exhaust emissions, fuel consumption, and ignition delay. The results of the correlation study showed that the indicated fuel consumption, ignition delay, and CO emissions significantly correlated with the H/C ratio, specific gravity, heat of combustion, aromatics and saturates content, and cetane number, Multiple fuel properties were necessary to correlate the hydrocarbon emissions. The NOx emissions did not correlate well with any fuel property. Because these fuels from various resources were able to correlate succesfully with many of the fuel properties suggests that the degree of refinement or the chemical composition of the fuel is a better predictor of its performance than its resource.
Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of the Fatigue Behavior of Spot Welded and Mechanically Fastened Aluminum Joints

1995-02-01
950710
The cyclic behavior of single overlap aluminum joints joined through a number of different methods has been investigated using Alcan 5754-O, an alloy that potentially could be used in structural applications. Overlap shear tests of spot welded, clinched and riveted joints are compared on the basis of their fatigue performance. The fatigue response of the spot welded joint was the baseline to which the other fasteners were compared. Test results showed an improvement of approximately 25% for both the mechanical clinch joints and aluminum rivets in fatigue strength at 106 cycles. The most significant improvement in fatigue strength of 100% was found for the self piercing rivets at 106 cycles. The failure behavior of the various joining methods is discussed as well as the surface appearance.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Time Domain and Frequency Domain Test Methods for Automotive Components

1994-11-01
942279
Frequency domain testing has had limited use in the past for durability evaluations of automotive components. Recent advances and new perspectives now make it a viable option. Using frequency domain testing for components, test times can be greatly reduced, resulting in considerable savings of time, money, and resources. Quality can be built into the component, thus making real-time subsystem and full vehicle testing and development more meaningful. Time domain testing historically started with block cycle histogram tests. Improved capabilities of computers, controllers, math procedures, and algorithms have led to real time simulation in the laboratory. Real time simulation is a time domain technique for duplicating real world environments using computer controlled multi-axial load inputs. It contains all phase information as in the recorded proving ground data. However, normal equipment limitations prevent the operation at higher frequencies.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Total and Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Engine Run on Two Different California Phase 2 Reformulated Gasolines

1994-10-01
941972
New regulations from the state of California have established, for the first time, reactivity-based exhaust emissions standards for new vehicles and require that any clean alternative fuels needed by these vehicles be made available. Contained in these regulations are provisions for “reactivity adjustment factors” which will provide credit for vehicles which run on reformulated gasoline. The question arises: given two fuels of different chemical composition, but both meeting the criteria for CA Phase 2 gasoline (reformulated gasoline), how different might the specific reactivity of the exhaust hydrocarbons be? In this study we explored this question by examining the engine-out HC emissions from a single-cylinder version of the 5.4 L modular truck engine run on two different CA Phase 2 fuels.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of the Emissions from a Vehicle in Both Normal and Selected Malfunctioning Operation Modes

1996-10-01
961903
A 1990 Ford Taurus operated on reformulated gasoline was tested under three modes of malfunction: disabled heated exhaust gas oxygen (HEGO) sensor, inactive catalytic converter, and controlled misfire. The vehicle was run for four U.S. EPA UDDS driving schedule (FTP-75) tests at each of the malfunction conditions, as well as under normal operating conditions. An extensive set of emissions data were collected. In addition to the regulated emissions (HC, CO, and NOx), a detailed chemical analysis was carried out to determine the gas- and particle-phase non-regulated emissions. The effect of vehicle malfunction on gas phase emissions was significantly greater than it was on particle phase emissions. For example, CO emissions ranged from 2.57 g/mi (normal operation) to 34.77 g/mi (disable HEGO). Total HCs varied from 0.22 g/mi (normal operation) to 2.21 g/mi (blank catalyst). Emissions of air toxics (1,3-butadiene, benzene, acetaldehyde, and formaldehyde) were also significantly effected.
Technical Paper

A Development Process to Improve Vehicle Sound Quality

1991-05-01
911079
Vehicle sound quality has become an important basic performance requirement. Traditionally, automobile noise studies were focused on quietness. It is now necessary for the automobile to be more than quiet. The sound must be pleasing. This paper describes a development process to improve both vehicle noise level and sound quality. Formal experimental design techniques were utilized to quantify various hardware effects. A-weighted sound pressure level, Speech Intelligibility, and Composite Rating of Preference were the three descriptors used to characterize the vehicle's sound quality. Engineering knowledge augmented with graphical and statistical techniques were utilized during data analysis. The individual component contributions to each of the sound quality descriptors were also quantified in this study.
Technical Paper

A Dynamometer Study of Off-Cycle Exhaust Emissions - The Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program

