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Technical Paper

A Closed Loop Method for Vehicle Instrument Cluster Test Automation

2019-04-02
2019-01-1250
Instrument Panel Cluster (IPC), is a key ECU in vehicles. As IPC is a visual product, testing the software features of IPC is highly manual effort. Software Testing constitutes for approx. 35% of the total Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). High focus on quick to market, shorter SDLC coupled with manual validation environment poses a challenge of increasing testing efficiency and improving software quality. This challenge drove the need to investigate a solution to automate the testing process and cut down the huge manual effort that goes into validating an Instrument Panel Cluster (IPC) software. The proposed intrusive and non-intrusive approaches to automate the testing process of IPC software employs a Frame Grabbing technique for the former approach and a Camera based technique for the latter. Both the approaches are robust, reliable, and scalable and covers the major portion of Vehicle Instrument cluster test scenarios.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Testing and Evaluation Approach for Autonomous Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0124
Performance testing and evaluation always plays an important role in the developmental process of a vehicle, which also applies to autonomous vehicles. The complex nature of an autonomous vehicle from architecture to functionality demands even more quality-and-quantity controlled testing and evaluation than ever before. Most of the existing testing methodologies are task-or-scenario based and can only support single or partial functional testing. These approaches may be helpful at the initial stage of autonomous vehicle development. However, as the integrated autonomous system gets mature, these approaches fall short of supporting comprehensive performance evaluation. This paper proposes a novel hierarchical and systematic testing and evaluation approach to bridge the above-mentioned gap.
Technical Paper

A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Model for Gear Churning

2018-04-03
2018-01-0401
This paper presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for predicting power losses associated with churning of oil by gears or other similar rotating components. The modeling approach and parameters are optimized to ensure the accuracy, robustness, and computational efficiency of these predictions. These studies include a look at two types of mesh and a turbulence model selection. The focus is on multiple reference frame (MRF) modeling technique for its computational efficiency advantage. Model predictions are compared to previously published experimental data [1] under varying operating conditions typical for an automotive transmission application. The model shows good agreement with the hardware both quantitatively and qualitatively, capturing the trends with speed and submersion level. The paper concludes with presenting some key lessons learned, and recommendation for future work to ultimately build a highly reliable tool as part of the virtual product development.
Technical Paper

A System of Systems Approach to Automotive Challenges

2018-04-03
2018-01-0752
The automotive industry is facing many significant challenges that go far beyond the design and manufacturing of automobile products. Connected, autonomous and electric vehicles, smart cities, urbanization and the car sharing economy all present challenges in a fast-changing environment which the automotive industry must adapt to. Cars no longer are just standalone systems, but have become constituent systems (CS) in larger System of Systems (SoS) context. This is reflected in the emergence of several acronyms such as vehicle-to-everything (V2X), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) expressions. System of Systems are defined systems of interest whose elements (constituent systems) are managerially and operationally independent systems. This interoperating and/or integrated collection of constituent systems usually produce results unachievable by the individual systems alone, for example the use of car batteries as virtual power plants.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Hardware-in-the-Loop Technology in Support of Complex Integration Testing of Embedded System Software

2011-04-12
2011-01-0443
Automotive technology is rapidly changing with electrification of vehicles, driver assistance systems, advanced safety systems etc. This advancement in technology is making the task of validation and verification of embedded software complex and challenging. In addition to the component testing, integration testing imposes even tougher requirements for software testing. To meet these challenges dSPACE is continuously evolving the Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) technology to provide a systematic way to manage this task. The paper presents developments in the HIL hardware technology with latest quad-core processors, FPGA based I/O technology and communication bus systems such as Flexray. Also presented are developments of the software components such as advanced user interfaces, GPS information integration, real-time testing and simulation models. This paper provides a real-world example of implication of integration testing on HIL environment for Chassis Controls.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Trivial Principal Component Regression (TPCR)

2019-04-02
2019-01-0515
Understanding a system behavior involves developing an accurate relationship between the explanatory (predictive) variables and the output response. When the observed data is ill-conditioned with potential collinear correlations among the measured variables, some of the statistical methods such as least squared method (LSM) fail to generate good predictive models. In those situations, other methods like Principal Component Regression (PCR) are generally applicable. Additionally, the PCR reduces the dimensionality of the system by making use of covariance relationship among the variables. In this paper, an improved regression method over PCR is proposed, which is based on the Trivial Principal Components (TPC). The TPC regression (TPCR) makes use of the covariance of the output response and predictive variables while extracting principal components. A new method of selecting potential principal components for variable reduction in TPCR is also proposed and validated.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Hybrid Powertrain for Small and Medium Boats

