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Technical Paper

1997 GM 5.7 LITER LS1 V8 ENGINE

1997-02-24
970915
General Motors Powertrain Group (GMPTG) has developed an all new small block V8 engine, designated LS1, for introduction into the 1997 Corvette. This engine was designed to meet both customer requirements and competitive challenges while also meeting the ever increasing legislated requirements of emissions and fuel economy. This 5.7L V8 provides increased power and torque while delivering higher fuel economy. In addition, improvements in both QRD and NVH characteristics were made while meeting packaging constraints and achieving significant mass reductions.
Technical Paper

2006 Corvette Z06 Carbon Fiber Fender- Engineering, Design, and Material Selection Considerations

2005-04-11
2005-01-0468
General Motor's Corvette product engineering was given the challenge to find mass reduction opportunities on the painted body panels of the C6 Z06 through the utilization of carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC). The successful implementation of a carbon fiber hood on the 2004 C5 Commemorative Edition Z06 Corvette was the springboard for Corvette Team's appetite for a more extensive application of CFRC on the C6 Z06 model. Fenders were identified as the best application for the technology given their location on the front of the vehicle and the amount of mass saved. The C6 Z06 CFRC fenders provide 6kg reduction of vehicle mass as compared to the smaller RRIM fenders used on the Coupe and Convertible models.
Technical Paper

360° vs. 270° vs. 180°: The Difference of Balancing a 2 Cylinder Inline Engine: Design, Simulation, Comparative Measurements

2012-10-23
2012-32-0106
Beside the automotive industry, where 2-cylinder inline engines are catching attention again, twin-cylinder configurations are quite usual in the small engine world. From stationary engines and range-extender use to small motorcycles up to big cruisers and K-Cars this engine architecture is used in many types of applications. Because of very good overall packaging, performance characteristics and not least the possibility of parts-commonality with 4-cylinder engines nearly every motorcycle manufacturer provides an inline twin in its model range. Especially for motorcycle applications where generally the engine is a rigid member of the frame and vibrations can be transferred directly to the rider an appropriate balancing system is required.
Technical Paper

A 3D Linear Acoustic Network Representation of Mufflers with Perforated Elements and Sound Absorptive Material

2017-06-05
2017-01-1789
The acoustics of automotive intake and exhaust systems is typically modeled using linear acoustics or gas-dynamics simulation. These approaches are preferred during basic sound design in the early development stages due to their computational efficiency compared to complex 3D CFD and FEM solutions. The linear acoustic method reduces the component being modelled to an equivalent acoustic two-port transfer matrix which describes the acoustic characteristic of the muffler. Recently this method was used to create more detailed and more accurate models based on a network of 3D cells. As the typical automotive muffler includes perforated elements and sound absorptive material, this paper demonstrates the extension of the 3D linear acoustic network description of a muffler to include the aforementioned elements. The proposed method was then validated against experimental results from muffler systems with perforated elements and sound absorptive material.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Airborne Road Noise Reduction of a Passenger Vehicle

2003-05-05
2003-01-1407
This paper presents a case study on reducing road noise of a passenger vehicle. SEA, insertion loss and sound intensity measurements were the tools used in the study. A SEA model was constructed to predict the primary paths (panels or area) contributing to the overall interior sound field. Insertion loss measurements were used to verify the primary contributing paths identified using SEA. To provide further details of the primary paths, intensity maps of identified panels were measured allowing detailed reconstruction of the contributory panels. The SEA model, insertion loss, and intensity maps aided in providing possible design fixes that will effectively reduce road noise. Finally, comparisons of predicted results versus actual results at both a subsystem and a full vehicle level are included in this paper.
Journal Article

A Hybrid Development Process for NVH Optimization and Sound Engineering Considering the Future Pass-by Homologation Demands

2016-11-08
2016-32-0043
Beside hard facts as performance, emissions and fuel consumption especially the brand specific attributes such as styling and sound are very emotional, unique selling prepositions. To develop these emotional characters, within the given boundary conditions of the future pass-by regulation, it is necessary to define them at the very beginning of the project and to follow a consequent development process. The following paper shows examples of motorcycle NVH development work on noise cleaning and sound engineering using a hybrid development process combining front loading, simulation and testing. One of the discussed solutions is the investigation of a piston pin offset in combination with a crankshaft offset for the reduction of friction. The optimization of piston slap noise as a result of the piston secondary motion was performed by simulation. As another example a simulation based development was performed for the exhaust system layout.
Technical Paper

A Software Tool for Noise Quality and Brand Sound Development

2001-04-30
2001-01-1573
For noise quality and brand sound design of passenger cars a unique software tool is currently used by our clients world-wide to evaluate and optimise the interior noise quality and brand sound aspects of passenger cars on an objective basis. The software tools AVL-VOICE and AVL-COMFORT are designed for the objective analysis of interior noise quality, for benchmarking, for the definition of noise quality targets and most important for effective vehicle sound engineering. With this tool, the target orientated implementation of the required interior noise quality or brand sound by predictable hardware modifications into passenger cars - for tailor made joy of driving - becomes feasible. The use of this tools is drastically reducing vehicle evaluation time and sound engineering effort when compared with traditional jury subjective evaluation methods and standard acoustic NVH optimisation procedures.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Glass Reveal Molding Test

