Refine Your Search



Search Results

Technical Paper

1996 GM 7.4 Liter Engine Upgrade

General Motors Powertrain Division has developed the next generation big block V8 engine for introduction in the 1996 model year. In addition to meeting tighter emission and on-board diagnostic legislation, this engine evolved to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges. Starting with the proven dependability of the time tested big block V8, goals were set to substantially increase the power, torque, fuel economy and overall pleaseability of GM's large load capacity gasoline engine. The need for this new engine to meet packaging requirements in many vehicle platforms, both truck and OEM, as well as a requirement for minimal additional heat rejection over the engine being replaced, placed additional constraints on the design.
Technical Paper


General Motors Powertrain Group (GMPTG) has developed an all new small block V8 engine, designated LS1, for introduction into the 1997 Corvette. This engine was designed to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges while also meeting the ever increasing legislated requirements of emissions and fuel economy. This 5.7L V8 provides increased power and torque while delivering higher fuel economy. In addition, improvements in both QRD and NVH characteristics were made while meeting packaging constraints and achieving significant mass reductions.
Technical Paper


A comprehensive cycle analysis has been developed for four-stroke spark-ignited engines from which the indicated performance of a single cylinder engine was computed with a reasonable degree of accuracy. The step-wise cycle calculations were made using a digital computer. This analysis took into account mixture composition, dissociation, combustion chamber shape (including spark plug location), flame propagation, heat transfer, piston motion, engine speed, spark advance, manifold pressure and temperature, and exhaust pressure. A correlation between the calculated and experimental performance is reported for one engine at a particular operating point. The calculated pressure-time diagram was in good agreement with the experimental one in many respects. The calculated peak pressure was 10 per cent lower and the thermal efficiency 0.8 per cent higher than the measured values. Thus this calculational procedure represents a significant improvement over constant volume cycle approximations.
Technical Paper

A Flexible Engine Control Architecture for Model-based Software Development

The fierce competition and shifting consumer demands require automotive companies to be more efficient in all aspects of vehicle development and specifically in the area of embedded engine control system development. In order to reduce development cost, shorten time-to-market, and meet more stringent emission regulations without sacrificing quality, the increasingly complex control algorithms must be transportable and reusable. Within an efficient development process it is necessary that the algorithms can be seamlessly moved throughout different development stages and that they can be easily reused for different applications. In this paper, we propose a flexible engine control architecture that greatly boosts development efficiency.
Technical Paper

A New Method of Measuring Aeration and Deaeration of Fluids

This paper describes the design and functionality of an in-situ air entrainment measuring device for analysis of the air entrainment and air release properties of lubricating fluids. The apparatus allows for a variety of measurement techniques for the aeration and deaeration of the lubricating fluid at various temperatures, pressures, and agitation speeds. This test apparatus is patent pending because of its unique ability to allow for continuous, in-situ measurement of the fluid properties and the rates of change of these properties. Most other measurement techniques and apparatuses do not allow for uninterrupted measurement. This apparatus is also unique in that it is capable of detecting minor fluid density changes at a lower level and with more accuracy than all other current techniques or apparatuses.
Technical Paper

A Three-Pillar Framework for Model-Based Engine Control System Development

This paper presents a comprehensive Matlab/Simulink-based framework that affords a rapid, systematic, and efficient engine control system development process including automated code generation. The proposed framework hinges on three essential pillars: 1 ) an accurate model for the target engine, 2) a toolset for systematic control design, and 3) a modular system architecture that enhances feature reusability and rapid algorithm deployment. The proposed framework promotes systematic model-based algorithm development and validation in virtual reality. Within this context, the framework affords integration and evaluation of the entire control system at an early development stage, seamless transitions across inherently incompatible product development stages, and rapid code generation for production target hardware.
Technical Paper

