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Technical Paper

10 Year-Old Hybrid III ATD Positions in Panic Brake Conditions

Panic braking can cause an “in-position” unbelted occupant to become “out-of-position.” Although the braking event dynamics and initial positioning of the occupant affect the final position at time of impact (if any), general trends are assumed. FMVSS208 now includes “out-of-position” (OOP) performance for Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATDs) sizes twelve month to six year-old. Airbag suppression technologies currently address that range of OOP occupants. The objective of this study is to develop an approach to defining OOP test positions for the recently released 10 year old ATD and to assist restraint engineers in developing strategies to help reduce the risk of inflation induced injury to the larger out-of-position child. A series of panic brake tests was conducted with the 10 year-old Hybrid III to study panic braking kinematics. Antilock braking (ABS) generated the desired constant deceleration from high initial speeds (40 to 60mph) in three types of vehicles.
Technical Paper

1996 GM 7.4 Liter Engine Upgrade

General Motors Powertrain Division has developed the next generation big block V8 engine for introduction in the 1996 model year. In addition to meeting tighter emission and on-board diagnostic legislation, this engine evolved to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges. Starting with the proven dependability of the time tested big block V8, goals were set to substantially increase the power, torque, fuel economy and overall pleaseability of GM's large load capacity gasoline engine. The need for this new engine to meet packaging requirements in many vehicle platforms, both truck and OEM, as well as a requirement for minimal additional heat rejection over the engine being replaced, placed additional constraints on the design.
Technical Paper


General Motors Powertrain Group (GMPTG) has developed an all new small block V8 engine, designated LS1, for introduction into the 1997 Corvette. This engine was designed to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges while also meeting the ever increasing legislated requirements of emissions and fuel economy. This 5.7L V8 provides increased power and torque while delivering higher fuel economy. In addition, improvements in both QRD and NVH characteristics were made while meeting packaging constraints and achieving significant mass reductions.
Technical Paper

2006 Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06 Aerodynamic Development

This paper is intended to give a general overview of the key aerodynamic developments for the 2006 Chevrolet Corvette C6 Z06. Significant computational and wind tunnel time were used to develop the 2006 Z06 to provide it with improved high speed stability, increased cooling capability and equivalent drag compared to the 2004 Chevrolet Corvette C5 Z06.
Technical Paper

2006 Corvette Z06 Carbon Fiber Fender- Engineering, Design, and Material Selection Considerations

General Motor's Corvette product engineering was given the challenge to find mass reduction opportunities on the painted body panels of the C6 Z06 through the utilization of carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC). The successful implementation of a carbon fiber hood on the 2004 C5 Commemorative Edition Z06 Corvette was the springboard for Corvette Team's appetite for a more extensive application of CFRC on the C6 Z06 model. Fenders were identified as the best application for the technology given their location on the front of the vehicle and the amount of mass saved. The C6 Z06 CFRC fenders provide 6kg reduction of vehicle mass as compared to the smaller RRIM fenders used on the Coupe and Convertible models.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Airborne Road Noise Reduction of a Passenger Vehicle

This paper presents a case study on reducing road noise of a passenger vehicle. SEA, insertion loss and sound intensity measurements were the tools used in the study. A SEA model was constructed to predict the primary paths (panels or area) contributing to the overall interior sound field. Insertion loss measurements were used to verify the primary contributing paths identified using SEA. To provide further details of the primary paths, intensity maps of identified panels were measured allowing detailed reconstruction of the contributory panels. The SEA model, insertion loss, and intensity maps aided in providing possible design fixes that will effectively reduce road noise. Finally, comparisons of predicted results versus actual results at both a subsystem and a full vehicle level are included in this paper.
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Techniques to Forecast Consumer Satisfaction for Vehicle Ride

This paper presents a comparison of methods for the identification of a reduced set of useful variables using a multidimensional system. The Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and a standard statistical technique are used reduce the dimensionality of vehicle ride based on consumer satisfaction ratings. The Mahalanobis-Taguchi System and cluster analysis are applied to vehicle ride. The research considers 67 vehicle data sets for the 6 vehicle ride parameters. This paper applies the Mahalanobis-Taguchi System to forecast consumer satisfaction and provides a comparison of results with those obtained from a standard statistical approach to the problem.
Technical Paper