1998-02-23
980718
Over the past 20 years, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has almost replaced metal in stationary glass reveal moldings with dramatic part cost savings on cars and trucks world-wide. The process of assembly is generally simple and convenient but to replace a reveal molding can be difficult. Many times, in order to replace the molding, it may also be necessary to replace or reseal the glass. In short, PVC reveal moldings, relatively inexpensive parts, are very expensive to service. Outside of general assembly and processing issues, there are 5 variables that may cause a failure in the performance of a stationary glass reveal molding. They are as follows: material degradation, crystallization, plasticizer loss, material properties, and molded-in stress. Because of modern standard PVC formulations and the material requirements of most automotive companies, material degradation, crystallization and plasticizer loss do not commonly cause failure. Material properties and molded-in stress do.
Technical Paper

Acoustical Advantages of a New Polypropylene Absorbing Material

1999-05-17
1999-01-1669
Sound absorption is one way to control noise in automotive passenger compartments. Fibrous or porous materials absorb sound in a cavity by dissipating energy associated with a propagating sound wave. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acoustic performance of a cotton fiber absorbing material in comparison to a new polypropylene fibrous material, called ECOSORB ®. The acoustical evaluation was done using measurements of material properties along with sound pressure level from road testing of a fully-assembled vehicle. The new polypropylene fibrous material showed significant advantages over the cotton fiber materials in material properties testing and also in-vehicle measurements. In addition to the performance benefits, the polypropylene absorber provided weight savings over the cotton fiber material.
Technical Paper

Active Path Tracking - A Rapid Method for the Identification of Structure Borne Noise Paths in Vehicle Chassis

2001-04-30
2001-01-1470
The effective identification and control of powertrain structure borne harmonic noise is one key for achieving the desired noise pattern in a vehicle. Much work is being done in this field to refine and develop transfer path analysis techniques suitable for application at each stage of a vehicle development program. For vehicle application, transfer path analysis and source identification techniques are in use today with varying degrees of success and application complexity. Investigation tools which are fast, do not require extensive vehicle dismantling and yet provide reliable answers, are of great value to NVH and sound quality engineers. A novel Active Path Tracking (APT) method has been developed which is fast to apply and offers immediate practical confirmation of the contributions of all identified chassis transmission paths to the vehicle interior.
Technical Paper

Advanced Simulation Technology Using LS-DYNA® for Automotive Body Manufacturing Process: From Stamping To Assembly

2009-04-20
2009-01-0983
In automotive body manufacturing, there are two processes are often applied, Nominal Build and Functional Build. The Nominal Build process requires all individual stamping components meet their nominal dimensions with specified tolerances. While, the Functional Build process emphasizes more on the tolerances of the entire assembly as opposed to those of the individual stamped parts. The common goal of both processes is to build the body assemblies that meet the specified tolerances. Although there is strict tolerance specified for individual stamping parts the finished stampings frequently are released to assembly process with certain levels of dimensioning deviations, or they are within the specified tolerances but require heavy clamping during assembly. It is of high interest to predict the dimensional deviations in the stamping sub-assembly or body-in-white assembly process.
Technical Paper

Aeroacoustics of an Automobile A-Pillar Rain Gutter: Computational and Experimental Study

1999-03-01
1999-01-1128
Noise due to the flow over an automobile A-pillar rain gutter in isolation was computed using a two step procedure. Initially the flow solution was obtained by solving the Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. Acoustical Sources were extracted from the flow solution and propagated to the far-field using the Lighthill-Curle equation. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the computations. Compared results include steady pressures, time dependent pressures, and sound intensity levels. Computed results and experimental data were reduced in a similar way to ensure a one to one comparison. Computed results are in good agreement with the experimental values. A-weighted noise levels are predicted reasonably well.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Sample Bag Hydrocarbon Emissions and Carbon Dioxide Permeation Properties

2004-03-08
2004-01-0593
The equipment for collecting dilute exhaust samples involves the use of bag materials (i.e., Tedlar®) that emit hydrocarbons that contaminate samples. This study identifies a list of materials and treatments to produce bags that reduce contamination. Based on the average emission rates, baked Tedlar®, Capran® treated with alumina deposition, supercritical CO2 extracted Kynar® and supercritical CO2 extracted Teflon NXT are capable of achieving the target hydrocarbon emission rate of less than 15 ppbC per 30 minutes. CO2 permeation tests were also performed. Tedlar, Capran, Kynar and Teflon NXT showed comparable average permeation rates. Based on the criteria of HC emission performance, changes in measured CO2 concentration, ease of sealing, and ease of surface treatment, none of the four materials could be distinguished from one another.
Technical Paper