An Engineering Method for Part-load Engine Simulation

This work provides an effective engineering method of building a part-load engine simulation model from a wide-open throttle (WOT) engine model and available dynamometer data. It shows how to perform part-load engine simulation using optimizer for targeted manifold absolute air pressure (MAP) on a basic matrix of engine speed and MAP. Key combustion parameters were estimated to cover the entire part-load region based on affordable assumptions and limitations. Engine rubbing friction and pumping friction were combined to compare against the motoring torque. The emission data from GM dynamometer laboratory were used to compare against engine simulation results after attaching the RLT sensor to record emission data in the engine simulation model.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Application of Hydraulic Body Mounts to Reduce the Freeway Hop Shake of Pickup Trucks

When pickup trucks are driven on concrete paved freeways, freeway hop shake is a major complaint. Freeway hop shake occurs when the vehicle passes over the concrete joints of the freeway which impose in-phase harmonic road inputs. These road inputs excite vehicle modes that degrade ride comfort. The worst shake level occurs when the vehicle speed is such that the road input excites the vehicle 1st bending mode and/or the rear wheel hop mode. The hop and bending mode are very close in frequency. This phenomenon is called freeway hop shake. Automotive manufacturers are searching for ways to mitigate freeway hop shake. There are several ways to reduce the shake amplitude. This paper documents a new approach using hydraulic body mounts to reduce the shake. A full vehicle analytical model was used to determine the root cause of the freeway hop shake.
Technical Paper

Application of Model-Based Design Techniques for the Control Development and Optimization of a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

Model-based design is a collection of practices in which a system model is at the center of the development process, from requirements definition and system design to implementation and testing. This approach provides a number of benefits such as reducing development time and cost, improving product quality, and generating a more reliable final product through the use of computer models for system verification and testing. Model-based design is particularly useful in automotive control applications where ease of calibration and reliability are critical parameters. A novel application of the model-based design approach is demonstrated by The Ohio State University (OSU) student team as part of the Challenge X advanced vehicle development competition. In 2008, the team participated in the final year of the competition with a highly refined hybrid-electric vehicle (HEV) that uses a through-the-road parallel architecture.
Technical Paper

Bulkhead Loading Calculation of an Aluminum Engine Block Coupled with a Rotating Crankshaft through Elastohydrodynamic Bearings

During a new engine development program, or the adaptation of an existing engine to new platform architectures, testing is performed to determine the durability characteristics of the basic engine structure. Such testing helps to uncover High Cycle durability-related issues that can occur at the bulkhead walls as well as cap bolt thread areas in an aluminum cylinder block. When this class of issues occurs, an Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) bearing simulation capability is required. In this study, analytical methods and processes are established to calculate the localized distributed load on the bulkhead. The complexity in performing a system analysis is due to the nonlinear coupling between the bearing hydrodynamic pressure distribution and the crankshaft and block deformation. A system approach for studying the crankshaft-block interaction requires a crankshaft flexible body dynamics model, an engine block assembly flexible body dynamics model and a main bearing lubrication model.
Technical Paper

CFD for Flow Rate and Air Re-Circulation at Vehicle Idle Conditions

CFD method for the calculation of flow rate and air re-circulation at vehicle idle conditions is described. A small velocity is added to the ambient airflow in order to improve the numerical stability. The flow rate passing through the heat exchangers is insensitive to the ambient velocity, since the flow rate is largely determined by the fan operation. The air re-circulation, however, is quite sensitive to the ambient air velocity. The ambient velocity of U=-1m/s was found to be the more critical case, and is recommended for the air re-circulation analysis. The CFD analysis can also lead to design modifications improving the air re-circulation.
Technical Paper

CFD-based Robust Optimization of Front-end Cooling Airflow

Development and integration of the cooling system for an automotive vehicle requires a balancing act between several performance and styling objectives. The cooling system needs to provide sufficient air for heat rejection with minimal impact on the aerodynamic drag, styling requirements and other criteria. An optimization of various design parameters is needed to develop a design to meet these objectives in a short amount of time. Increase in the accuracy of the numerical predictions and reduction in the turn-around time has made it possible for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to be used early in the design phase of the vehicle development. This study shows application of the CFD for robust design of the engine cooling system.
Technical Paper