2018-04-03
2018-01-0373
Hybridization is a mainstream technology for automobiles, and its application is rapidly expanding in other fields. Marine propulsion is one such field that could benefit from electrification of the powertrain. In particular, for boats to sail in enclosed waterways, such as harbors, channels, lagoons, a pure electric mode would be highly desirable. The main challenge to accomplish hybridization is the additional weight of the electric components, in particular the batteries. The goal of this project is to replace a conventional 4-stroke turbocharged Diesel engine with a hybrid powertrain, without any penalty in terms of weight, overall dimensions, fuel efficiency, and pollutant emissions. This can be achieved by developing a new generation of 2-Stroke Diesel engines, and coupling them to a state-of-the art electric system. For the thermal units, two alternative designs without active valve train are considered: opposed piston and loop scavenged engines.
Technical Paper

An Investigative Study of Sudden Pressure Increase Phenomenon Across the SCR on Filter Catalyst

2016-10-17
2016-01-2319
In the previous research1), the authors discovered that the sudden pressure increase phenomenon in diesel particulate filter (DPF) was a result of soot collapse inside DPF channels. The proposed hypothesis for soot collapse was a combination of factors such as passive regeneration, high humidity, extended soak period, high soot loading and high exhaust flow rate. The passive regeneration due to in-situ NO2 and high humidity caused the straw like soot deposited inside DPF channels to take a concave shape making the collapse easier during high vehicle acceleration. It was shown that even if one of these factor was missing, the undesirable soot collapse and subsequent back pressure increase did not occur. Currently, one of the very popular NOx reduction technologies is the Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) on Filter which does not have any platinum group metal (PGM) in the washcoat.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy-Efficient Management of a Light-Duty Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2011-09-11
2011-24-0080
The paper presents the main results of a study on the simulation of energy efficient management of on-board electric and thermal systems for a medium-size passenger vehicle featuring a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. A set of advanced technologies has been considered on the basis of very aggressive fuel economy targets: base-engine downsizing and friction reduction, combustion optimization, active thermal management, enhanced aftertreatment and downspeeding. Mild-hybridization has also been added with the goal of supporting the downsized/downspeeded engine performance, performing energy recuperation during coasting phases and enabling smooth stop/start and acceleration. The simulation has implemented a dynamic response to the required velocity and manual gear shift profiles in order to reproduce real-driver behavior and has actuated an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM).
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Engine and Vehicle Hardware Effects on Vehicle Response

2019-04-02
2019-01-1283
As the proliferation of downsized boosted engines continues, it becomes increasingly important to understand how engine and vehicle hardware impact vehicle transient response. Several different methodologies can be used to understand hardware impacts, such as vehicle testing, 0-D vehicle models, and constant engine speed load steps. The next evolution of predicting vehicle transient response is to transition to a system level vehicle analysis by coupling a detailed engine model, utilizing crank angle resolved calculations, with a simple vehicle model. This allows for the evaluation of engine and vehicle hardware effects on vehicle acceleration and the rate of change of vehicle acceleration, or jerk, and the tradeoffs that can be made between the hardware in early program development. By comparing this system level vehicle model to the different methodologies, it can be shown that a system level vehicle analysis allows for higher fidelity evaluations of vehicle transient response.
Technical Paper

Application of Suspend Mode to Automotive ECUs

2018-04-03
2018-01-0021
To achieve high robustness and quality, automotive ECUs must initialize from low-power states as quickly as possible. However, microprocessor and memory advances have failed to keep pace with software image size growth in complex ECUs such as in Infotainment and Telematics. Loading the boot image from non-volatile storage to RAM and initializing the software can take a very long time to show the first screen and result in sluggish performance for a significant time thereafter which both degrade customer perceived quality. Designers of mobile devices such as portable phones, laptops, and tablets address this problem using Suspend mode whereby the main processor and peripheral devices are powered down during periods of inactivity, but memory contents are preserved by a small “self-refresh” current. When the device is turned back “on”, fully initialized memory content allows the system to initialize nearly instantaneously.
Technical Paper

Automation in Simulation Process: Simplifying the Complexity in Vehicle Design

2018-04-03
2018-01-0471
General Motors (GM) vehicle design operations group has envisioned that all designers and Design Engineers (DEs) should be able to analyze simple and single components and produce robust subsystem parts to support full vehicle system analysis. This vision is achieved by developing the Smart Simulation Tool (SST) within the Siemens NX CAD system. This tool empowers the designers to take charge of simple parts and produce high quality parts first time. This tool will also make both design and engineering analysis organizations at General Motors more efficient and productive. This paper describes the Smart Simulation Tool that was developed to automate the pre and post processing tasks of the Siemens NX Advanced Simulation process. Generally, the simulation process consumes a lot of designer’s time for building the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models, typically one to two hours and is very tedious and has the potential for errors.
Technical Paper

