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Technical Paper

A Dynamic Durability Analysis Method and Application to a Battery Support Subsystem

2004-03-08
2004-01-0874
The battery support in a small car is an example of a subsystem that lends itself to mounted component dynamic fatigue analysis, due to its weight and localized attachments. This paper describes a durability analysis method that was developed to define the required enforced motion, stress response, and fatigue life for such subsystems. The method combines the large mass method with the modal transient formulation to determine the dynamic stress responses. The large mass method was selected over others for its ease of use and efficiency when working with the modal formulation and known accelerations from a single driving point. In this example, these known accelerations were obtained from the drive files of a 4-DOF shake table that was used for corresponding lab tests of a rear compartment body structure. These drive files, originally displacements, were differentiated twice and filtered to produce prescribed accelerations to the finite element model.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Process of CFD Analysis and Design Optimization with Underhood Thermal Application

2001-03-05
2001-01-0637
With the revolutionary advances in computing power and software technology, the future trend of integrating design and CFD analysis software package to realize an automated design optimization has been explored in this study. The integrated process of UG, ICEMCFD, and FLUENT was accomplished using iSIGHT for vehicle Aero/Thermal applications. Process integration, CFD solution strategy, optimization algorithm and the practicality for real world problem of this process have been studied, and will be discussed in this paper. As an example of this application, the results of an underhood thermal design will be presented. The advantage of systematical and rapid design exploration is demonstrated by using this integrated process. It also shows the great potential of computer based design automation in vehicle Aero/Thermal development.
Technical Paper

Application of Principle Component Analysis to Low Speed Rear Impact - Design for Six Sigma Project at General Motors

2009-04-20
2009-01-1204
This study involves an application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) conducted in support of a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project. Primary focus of the project is to optimize seat parameters that influence Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) whiplash performance. During the DFSS study, the project team identified a need to rank order critical design factors statistically and establish their contribution to LSRI performance. It is also required to develop a transfer function for the LSRI rating in terms of test response parameters that can be used for optimization. This statistical approach resulted in a reliable transfer function that can applied across all seat designs and enabled us to separate vital few parameters from several many.
Technical Paper

Automation of Structural Fatigue/Reliability Assessment Using iSIGHT, MSC/Nastran and nCode

2005-04-11
2005-01-0823
The goal was to automate the entire analytical process of structural fatigue life variation assessment with respect to the variations associated with the geometry such as thickness, material properties and loading conditions. Consequently, the structural reliability is evaluated systematically. This process automation has been realized by using an internally developed software package called Structural Fatigue/Reliability Sensitivity II (i.e. FRS II). The package is a bundle of MSC/Nastran, nCode, iSIGHT, and internally developed program scripts.
Technical Paper

Brake and Cruise System Integration using Robust Engineering

2003-03-03
2003-01-1095
This paper presents a project that was done to solve an integration problem between a brake system and a cruise control system on a GM vehicle program, each of which was supplied by a different supplier. This paper presents how the problem was resolved using a CAE tool which was a combination of formulated MS/Excel spreadsheet, Overdrive (GM internal code), and iSIGHT of Engineous Software Inc, which is a process integrator and process automator. A sensitivity study of system reliability was conducted using iSIGHT. The most sensitive factor was found through the sensitivity study. Thereafter, a Robust design was obtained. The recommended Robust Design was implemented in the vehicle program, which led to a substantial cost saving. The CAE software tool (the combination) developed through the problem solving process will be used to ensure quality of brake and cruise system performance for future vehicle programs.
Technical Paper

Changing Inspection and Maintenance Requirements: … A Result of New Emission Control Technology

1979-02-01
790783
Amendments to the Clean Air Act require the implementation of inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs in areas designated as non-attainment and unable to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards by 1982. Current I/M programs have been developed using data representative of pre- and early-catalyst emission control technology. Changes to current emission control systems and electronic computer controlled systems represent new emission control technology. This paper addresses the I/M situation as related to these system changes. Results of tests on a prototype system are presented. Parameter inspection and the utilization of built-in diagnostics on future systems have the potential to maximize the effectiveness of I/M programs.
Technical Paper

Computational Aeroacoustics Investigation of Automobile Sunroof Buffeting

2007-05-15
2007-01-2403
A numerical investigation of automobile sunroof buffeting on a prototype sport utility vehicle (SUV) is presented, including experimental validation. Buffeting is an unpleasant low frequency booming caused by flow-excited Helmholtz resonance of the interior cabin. Accurate prediction of this phenomenon requires accounting for the bi-directional coupling between the transient shear layer aerodynamics (vortex shedding) and the acoustic response of the cabin. Numerical simulations were performed using the PowerFLOW code, a CFD/CAA software package from Exa Corporation based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). The well established LBM approach provides the time-dependent solution to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations, and directly captures both turbulent and acoustic pressure fluctuations over a wide range of scales given adequate computational grid resolution.
Technical Paper