1997-05-01
971655
Four vehicle fleets, consisting of 3 to 4 vehicles each, were emission tested on a 48″ roll chassis dynamometer using both the FTP urban dynamometer driving cycle and the REP05 driving cycle. The REP05 cycle was developed to test vehicles under high speed and high load conditions not included in the FTP. The vehicle fleets consisted of 1989 light-duty gasoline vehicles, 1992-93 limited production FFV/VFV methanol vehicles, 1992-93 compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles and their gasoline counterparts, and a 1992 production and two prototype ethanol FFV/VFV vehicles. All vehicles (except the dedicated CNG vehicles) were tested using Auto/Oil AQIRP fuels A and C2. Other fuels used were M85 blended from A and C2, E85 blended from C1, which is similar to C2 but without MTBE, and four CNG fuels representing the range of in-use CNG fuels. In addition to bag measurements, tailpipe exhaust concentration and A/F data were collected once per second throughout every test.
Technical Paper

A Five-Speed Starting Clutch Automatic Transmission Vehicle

2003-03-03
2003-01-0248
A wet multi-plate clutch, designated as the “starting clutch”, is used to replace the torque converter in the automatic transmission in order to improve vehicle fuel economy. The transmission ratio spread must be increased to compensate for the torque multiplication of the torque converter and avoid penalizing the 0-60 mph acceleration performance. The main challenge of this concept is the control of the starting clutch to ensure acceptable vehicle drivability. This paper describes the system of a five-speed starting clutch automatic transmission vehicle and shows vehicle test results. Vehicle test data show that (i) the fuel economy benefit of the starting clutch is significant, and (ii) a starting clutch transmission can be designed to equal or better the 0-60 mph acceleration performance of a torque converter transmission by proper selection of the gear ratios.
Technical Paper

A Gasoline Engine Cycle that Permits High Expansion Operation with Reduced Part Load Throttling Losses by Modulating Charge Mass and Temperature

1986-02-01
860327
A four-stroke, spark-ignition engine is described that seeks to achieve high expansion ratio and low throttling losses at light load, whilst retaining good knock resistance at full load operation and without the need for expensive mechanical changes to the engine. The engine does, however, incorporate a second inlet (transfer) valve and associated transfer port linked to the intake port. The timing of the transfer valve is different from that of the main inlet valve. Load modulation is achieved by control of the gas outflow from the transfer port. A computer model of the engine is first validated against measured data from a conventional engine. Comparisons are made of incylinder pressure at part load conditions, total air flowrate through the engine and intake port air velocities as a function of crank angle position.
Technical Paper

A Magnetorheological Door Check

2001-03-05
2001-01-0619
Several shortcomings of mechanical door checks are overcome using a magnetorheological damper. Because the damper is electrically actuated, it can check in any desired position. The logical decision to activate or release the door check can be made either by passive circuitry based on input signals from switches attached to door handles or under microprocessor control, in which case the decision can take into account a variety of unconventional input factors, including the magnitude of the force applied to the door, the rate of change of the applied force, and the angle of door opening. With the addition of an appropriate proximity sensor, the controllable damper can prevent the door from inadvertently hitting a nearby obstacle. Details of the damper mechanism are described, and several implemented control strategies, both passive and microprocessor based, are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Method for the Speciation of Diesel Fuel and the Semi-Volatile Hydrocarbon Fraction of Diesel-Fueled Vehicle Exhaust Emissions

1995-10-01
952353
Although much has been learned in recent years about the atmospheric reactivity of the hydrocarbon (HC) emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles, there is only a limited database of corresponding information for exhaust emissions from diesel-fueled vehicles. An assessment of exhaust reactivity requires “speciation”, or measurement of the individual species of the HC fraction. The HC exhaust emissions are a complex mixture of unburned and partially burned fuel components. Because diesel fuel contains a much higher molecular weight range (typically C9-C26) than gasoline (typically C5-C12), new methodology was required to accommodate the collection and analysis of the >C12 fraction of the HC exhaust. As part of a study of the effects of fuel and other factors on the chemical nature of diesel emissions, we have developed a method for the collection and analysis of the semivolatile or heavy HC (>C12) fraction of the exhaust.
Technical Paper

A Method to Measure Air Conditioning Refrigerant Contributions to Vehicle Evaporative Emissions (SHED Test)

1999-05-03
1999-01-1539
Although the intent of the SHED test (Sealed Housing for Evaporative Determination) is to measure evaporative fuel losses, the SHED sampling methodology in fact measures hydrocarbons from all vehicle and test equipment sources. Leakage of air conditioning (AC) refrigerant is one possible non-fuel source contributing to the SHED hydrocarbon measurement. This report describes a quick and relatively simple method to identify the contribution of AC refrigerant to the SHED analyzer reading. R134A (CH2FCF3), the hydrofluorocarbon refrigerant used in all current automotive AC systems, as well as its predecessor, the chlorofluorocarbon R12, can be detected using the gas chromatography methods currently in place at many emissions labs for the speciation of exhaust and evaporative hydrocarbon emissions.
Technical Paper

