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Technical Paper

A Dynamic Durability Analysis Method and Application to a Battery Support Subsystem

2004-03-08
2004-01-0874
The battery support in a small car is an example of a subsystem that lends itself to mounted component dynamic fatigue analysis, due to its weight and localized attachments. This paper describes a durability analysis method that was developed to define the required enforced motion, stress response, and fatigue life for such subsystems. The method combines the large mass method with the modal transient formulation to determine the dynamic stress responses. The large mass method was selected over others for its ease of use and efficiency when working with the modal formulation and known accelerations from a single driving point. In this example, these known accelerations were obtained from the drive files of a 4-DOF shake table that was used for corresponding lab tests of a rear compartment body structure. These drive files, originally displacements, were differentiated twice and filtered to produce prescribed accelerations to the finite element model.
Technical Paper

Application of Elastomeric Components for Noise and Vibration Isolation in the Automotive Industry

2001-04-30
2001-01-1447
Elastomeric isolators are used in a variety of different applications to reduce noise and vibration. To use isolators effectively requires the product design and development engineer to satisfy multiple objectives, which typically include packaging restrictions, environmental criteria, limitations on motion control, load requirements, and minimum fatigue life, in addition to vibration isolation performance. An understanding of elastomeric material properties and the methods used to characterize elastomeric component behavior is necessary to achieve desired performance. Typical design criteria and functional objectives for various isolator applications, including powertrain mounts, suspension control arm bushings, shock absorber bushings, exhaust hangers, flexible couplings, cradle mounts, body mounts and vibration dampers are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Application of Principle Component Analysis to Low Speed Rear Impact - Design for Six Sigma Project at General Motors

2009-04-20
2009-01-1204
This study involves an application of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) conducted in support of a Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project. Primary focus of the project is to optimize seat parameters that influence Low Speed Rear Impact (LSRI) whiplash performance. During the DFSS study, the project team identified a need to rank order critical design factors statistically and establish their contribution to LSRI performance. It is also required to develop a transfer function for the LSRI rating in terms of test response parameters that can be used for optimization. This statistical approach resulted in a reliable transfer function that can applied across all seat designs and enabled us to separate vital few parameters from several many.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Vehicle Concept Finite-Element Model for Predicting Structural Vibration

2001-04-30
2001-01-1402
A vehicle concept finite-element model is experimentally assessed for predicting structural vibration to 50 Hz. The vehicle concept model represents the body structure with a coarse mesh of plate and beam elements, while the suspension and powertrain are modeled with a coarse mesh of rigid-links, beams, and lumped mass, damping, and stiffness elements. Comparisons are made between the predicted and measured frequency-response-functions (FRFs) and modes of (a) the body-in-white, (b) the trimmed body, and (c) the full vehicle. For the full vehicle, the comparisons are with a comprehensive set of measured FRFs from 63 tests of nominally identical vehicles that demonstrate the vehicle-to-vehicle variability of the measured FRF response.
Technical Paper

Automation of Structural Fatigue/Reliability Assessment Using iSIGHT, MSC/Nastran and nCode

2005-04-11
2005-01-0823
The goal was to automate the entire analytical process of structural fatigue life variation assessment with respect to the variations associated with the geometry such as thickness, material properties and loading conditions. Consequently, the structural reliability is evaluated systematically. This process automation has been realized by using an internally developed software package called Structural Fatigue/Reliability Sensitivity II (i.e. FRS II). The package is a bundle of MSC/Nastran, nCode, iSIGHT, and internally developed program scripts.
Technical Paper

Brake and Cruise System Integration using Robust Engineering

2003-03-03
2003-01-1095
This paper presents a project that was done to solve an integration problem between a brake system and a cruise control system on a GM vehicle program, each of which was supplied by a different supplier. This paper presents how the problem was resolved using a CAE tool which was a combination of formulated MS/Excel spreadsheet, Overdrive (GM internal code), and iSIGHT of Engineous Software Inc, which is a process integrator and process automator. A sensitivity study of system reliability was conducted using iSIGHT. The most sensitive factor was found through the sensitivity study. Thereafter, a Robust design was obtained. The recommended Robust Design was implemented in the vehicle program, which led to a substantial cost saving. The CAE software tool (the combination) developed through the problem solving process will be used to ensure quality of brake and cruise system performance for future vehicle programs.
Technical Paper

Changing Inspection and Maintenance Requirements: … A Result of New Emission Control Technology