Analytical Techniques for Engine Structure Using Prediction of Radiated Noise of Diesel Engine with Changing Combustion Excitation

2017-06-05
2017-01-1802
In the automotive industry, various simulation-based analysis methods have been suggested and applied to reduce the time and cost required to develop the engine structure to improve the NVH performance of powertrain. This simulation is helpful to set the engine design concept in the initial phase of the powertrain development schedules. However, when using the conventional simulation method with a uniformed force, the simulation results sometimes show different results than the test results. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for predicting the radiated noise level of a diesel engine using actual combustion excitation force. Based on the analytical radiated noise development target, we identify the major components of the engine that are beyond this development target by in the frequency range. The components of the problem found in this way are reflected in the engine design of the early development stage to shorten the development time.
Technical Paper

Application of Elastomeric Components for Noise and Vibration Isolation in the Automotive Industry

2001-04-30
2001-01-1447
Elastomeric isolators are used in a variety of different applications to reduce noise and vibration. To use isolators effectively requires the product design and development engineer to satisfy multiple objectives, which typically include packaging restrictions, environmental criteria, limitations on motion control, load requirements, and minimum fatigue life, in addition to vibration isolation performance. An understanding of elastomeric material properties and the methods used to characterize elastomeric component behavior is necessary to achieve desired performance. Typical design criteria and functional objectives for various isolator applications, including powertrain mounts, suspension control arm bushings, shock absorber bushings, exhaust hangers, flexible couplings, cradle mounts, body mounts and vibration dampers are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Application of Experimental Transfer Path Analysis and Hybrid FRF-Based Substructuring Model to SUV Axle Noise

2005-04-11
2005-01-1833
This paper describes an axle gear whine noise reduction process that was developed and applied using a combination of experimental and analytical methods. First, an experimental Transfer Path Analysis (TPA) was used to identify major noise paths. Next, modeling and forced response simulation were conducted using the Hybrid FEA-Experimental FRF method known as HYFEX [1]. The HYFEX model consisted of an experimental FRF representation of the frame/body and a finite element (FE) model of the driveline [2] and suspension. The FE driveline model was calibrated using experimental data. The HYFEX model was then used to simulate the axle noise reduction that would be obtained using a modified frame, prior to the availability of a prototype. Hardware testing was used as the final step in the process to confirm the results of the simulation.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Vehicle Concept Finite-Element Model for Predicting Structural Vibration

2001-04-30
2001-01-1402
A vehicle concept finite-element model is experimentally assessed for predicting structural vibration to 50 Hz. The vehicle concept model represents the body structure with a coarse mesh of plate and beam elements, while the suspension and powertrain are modeled with a coarse mesh of rigid-links, beams, and lumped mass, damping, and stiffness elements. Comparisons are made between the predicted and measured frequency-response-functions (FRFs) and modes of (a) the body-in-white, (b) the trimmed body, and (c) the full vehicle. For the full vehicle, the comparisons are with a comprehensive set of measured FRFs from 63 tests of nominally identical vehicles that demonstrate the vehicle-to-vehicle variability of the measured FRF response.
Technical Paper

Brake Noise Analysis with Lining Wear

2008-04-14
2008-01-0823
It is well known that lining reduction through wear affects contact pressure profile and noise generation. Due to high complexity in brake noise analysis, many factors were not included in previous analyses. In this paper, a new analysis process is performed by running brake “burnishing” cycles first, followed by noise analysis. In the paper, brake lining reduction due to wear is assumed to be proportional to the applied brake pressure with ABAQUS analysis. Brake pads go through four brake application-releasing cycles until the linings settle to a more stable pressure distribution. The resulting pressure profiles show lining cupping and high pressure spots shifting. The pressure distributions are compared to TekScan measurements. Brake noise analysis is then conducted with complex eigenvalue analysis steps; the resulting stability chart is better correlated to testing when the wear is comprehended.
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Noise Testing and Analysis Correlation

2003-05-05
2003-01-1616
Brake squeal has been a persistent quality issue for automobile OEMs and brake system suppliers. The ability to model and measure brake squeal dynamics is of utmost importance in brake squeal reduction efforts. However, due to the complex nature of brake squeal and the wide frequency range in which it occurs, it is difficult to accurately correlate and update analytical models to experimental results. This paper introduces a systematic and rigorous correlation and updating process that yields FE models, which can accurately reproduce high-frequency brake squeal dynamics.
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Reduction Using Robust Design

2003-03-03
2003-01-0879
This paper discusses a standard procedure to reduce brake squeal using CAE and robust synthesis & analysis techniques. There are several techniques available to evaluate the stability of a system. Complex eigenvalue analysis is used for predicting and reducing squeal propensity. The complex eigenvalue method was implemented using SOL110 in version 2001 of MSC/NSTRAN for this study. We applied the signal to noise ratio using an orthogonal matrix to evaluate the main parameter effects and minimize the sensitivity.
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