A Multinational Approach to European Environmental Concerns

1986-10-06
861588
European legislation covering noise, smoke emission and industrial pollution, all seeking to improve the environment are not addressed in this paper, which takes only exhaust emission and fuel complexity as its subjects. It describes how this complexity can inhibit the development capacity, thus restricting the model offering of a major european automobile manufacturer. The paper concludes that general benefit would be derived from genuine pan european emission legislation, particularly if that legislation was established at levels of control that allowed the development and use of modern engine technology.
Technical Paper

A New Transient Passenger Thermal Comfort Model

1997-02-24
970528
This paper presents a new transient passenger thermal comfort model. The model uses as inputs the vehicle environmental variables: air temperature, air velocity, relative humidity and mean radiant temperature all of which can vary as a function of time and space. The model also uses as inputs the clothing level and the initial physiological state of the body. The model then predicts as a function of time the physiological state of the body and an effective human thermal sensation response (e.g. cold, comfort, hot, etc.). The advantage of this model is that it can accurately predict the human thermal sensation response during transient vehicle warm-up and cooldown conditions. It also allows design engineers the ability to conduct parametric studies of climate control systems before hardware is available. Here we present the basis of the new thermal comfort model and its predictions for transient warm-up and cooldown conditions.
Technical Paper

A Non-Intrusive Method of Measuring PCV Blowby Constituents

1994-10-01
941947
A technique is presented that has been successfully demonstrated to non-intrusively and quickly sample gases typically found in PCV systems. Color Detection Tubes (CDTs) were used with a simple sampling arrangement to monitor CO2, NOx, O2, and H2O(g) at the closure line, crankcase, and PCV line. Measurements were accurate and could be made instantaneously. Short Path Thermal Desorbtion Tubes (SPTDTs) were used at the same engine locations for the characterization of fuel- and oil-derived hydrocarbon (HC) fractions and required only 50 cc samples. High engine loads caused pushover of blowby vapors as indicated by increased concentrations of CO2, NOx, H2O(g), and fuel HCs in the engines' fresh air inlets during WOT operation. Peak concentrations of blowby vapors were measured in the crankcase under no load and part throttle conditions. Oxygen concentrations always opposed the trends of CO2, NOx, and H2O(g).
Journal Article

A Pareto Frontier Analysis of Renewable-Energy Consumption, Range, and Cost for Hydrogen Fuel Cell vs. Battery Electric Vehicles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1224
As automakers strategize approaches to sustainable vehicle technologies, alternative powertrains must be considered to reduce future fleet vehicle emissions and improve energy security. These alternative vehicles include different fuels and electrification. The ultimate for on-road CO2 reductions is a zero emission vehicle, which can be achieved by either a hydrogen fuel cell or battery electric vehicle. These vehicles would also require a renewable energy source to provide their propulsion energy in order to achieve maximum sustainability for both CO2 reduction and energy security. Renewable energy sources such as wind or solar result in heat or electricity that needs to be generated into an energy carrier such as hydrogen or stored in a battery. When examining these options based strictly on the efficiency path, previous analysis have concluded fuel cell vehicles may not be an appropriate suitability strategy in comparison to battery electric vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Performance Comparison of Various Automatic Transmission Pumping Systems

1996-02-01
960424
The pumping system used in a step ratio automatic transmission can consume up to 20% of the total power required to operate a typical automotive transmission through the EPA city cycle. As such, it represents an area manufacturers have focused their efforts towards in their quest to obtain improved transmission efficiency. This paper will discuss the history of automatic transmission pumps that develop up to 300 psi along with a description of the factors used to size pumps and establish pump flow requirements. The various types of pumps used in current automatic transmissions will be described with a discussion of their characteristics including a comparison based upon observations of their performance. Specific attention will be focused on comparing the volumetric efficiency, mechanical efficiency, overall efficiency, pumping torque and discharge flow.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Model for Feedgas Hydrocarbon Emissions: An Extension to Warm Engine Maps

2005-10-24
2005-01-3862
A feedgas hydrocarbon emissions model that extends the usefulness of fully-warmed steady-state engine maps to the cold transient regime was developed for use within a vehicle simulation program that focuses on the powertrain control system (Virtual Powertrain and Control System, VPACS). The formulation considers three main sources of hydrocarbon. The primary component originates from in-cylinder crevice effects which are correlated with engine coolant temperature. The second component includes the mass of fuel that enters the cylinder but remains unavailable for combustion (liquid phase) and subsequently vaporizes during the exhaust portion of the cycle. The third component includes any fuel that remains from a slow or incomplete burn as predicted by a crank angle resolved combustion model.
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