A comprehensive cycle analysis has been developed for four-stroke spark-ignited engines from which the indicated performance of a single cylinder engine was computed with a reasonable degree of accuracy. The step-wise cycle calculations were made using a digital computer. This analysis took into account mixture composition, dissociation, combustion chamber shape (including spark plug location), flame propagation, heat transfer, piston motion, engine speed, spark advance, manifold pressure and temperature, and exhaust pressure. A correlation between the calculated and experimental performance is reported for one engine at a particular operating point. The calculated pressure-time diagram was in good agreement with the experimental one in many respects. The calculated peak pressure was 10 per cent lower and the thermal efficiency 0.8 per cent higher than the measured values. Thus this calculational procedure represents a significant improvement over constant volume cycle approximations.
Technical Paper

A Design Tool for Producing 3D Solid Models from Sketches

A novel design tool that produces solid model geometry from computer-generated sketches was developed to dramatically increase the speed of component development. An understanding of component part break-up and section shape early in the design process can lead to earlier part design releases. The concept provides for a method to create 3-dimensional (3D) solid models from 2-dimensional (2D) digital image sketches. The traditional method of creating 3-dimensional surface models from sketches or images involves creation of typical sections and math surfaces by referencing the image only. There is no real use of the sketch within the math environment. An interior instrument panel and steering wheel is described as an example. The engineer begins with a 2-dimensional concept sketch or digital image. The sketch is scaled first by determining at least three known feature diameters.
Technical Paper

A Downforce Optimization Study for a Racing Car Shape

A new process is developed for the aerodynamic shape optimization of racing cars using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The process is based on using the mesh morphing techniques to create new designs for analysis by morphing the CFD mesh of the original design. The resulting improvements in the analysis turnaround time allow a quick exploration of the design parameters for determining the optimum aerodynamic design. The approach is used to perform a parametric study to optimize a racing car shape for maximum downforce. The analysis procedure used for the CFD analysis is tuned to ensure grid independence and accuracy of the predictions. The parametric study shows that the morpher-based process can quickly and precisely create designs for the CFD analysis. This process can become the foundation for the automated aerodynamic design optimization of the racing cars.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Durability Analysis Method and Application to a Battery Support Subsystem

The battery support in a small car is an example of a subsystem that lends itself to mounted component dynamic fatigue analysis, due to its weight and localized attachments. This paper describes a durability analysis method that was developed to define the required enforced motion, stress response, and fatigue life for such subsystems. The method combines the large mass method with the modal transient formulation to determine the dynamic stress responses. The large mass method was selected over others for its ease of use and efficiency when working with the modal formulation and known accelerations from a single driving point. In this example, these known accelerations were obtained from the drive files of a 4-DOF shake table that was used for corresponding lab tests of a rear compartment body structure. These drive files, originally displacements, were differentiated twice and filtered to produce prescribed accelerations to the finite element model.
Technical Paper

A FEA based Procedure to Perform Statistical Energy Analysis

A technique which uses Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to derive important parameters involved in SEA (Statistical Energy Analysis) is discussed. Application of the method to a variety of structures has yielded good correlation with experimentally generated results. SEA parameters including Coupling Loss Factors (CLFs), modal densities, and subsystem equivalent masses were obtained. The technique has the advantage of incorporating structural detail to enhance SEA predictions at lower frequencies where global modes are important, and it can be applied early in the design phase since no hardware is required. With this study, SEA is more readily applied to structure-borne noise problems in vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Flexible Engine Control Architecture for Model-based Software Development

The fierce competition and shifting consumer demands require automotive companies to be more efficient in all aspects of vehicle development and specifically in the area of embedded engine control system development. In order to reduce development cost, shorten time-to-market, and meet more stringent emission regulations without sacrificing quality, the increasingly complex control algorithms must be transportable and reusable. Within an efficient development process it is necessary that the algorithms can be seamlessly moved throughout different development stages and that they can be easily reused for different applications. In this paper, we propose a flexible engine control architecture that greatly boosts development efficiency.
Technical Paper