1979-02-01
790783
Amendments to the Clean Air Act require the implementation of inspection/maintenance (I/M) programs in areas designated as non-attainment and unable to meet the National Ambient Air Quality Standards by 1982. Current I/M programs have been developed using data representative of pre- and early-catalyst emission control technology. Changes to current emission control systems and electronic computer controlled systems represent new emission control technology. This paper addresses the I/M situation as related to these system changes. Results of tests on a prototype system are presented. Parameter inspection and the utilization of built-in diagnostics on future systems have the potential to maximize the effectiveness of I/M programs.
Technical Paper

Coupling Meshfree Methods with Reliability Analysis Techniques

2003-03-03
2003-01-0145
This report describes the use of meshfree methods for response and design sensitivity calculations within structural reliability analysis when geometric shape is a random variable. Brief descriptions of meshfree methods and advanced probabilistic methods are provided. An existing interface between the probabilistic analysis and traditional finite element method is modified to allow the use of meshfree methods for response and design sensitivity calculations within the probabilistic analysis routine. Two examples that treat design shape as a random variable are presented to assess the accuracy and use of meshfree methods for reliability analysis.
Technical Paper

Designing Automotive Subsystems Using Virtual Manufacturing and Distributed Computing

2008-04-14
2008-01-0288
Adopting robust design principles is a proven methodology for increasing design reliability. General Motors Powertrain (GMPT) has incorporated robust design principles into their Signal Delivery Subsystem (SDSS) development process by moving traditional prototype manufacturing and test functions from hardware to software. This virtual manufacturing technique, where subsystems are built and tested using simulation software, increases the number of possible prototype iterations while simultaneously decreasing the time required to gather statistically meaningful test results. This paper describes how virtual manufacturing was developed using distributed computing.
Technical Paper

Development and Experimental Evaluation of a Vehicle Structural-Acoustic Trimmed-Body Model

1999-05-17
1999-01-1798
A structural-acoustic finite-element model of an automobile trimmed-body is developed and experimentally evaluated for predicting body vibration and interior noise for frequencies up to 200 Hz. The structural-acoustic model is developed by coupling finite element models of trimmed-body structure and the passenger-compartment acoustic cavity. Frequency-response-function measurements of the structural vibration and interior acoustic response for shaker excitation of a trimmed body are used to assess the accuracy of the structural-acoustic model.
Technical Paper

Dual Catalytic Converters

1975-02-01
750176
The stringent 1978 emission standards of 0.41 gm/mi HC, 3.4 gm/mile CO, and 0.4 gm/mi NOx may require the use of a dual catalytic converter system (reducing and oxidizing catalyst). These emission requirements have been achieved at low mileage with such a system, but it is complex and has exhibited poor durability. This system also results in the loss of fuel economy at the 1978 emission levels.
Technical Paper

Full Vehicle Finite Element Model 4-Post Durability Analysis

2005-04-11
2005-01-1402
4-Post durability test simulations using a nonlinear FEA model have been executed by engineers responsible for structural durability performance and validation. An integrated Body and Chassis, full FEA model has been used. All components of the test load input were screened and only the most damaging events were incorporated in the simulation. These events included the Potholes, Belgian Block Tracks, Chatter Bump Stops, Twist Ditches, and Driveway Ramps. The CAE technology Virtual Proving Ground (eta/VPG®*) was used to model the full system and the 4-Post test fixtures. The nonlinear dynamic FE solver LS-DYNA** was used in this analysis. The fatigue damage of each selected event was calculated separately and then added together according to the test schedule. Due to the lack of stress/strain information from hardware test, only the analyzed fatigue damage results of the baseline model were scaled to correlate with physical test data.
Technical Paper

Fundamental Dynamics of Steering Wheel Torsional Vibration on Smooth Roads

2006-04-03
2006-01-0564
Steering Wheel Torsional Vibration (SWTV) at highway speed on smooth roads is one important attribute affecting vehicle refinement. To ensure desirable SWTV performance, achieve the best design compromises and minimize the development cost, specific design targets need to be defined and the proposed design needs to be assessed very early in the vehicle development cycle. In this paper, the fundamental dynamics of SWTV are analyzed and examples are given to demonstrate the strategies to reduce the SWTV response. Influence of design parameters on the SWTV response is predicted for four vehicle platforms. General guidelines for designing suspension and steering systems are discussed to ensure achieving SWTV targets.
Technical Paper

Future Truck Steering Effort Optimization

2007-04-16
2007-01-1155
In an endeavor to improve upon historically subjective and hardware-based steering tuning development, a team was formed to find an optimal and objective solution using Design For Six Sigma (DFSS). The goal was to determine the best valve assembly design within a hydraulic power-steering assist system to yield improved steering effort and feel robustness for all vehicle models in a future truck program. The methodology utilized was not only multifaceted with several Design of Experiments (DOEs), but also took advantage of a CAE-based approach leveraging modeling capabilities in ADAMS for simulating full-vehicle, On-Center Handling behavior. The team investigated thirteen control factors to determine which minimized a realistic, compounded noise strategy while also considering the ideal steering effort function (SEF) desired by the customer. In the end, it was found that response-dependent variability dominated the physics of our valve assembly design concept.
Technical Paper

