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Technical Paper

A New Method of Measuring Aeration and Deaeration of Fluids

This paper describes the design and functionality of an in-situ air entrainment measuring device for analysis of the air entrainment and air release properties of lubricating fluids. The apparatus allows for a variety of measurement techniques for the aeration and deaeration of the lubricating fluid at various temperatures, pressures, and agitation speeds. This test apparatus is patent pending because of its unique ability to allow for continuous, in-situ measurement of the fluid properties and the rates of change of these properties. Most other measurement techniques and apparatuses do not allow for uninterrupted measurement. This apparatus is also unique in that it is capable of detecting minor fluid density changes at a lower level and with more accuracy than all other current techniques or apparatuses.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Bulkhead Loading Calculation of an Aluminum Engine Block Coupled with a Rotating Crankshaft through Elastohydrodynamic Bearings

During a new engine development program, or the adaptation of an existing engine to new platform architectures, testing is performed to determine the durability characteristics of the basic engine structure. Such testing helps to uncover High Cycle durability-related issues that can occur at the bulkhead walls as well as cap bolt thread areas in an aluminum cylinder block. When this class of issues occurs, an Elastohydrodynamic (EHD) bearing simulation capability is required. In this study, analytical methods and processes are established to calculate the localized distributed load on the bulkhead. The complexity in performing a system analysis is due to the nonlinear coupling between the bearing hydrodynamic pressure distribution and the crankshaft and block deformation. A system approach for studying the crankshaft-block interaction requires a crankshaft flexible body dynamics model, an engine block assembly flexible body dynamics model and a main bearing lubrication model.
Technical Paper

Concept and Implementation of a Robust HCCI Engine Controller

General Motors recently demonstrated two driveable test vehicles powered by a Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine. HCCI combustion has the potential of a significant fuel economy benefit with reduced after-treatment cost. However, the biggest challenge of realizing HCCI in vehicle applications is controlling the combustion process. Without a direct trigger mechanism for HCCI's flameless combustion, the in-cylinder mixture composition and temperature must be tightly controlled in order to achieve robust HCCI combustion. The control architecture and strategy that was implemented in the demo vehicles is presented in this paper. Both demo vehicles, one with automatic transmission and the other one with manual transmission, are powered by a 2.2-liter HCCI engine that features a central direct-injection system, variable valve lift on both intake and exhaust valves, dual electric camshaft phasers and individual cylinder pressure transducers.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Data Quality Checks and Procedures to Maximize Data Accuracy

Cylinder pressure data is so completely integral to the combustion system development process that ensuring measurements of the highest possible accuracy is of paramount importance. Three main areas of the pressure measurement and analysis process control the accuracy of measured cylinder pressure and its derived metrics: 1) Association of the pressure data to the engine's crankshaft position or cylinder volume 2) Pegging, or referencing, the pressure sensor output to a known, absolute pressure level 3) The raw, relative pressure output of the piezoelectric cylinder pressure sensor Certain cylinder pressure-based metrics, such as mean effective pressures (MEP) and heat release parameters, require knowledge of the cylinder volume associated with the sampled pressure data. Accurate determination of the cylinder volume is dependent on knowing the rotational position of the crankshaft.
Technical Paper

Design of a Rapid Prototyping Engine Management System for Development of Combustion Feedback Control Technology

Combustion feedback using cylinder pressure sensors, ion current sensors or alternative sensing techniques is actively under investigation by the automotive industry to meet future legislative emissions requirements. One of the drawbacks of many rapid prototyping engine management systems is their available analog interfaces, often limited to 10-12 bits with limited bandwidth, sampling rate and very simple anti-aliasing filters. Processing cylinder pressure or other combustion feedback sensors requires higher precision, wider bandwidths and more processing power than is typically available. For these reasons, Ricardo in collaboration with GM Research has developed a custom, high precision analog input subsystem for the rCube rapid prototyping control system that is specifically targeted at development of combustion feedback control systems.
Technical Paper

Development and Optimization of a Small-Displacement Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine - Stratified Operation

Superior fuel economy was achieved for a small-displacement spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engine by optimizing the stratified combustion operation. The optimization was performed using computational analyses and subsequently testing the most promising configurations experimentally. The fuel economy savings are achieved by the use of a multihole injector with novel spray shape, which allows ultra-lean stratification for a wide range of part-load operating conditions without compromising smoke and hydrocarbon emissions. In this regard, a key challenge for wall-controlled SIDI engines is the minimization of wall wetting to prevent smoke, which may require advanced injection timings, while at the same time minimizing hydrocarbon emissions, which may require retarding injection and thereby preventing over-mixing of the fuel vapor.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Finesse/Polish of Automotive Clearcoats