A Multi-hop Mobile Networking Test-bed for Telematics

An onboard vehicle-to-vehicle multi-hop wireless networking system has been developed to test the real-world performance of telematics applications. The system targets emergency and safety messaging, traffic updates, audio/video streaming and commercial announcements. The test-bed includes a Differential GPS receiver, an IEEE 802.11a radio card modified to emulate the DSRC standard, a 1xRTT cellular-data connection, an onboard computer and audio-visual equipment. Vehicles exchange data directly or via intermediate vehicles using a multi-hop routing protocol. The focus of the test-bed is to (a) evaluate the feasibility of high-speed inter-vehicular networking, (b) characterize 5.8GHz signal propagation within a dynamic mobile ad hoc environment, and (c) develop routing protocols for highly mobile networks. The test-bed has been deployed across five vehicles and tested over 400 miles on the road.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Measuring Aeration and Deaeration of Fluids

This paper describes the design and functionality of an in-situ air entrainment measuring device for analysis of the air entrainment and air release properties of lubricating fluids. The apparatus allows for a variety of measurement techniques for the aeration and deaeration of the lubricating fluid at various temperatures, pressures, and agitation speeds. This test apparatus is patent pending because of its unique ability to allow for continuous, in-situ measurement of the fluid properties and the rates of change of these properties. Most other measurement techniques and apparatuses do not allow for uninterrupted measurement. This apparatus is also unique in that it is capable of detecting minor fluid density changes at a lower level and with more accuracy than all other current techniques or apparatuses.
Technical Paper

A Novel Design Concept of a Lateral Sliding Bucket Seat on Roller Mechanisms

A novel lateral sliding vehicle bucket seat was developed to address consumer needs for improved facile access to third row seats in minivans and sport utility vehicles. The concept provides for a second row bucket seat to slide laterally across a vehicle floor by roller mechanisms that roll across steel rails that transverse the vehicle floor. The system consists of two T-section type steel rails mounted parallel to each other at a distance equal to the seat riser support attachment features. The seat risers contain a roller mechanism that enables contact with the cylindrical portion of the steel rails. Each steel rail contains rectangular openings spaced appropriately to allow the seat latching mechanisms to engage securely. The seat riser supports at the rear include a releasable clamping mechanism hook that engages and disengages into the rectangular openings of the steel rails.
Technical Paper

A Proactive Design Development Process - An Automotive Example of Door Glass Guidance Mechanism

Today's competitive market requires new products to have extremely high Quality; customer expectation demands it. Testing, Validation, Setting Requirements, Failure Mode & Effect Analysis (FMEA), and Design Reviews by themselves do not improve a product; they only provide information that has to be translated into Design/Manufacturing & Service tasks. The quality of these tasks determines how well the new product will perform at its introduction. This paper outlines a generic Development Process through the use of an automotive example for a Door Glass Guidance Mechanism. This process includes the fundamental steps involving recommendations for setting requirements, benchmarking, and a methodology on how to design in requirements through the use of analytical and experimental tools to create Robust Designs. Also included are examples of Validation and Assessment Plans that are requirement driven.
Journal Article

A Scientific Approach for Designing Conservative Tests in Vehicle Development

This paper suggests a scientific approach to designing conservative tests based on computer simulation of the influence of the sources of variations. The idea is to design the conservative test so that, even in the presence of variation, there is a high probability that a random test will have a better result than the conservative test. Therefore, if the conservative test meets the requirement, one has a scientific reason to believe that any random test would have a high probability of meeting it. This new approach is illustrated for FMVSS301 80 kph 70% rear offset deformable barrier impact.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for Gasoline Engine Cold Start Fuel Calibration

The paper presents a simulation model for the cold start fuel calibration (CSFC) in port-fuel-injected gasoline engines. The model is based on data that is readily available during regular engine tests. The model has been applied to a 2.4L, 4-cylinder, 16 valve, DOHC, multipoint-port-fuel-injection spark ignition gasoline engine. The model determines the amount of fuel vaporized in the intake port at any crank angle degree, and in the cylinder on cycle-by-cycle basis, during the cold start process.
Technical Paper

A Simulation Model for the Saturn VUE Green Line Hybrid Vehicle

In developing the 2007 Model Year Saturn VUE Green Line hybrid vehicle, a vehicle model for prediction of fuel economy and performance was developed. This model was developed in Matlab / Simulink / Stateflow by augmenting an existing conventional vehicle model to include hybrid components and controls. The generic structure and the functionalities of the model are presented. This simulation model was used for rapid concept selection and requirements balancing early in the vehicle development process. Engine usage and energy distributions are shown based on simulation results. Fuel economy breakdown was also discussed.