Gear Mesh Excitation Models for Assessing Gear Rattle and Gear Whine of Torque Transmission Systems with Planetary Gear Sets

2007-05-15
2007-01-2245
This paper presents four methodologies for modeling gear mesh excitations in simple and compound planetary gear sets. The gear mesh excitations use simplified representations of the gear mesh contact phenomenon so that they can be implemented in a numerically efficient manner. This allows the gear mesh excitations to be included in transmission system-level, multibody dynamic models for the assessment of operating noise and vibration levels. After presenting the four approaches, a description is made regarding how they have been implemented in software. Finally, example models are used to do a comparison between the methods
Technical Paper

Hybrid Technique Based on Finite Element and Experimental Data for Automotive Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-0466
This paper presents the hybrid technique application in identifying the noise transfer paths and the force transmissibility between the interfaces of the different components in the vehicle. It is the stiffness based formulation and is being applied for the low to mid frequency range for the vibration and structure borne noise. The frequency response functions such as dynamic compliance, mobility, inertance, and acoustic sensitivity, employed in the hybrid method, can either be from the test data or finite element solution or both. The Source-Path-Receiver concept is used. The sources can be from the road surface, engine, transmission, transfer case, prop-shaft, differential, rotating components, chain drives, pumps, etc., and the receiver can be driver/passenger ears, steering column, seats, etc.
Technical Paper

Improving a Vehicle Theft Deterrent System's Communication Using Design for Six Sigma (DFSS)

2007-04-16
2007-01-0800
General Motors' vehicles are designed with an engine immobilizer theft deterrent system. An engine immobilizer theft deterrent system only allows starting of the vehicle engine after assuring the key is the correct key. The communication link from the vehicle to the key is a critical interface for the starting of the engine. This communication link must be reliable. The vehicle theft deterrent system's ability to communicate between the vehicle and transponder in the key is measured by the coupling factor. There are a number of physical interfaces that affect the coupling factor. The focus of this work is to understand the physics and critical design parameters involved in achieving optimal coupling factor to improve the first time quality in future designs. Achieving this objective will lead to designs robust to variances in material and packaging design and result in less testing. The process used in the past on these systems was the Design-Test-Fix approach.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Mobility Relationship to the Dynamic Properties of the Structure-Borne Vibration Path within the Power Train and Vehicle

2003-05-05
2003-01-1601
The structure-borne vibration paths within the power train and the vehicle are complicated and have been studied for years. This complication is a result of multiple attachment locations, and directions that exhibit flexural resonance in both the source-side and response-side of the path. To aid understanding in discussion of the dynamic properties of an individual vibration path, simplified mechanical mobility models are employed. These models are typically more simplified by assigning classical elemental properties to the individual components represented in the model. An analysis was performed to understand the significance of more “real-like” component mobility properties on system response and isolation, consistent with the conversational mathematical interpretation. Components within the vibration path are modeled as multiple lumped-parameter elements.
Technical Paper

Minimization of Error for Enforced Motion in FEM

2001-04-30
2001-01-1409
Several methods are currently used to enforce motion in different types of noise and vibration models. Experimentally based FRF models often use a matrix inversion technique to enforce motion. In finite element models, the large mass method is one that is very commonly used. A literature review has shown few guidelines for determining the size of these large masses. In this paper, the relationship between the matrix inversion technique and the large mass method is derived. From this relationship, conditions necessary for these large mass FEM models to converge to the same answers as the matrix inversion technique are derived. These conditions are then used to develop a criterion for determining a smallest possible large mass. Results from a simple model are presented to demonstrate the criterion.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Robust Optimization for Performances of Noise & Vibration and Impact Hardness & Memory Shake

2009-04-20
2009-01-0341
This paper demonstrates the benefit of using simulation and robust optimization for the problem of balancing vehicle noise, vibration, and ride performance over road impacts. The psychophysics associated with perception of vehicle performance on an impact is complex because the occupants encounter both tactile and audible stimuli. Tactile impact vibration has multiple dimensions, such as impact hardness and memory shake. Audible impact sound also affects occupant perception of the vehicle quality. This paper uses multiple approaches to produce the similar, robust, optimized tuning strategies for impact performance. A Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) project was established to help identify a balanced, optimized solution. The CAE simulations were combined with software tools such as iSIGHT and internally developed Kriging software to identify response surfaces and find optimal tuning.
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