Computing Transfer Functions from Mass Loaded Response of Structures

2004-03-08
2004-01-0780
This paper outlines a method for computing the transfer functions of structures using their mass loaded responses. According to the method, scaled transfer functions are computed from the response of a structure and without any knowledge of the input forces. The paper outlines the analytical approach, develops the necessary equations for the computation of transfer functions between a mass loading point and other points on a linear dynamic system. A numerical example to show the validity, advantages and limitations of the method is also provided. Currently, the method can be applied to the responses obtained from analytical simulations where it may be necessary to compute coupled response of a simulated dynamic system with other dynamic systems that are not (or cannot be) included in a simulation. It is not uncommon that many dynamic simulations exclude certain coupling effects between the main and the auxiliary systems.
Technical Paper

Coupling Meshfree Methods with Reliability Analysis Techniques

2003-03-03
2003-01-0145
This report describes the use of meshfree methods for response and design sensitivity calculations within structural reliability analysis when geometric shape is a random variable. Brief descriptions of meshfree methods and advanced probabilistic methods are provided. An existing interface between the probabilistic analysis and traditional finite element method is modified to allow the use of meshfree methods for response and design sensitivity calculations within the probabilistic analysis routine. Two examples that treat design shape as a random variable are presented to assess the accuracy and use of meshfree methods for reliability analysis.
Technical Paper

Designing Automotive Subsystems Using Virtual Manufacturing and Distributed Computing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0288
Adopting robust design principles is a proven methodology for increasing design reliability. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) has incorporated robust design principles into their Signal Delivery Subsystem (SDSS) development process by moving traditional prototype manufacturing and test functions from hardware to software. This virtual manufacturing technique, where subsystems are built and tested using simulation software, increases the number of possible prototype iterations while simultaneously decreasing the time required to gather statistically meaningful test results. This paper describes how virtual manufacturing was developed using distributed computing.
Technical Paper

Distributed Control System Development for FlexRay-based Systems

2005-04-11
2005-01-1279
FlexRay is a new communication subsystem for future in-vehicle controls. There is a lack of mature model-based development methodologies to build complex FlexRay-based systems. In this paper we describe an end-to-end model-based development process for building a complex FlexRay-based distributed control system. We describe this in the context of safety critical x-by-wire systems for a realistic automotive application. This involves: control system modeling, functional simulation, and distributed software development. We first describe the process of functional and physical architecture design. Next we discuss the software development process dealing with software to hardware allocation, as well as scheduling of software and communication tasks on a time-triggered communication bus under stringent practical restrictions. We conclude by considering the integration issues relating to joint OEM/supplier development of distributed control systems.
Technical Paper

Dual Catalytic Converters

1975-02-01
750176
The stringent 1978 emission standards of 0.41 gm/mi HC, 3.4 gm/mile CO, and 0.4 gm/mi NOx may require the use of a dual catalytic converter system (reducing and oxidizing catalyst). These emission requirements have been achieved at low mileage with such a system, but it is complex and has exhibited poor durability. This system also results in the loss of fuel economy at the 1978 emission levels.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Moving Mesh CFD Study of Semi-truck Passing a Stationary Vehicle with Hood Open

2007-04-16
2007-01-0111
This paper examines the aerodynamic forces on the open hood of a stationary vehicle when another large vehicle, such as an 18-wheel semi-truck, passes by at high speed. The problem of semi-truck passing a parked car with hood open is solved as a transient two-vehicle aerodynamics problem with a Dynamic Moving Mesh (DMM) capability in commercial CFD software package FLUENT. To assess the computational feasibility, a simplified compact car / semi-truck geometry and CFD meshes are used in the first trial example. At 70 mph semi-truck speed, the CFD results indicate a peak aerodynamic force level of 20N to 30N on the hood of the car, and the direction of the net forces and moments on the hood change multiple times during the passing event.
Technical Paper

From Algorithms to Software - A Practical Approach to Model-Driven Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-1622
The value of model-based design has been attempted to be communicated for more than a decade. As methods and tools have appeared and disappeared from a series of different vendors it has become apparent that no single vendor has a solution that meets all users’ needs. Recently standards (UML, MDA, MOF, EMF, etc.) have become a dominant force and an alternative to vendor-specific languages and processes. Where these standards have succeeded and vendors have failed is in the realization that they do not provide the answer, but instead provide the foundation to develop the answer. It is in the utilization of these standards and their capability to be customized that companies have achieved success. Customization has occurred to fit organizations, processes, and architectures that leverage the value of model-driven design.
Technical Paper