Minor surface defects in the clearcoat film are common place realities in modern automotive painting operations. Finessing and polishing processes are required to remove these defects and restore the clearcoat to its original condition. Evaluation of new clearcoat technologies and polishing processes has always been very subjective. This drove the development of a standardized test method for evaluating the finessability of a clearcoat. In this paper the authors will compare and contrast the differences between the traditional method used to evaluate finessability with the newly developed standardized method. The standardized method shows distinct advantages when evaluating different clearcoat technologies and polishing processes.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Revised ISO362 Standard for Vehicle Exterior Noise Measurement

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has developed a new measurement procedure, ISO362:200X, for vehicle exterior noise. This proposed standard covers motorcycles, light duty vehicles, and heavy-duty vehicles. The intent of the new procedure is to measure vehicle noise consistent with typical urban operation. SAE has conducted a cooperative research program to evaluate the new ISO procedure for light duty vehicles with regard to the intent of the procedure, technical, and practical considerations. The results of the cooperative research program indicate the new ISO procedure meets the intent of measuring typical traffic noise and does so in a technically correct and practically achievable manner.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Strength Effect of Thread Forming Process in Cast Aluminum

Two thread forming processes, rolling and cutting, were studied for their effects on fatigue in cast aluminum 319-T7. Material was excised from cylinder blocks and tested in rotating-bending fatigue in the form of unnotched and notched specimens. The notched specimens were prepared by either rolling or cutting to replicate threads in production-intent parts. Cut threads exhibited conventional notch behavior for notch sensitive materials. In contrast, plastic deformation induced by rolling created residual compressive stresses in the notch root and significantly improved fatigue strength to the point that most of the rolled specimens broke outside the notch. Fractographic and metallographic investigation showed that cracks at the root of rolled notches were deflected upon initiation. This lengthened their incubation period, which effectively increased fatigue resistance.
Journal Article

Gasoline Fuel Injector Spray Measurement and Characterization - A New SAE J2715 Recommended Practice

With increasingly stringent emissions regulations and concurrent requirements for enhanced engine thermal efficiency, a comprehensive characterization of the automotive gasoline fuel spray has become essential. The acquisition of accurate and repeatable spray data is even more critical when a combustion strategy such as gasoline direct injection is to be utilized. Without industry-wide standardization of testing procedures, large variablilities have been experienced in attempts to verify the claimed spray performance values for the Sauter mean diameter, Dv90, tip penetration and cone angle of many types of fuel sprays. A new SAE Recommended Practice document, J2715, has been developed by the SAE Gasoline Fuel Injection Standards Committee (GFISC) and is now available for the measurement and characterization of the fuel sprays from both gasoline direct injection and port fuel injection injectors.
Technical Paper

Injury Risk Curves for the WorldSID 50th Male Dummy

The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonized dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full-scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria).
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Buoyancy Driven Flow in a Simplified Underhood - Part II, Numerical Study

This paper describes the numerical results for a simplified underhood buoyancy driven flow. The simplified underhood geometry consists of an enclosure, an engine block and two exhaust cylinders mounted along the sides of the engine block. The flow condition is set up in such a way that it mimics the buoyancy driven flow condition in the underhood environment when the vehicle is parked in a windbreak with the engine shut down. The experimental measurements for temperature and velocity of the same configuration were documented in the Part I of the same title. Present study focuses on the numerical issues of calculating temperature and flow field for the same flow configuration. The predicted temperature and velocity were compared with the available measured data. The mesh sizes, mesh type and the orders of spatial and temporal accuracy of the numerical setup are discussed.
Technical Paper

Observer Design for Fuel Reforming in HCCI Engines Using a UEGO Sensor

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion shows a high potential of reducing both fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. Many works have been devoted to extend the HCCI operation range in order to maximize its fuel economy benefit. Among them, fuel injection strategies that use fuel reforming to increase the cylinder charge temperature to facilitate HCCI combustion at low engine loads have been proposed. However, to estimate and control an optimal amount of fuel reforming in the cylinder of an HCCI engine proves to be challenging because the fuel reforming process depends on many engine variables. It is conceivable that the amount of fuel reforming can be estimated since it correlates with the combustion phasing which in turn can be measured using a cylinder pressure sensor.
Technical Paper

The Next Generation Northstar DOHC 4.6L V8 Engine with Four-Cam Continuously Variable Valve Timing for Cadillac

A new generation Northstar DOHC V8 engine has been developed for a new family of rear-wheel-drive (RWD) Cadillac vehicles. The new longitudinal engine architecture includes strategically selected technologies to enable a higher level of performance and refinement. These technologies include four-cam continuously variable valve timing, low restriction intake and exhaust manifolds and cylinder head ports, a steel crankshaft, electronic throttle control, and close-coupled catalysts. Additional design features beyond those required for RWD include optimized block ribbing, improved coolant flow, and a newly developed lubrication and ventilation system for high-speed operation and high lateral acceleration. This new design results in improved performance over the entire operating range, lower emissions, improved fuel economy, improved operating refinement, and reduced noise/vibration/harshness (NVH).