CFRM Concept at Vehicle Idle Conditions

The concept of condenser, fan, and radiator power train cooling module (CFRM) was further evaluated via three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies in the present paper for vehicle at idle conditions. The analysis shows that the CFRM configuration was more prone to the problem of front-end air re-circulation as compared with the conventional condenser, radiator, and fan power train cooling module (CRFM). The enhanced front-end air re-circulation leads to a higher air temperature passing through the condenser. The higher air temperature, left unimproved, could render the vehicle air conditioning (AC) unit ineffective. The analysis also shows that the front-end air re-circulation can be reduced with an added sealing between the CFRM package and the front of the vehicle, making the CFRM package acceptable at the vehicle idle conditions.
Technical Paper

CFRM Concept for Vehicle Thermal System

Condenser, fan, radiator power train cooling module (CFRM) proposed by Delphi Automobile Systems was evaluated in the context of vehicle thermal system analysis. The results from the CFRM configuration were compared with those from the conventional condenser, radiator, and fan power train cooling module (CRFM). The analysis shows that for a typical passenger vehicle, the underhood temperature for the CFRM configuration is more than 10°C lower than its CRFM counterpart when the fan is operating at the same speed of 2500 rpm. This is due mainly to the higher mass flow rate impelled by the fan in the CFRM configuration. At the equal mass flow condition, both the CFRM and the CRFM configurations give similar underhood temperatures; but the fan in the CFRM configuration uses 19% less power, due mainly to the reduction in the fan speed needed to impel the same amount of mass flow rate.
Journal Article

Chevrolet Sequel: Reinventing the Automobile

Sequel is the third vehicle in GM's Reinvention of the Automobile and is the first zero emissions passenger vehicle to drive more than 300 miles on public roads without refueling or recharging. It is purpose-built around the hydrogen storage and fuel cell systems and uses the skateboard principle introduced in the Autonomy vision concept and the Hy-wire proof-of-concept vehicles. Sequel's aluminum structure, Flexray controlled chassis-by-wire systems and AWD system comprising a single front electric motor and two rear wheel motors make it, perhaps, the most technically advanced automobile ever built. The paper describes the vehicle's design and performance characteristics.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Reverse-Tumble Wall-Controlled Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge Engine

Experimentally obtained combustion responses of a typical reverse-tumble wall-controlled direct-injection stratified-charge engine to operating variables are described. During stratified-charge operation, the injection timing, ignition timing, air-fuel ratio, and levels of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) generally determine the fuel economy and emissions performance of the engine. A detailed heat-release analysis of the experimental cylinder-pressure data was conducted. It was observed that injection and ignition timings determine the thermal efficiency of the engine by controlling primarily the combustion efficiency of the stratified charge. Hence, combustion phasing is determined by a compromise between work-conversion efficiency and combustion efficiency. To reduce nitric-oxide (NOx) emissions, a reduction in overall air-fuel ratio as well as EGR addition is required.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of a Spray-Guided Direct-Injection Stratified-Charge Engine with a High-Squish Piston

This work describes an experimental investigation on the stratified combustion and engine-out emissions characteristics of a single-cylinder, spark-ignition, direct-injection, spray-guided engine employing an outward-opening injector, an optimized high-squish, bowled piston, and a variable swirl valve control. Experiments were performed using two different outward-opening injectors with 80° and 90° spray angles, each having a variable injector pintle-lift control allowing different rates of injection. The fuel consumption of the engine was found to improve with decreasing air-swirl motion, increasing spark-plug length, increasing spark energy, and decreasing effective rate of injection, but to be relatively insensitive to fuel-rail pressure in the range of 10-20 MPa. At optimal injection and ignition timings, no misfires were observed in 30,000 consecutive cycles.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Efficiency Measurements and Simulation Results for Automotive Traction Drives

Mechanical Efficiency of toroidal traction drives is the key parameter for transmission engineers worldwide to accept their use in continuously variable transmissions. In this work, the traction drive efficiencies are investigated analytically as well as experimentally as a function of speed, torque, speed ratio and temperature for two different CVU's. In addition, creep at the traction contact is measured and compared with the prediction of the simulation model. In a stand-alone test rig, the drag torque associated with the power-roller thrust bearing is also measured.