Full Vehicle Finite Element Model 4-Post Durability Analysis

2005-04-11
2005-01-1402
4-Post durability test simulations using a nonlinear FEA model have been executed by engineers responsible for structural durability performance and validation. An integrated Body and Chassis, full FEA model has been used. All components of the test load input were screened and only the most damaging events were incorporated in the simulation. These events included the Potholes, Belgian Block Tracks, Chatter Bump Stops, Twist Ditches, and Driveway Ramps. The CAE technology Virtual Proving Ground (eta/VPG®*) was used to model the full system and the 4-Post test fixtures. The nonlinear dynamic FE solver LS-DYNA** was used in this analysis. The fatigue damage of each selected event was calculated separately and then added together according to the test schedule. Due to the lack of stress/strain information from hardware test, only the analyzed fatigue damage results of the baseline model were scaled to correlate with physical test data.
Technical Paper

Future Truck Steering Effort Optimization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1155
In an endeavor to improve upon historically subjective and hardware-based steering tuning development, a team was formed to find an optimal and objective solution using Design For Six Sigma (DFSS). The goal was to determine the best valve assembly design within a hydraulic power-steering assist system to yield improved steering effort and feel robustness for all vehicle models in a future truck program. The methodology utilized was not only multifaceted with several Design of Experiments (DOEs), but also took advantage of a CAE-based approach leveraging modeling capabilities in ADAMS for simulating full-vehicle, On-Center Handling behavior. The team investigated thirteen control factors to determine which minimized a realistic, compounded noise strategy while also considering the ideal steering effort function (SEF) desired by the customer. In the end, it was found that response-dependent variability dominated the physics of our valve assembly design concept.
Technical Paper

Gear Mesh Excitation Models for Assessing Gear Rattle and Gear Whine of Torque Transmission Systems with Planetary Gear Sets

2007-05-15
2007-01-2245
This paper presents four methodologies for modeling gear mesh excitations in simple and compound planetary gear sets. The gear mesh excitations use simplified representations of the gear mesh contact phenomenon so that they can be implemented in a numerically efficient manner. This allows the gear mesh excitations to be included in transmission system-level, multibody dynamic models for the assessment of operating noise and vibration levels. After presenting the four approaches, a description is made regarding how they have been implemented in software. Finally, example models are used to do a comparison between the methods
Technical Paper

Improving a Vehicle Theft Deterrent System's Communication Using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)

2007-04-16
2007-01-0800
General Motors' vehicles are designed with an engine immobilizer theft deterrent system. An engine immobilizer theft deterrent system only allows starting of the vehicle engine after assuring the key is the correct key. The communication link from the vehicle to the key is a critical interface for the starting of the engine. This communication link must be reliable. The vehicle theft deterrent system's ability to communicate between the vehicle and transponder in the key is measured by the coupling factor. There are a number of physical interfaces that affect the coupling factor. The focus of this work is to understand the physics and critical design parameters involved in achieving optimal coupling factor to improve the first time quality in future designs. Achieving this objective will lead to designs robust to variances in material and packaging design and result in less testing. The process used in the past on these systems was the Design-Test-Fix approach.
Technical Paper

Model Driven Testing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0743
While the industry has recognized the value of modeling and code generation, the role of verification has taken a limited second tier role. Model Based Testing (MBT) is typically discussed in the context of automation of testing activities to eliminate the burden of generation and execution of tests. Unfortunately, this objective of effort minimization has skewed solutions away from using quality as a guiding metric. Alternatively, we have identified the simple objective of increasing the quality of testing practices and productivity of developers. In the following paper we introduce the integration of traditional software quality practices of functional, unit, and regression testing with the automated, model-driven world. This approach enables a quantitative approach to model driven software quality. The result is a robust technique that enables confident use of model-based development for production applications.
Technical Paper

Model-Driven Product Line Software Development Process

2005-04-11
2005-01-1288
The past 10 years have created such buzzwords as “model-based development” and “auto-code generation”. Conveniently absent from the tool literature on model-based development are the equally, or more important concepts of Software Architecture and Process. When developing product line software, the process and architecture form a critical foundation to base reusable products and components. The development process can no longer be viewed as “model-based”, but rather as “model-driven”, due to the reliance on the models as the source artifact as opposed to the creators of the source artifacts. A model-driven product line software development process allows capturing of behavior, for commonality across different products, and having a different implementation for a specific product release.
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