Brake System Design for Dedicated BEV Architectures

2018-10-05
2018-01-1870
As fossil fuels dwindle and more electric vehicles enter the market, there is an opportunity to reevaluate the standard brake system. This paper will discuss and compare the differences in brake system sizing between a non-regenerative braking internal combustion engine vehicle and a dedicated battery electric vehicle with regenerative braking. It will use a model derived from component dynamometer testing and vehicle test data of a mid-size production vehicle. The model will be modified for the mass and regenerative braking capabilities of a battery electric vehicle. The contribution of regenerative braking energy will be analyzed and compared to show its impact on component sizing, thermal sizing, and lining life. The detailed design study will calculate the parameters for caliper, rotor design, actuation, etc., that are optimized for 100% regen enabled vehicles.
Technical Paper

Braking with a Trailer and Mountain Pass Descent

2019-09-15
2019-01-2116
A truly strange - but very interesting - juxtaposition of thought occurs when considering customer’s deceleration needs for towing heavy trailers in mountainous regions, and the seemingly very different area of sizing brakes for Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and other regenerative braking-intensive vehicle applications, versus brakes for heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles rated to tow heavy trailers. The common threads between these two very different categories of vehicles include (a) heavy dependence on the powertrain and other non-brake sources of energy loss to control the speed of the vehicle on the grade and ensure adequate capacity of the brake system, (b) a need to consider descent conditions where towing a heavy trailer is feasible (in the case of heavy trailer towing) or initiating a descent with a full state of charge is realistic (in the case of BEVs), which forces consideration of different descents versus the typical (for brake engineers) mountain peak descent.
Technical Paper

CalDef System for Automotive Electronic Control Unit Calibrations

2017-03-28
2017-01-1616
Modern automotive manufacturing and after-sale service environments require tailoring of configuration values or “calibrations” within the vehicle’s various electronic control units (ECUs) to that vehicle’s specific option content. Historically, ECU hardware and software limitations have led designers to implement calibratable values using opaque binary blocks tied directly to ECU internal software data structures. Such coupling between calibration data files and ECU software limits traceability and reuse across different software versions and ECU variants. However, more and more automotive ECUs are featuring fast microprocessors, large memories, and preemptive, multi-tasking operating systems that open opportunities to object-oriented approaches. This paper presents the CalDef system for automotive ECU calibration software architecture. CalDef uses XML database methods to define, develop, and deliver calibration values as objects in both manufacturing and service environments.
Technical Paper

Changes in user experiences of electric vehicles

2019-11-21
2019-28-2489
Research Objective The objective of the paper is to research what are the changes in experiences being brought about due to the advent of Electric Vehicles (EVs). EVs are silent, have less complex propulsion system, and have free space under the hood, amongst other things. Each change brings about both good and bad experiences across the spectrum of users. Some of the bad experiences can be safety incidents leading to death as well. Researching the areas that are harmful to end users, including pedestrians, will be our focus area. Methodology Our methodology will look at the changes at the vehicle architecture level which are inherent to the EV design. Research how are the experiences so far due to these changes. Are these just inconveniences or safety hazards? EVs have excellent NVH characteristics. A farmer may love a silent tractor, but a racing enthusiast may not like a relatively silent sports car.
Technical Paper

China Market Gasoline Review Using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

2017-10-08
2017-01-2401
The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
Journal Article

Cosmetic Corrosion Test for Aluminum Autobody Panels: Final Report

2010-04-12
2010-01-0726
Over the past several years a task group within the SAE Automotive Corrosion and Protection (ACAP) Committee has conducted extensive on-vehicle field testing and numerous accelerated lab tests with the goal of establishing a standard accelerated test method for cosmetic corrosion evaluations of finished aluminum auto body panels. This project has been a cooperative effort with OEM, supplier, and consultant participation and was also supported in part by DOE through USAMP (AMD 309). The focus of this project has been the identification of a standardized accelerated cosmetic corrosion test that exhibits the same appearance, severity, and type of corrosion products that are exhibited on identical painted aluminum panels exposed to service relevant environments. Multi-year service relevant exposures were conducted by mounting panels on-vehicles in multiple locations in the US and Canada.
Technical Paper

Defining In-Vehicle Location and Functional Attributes of a ‘Button-Style Electronic Automatic Transmission Shifter’ Using DFSS Methodology with Customer Clinic Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1131
The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0689
Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
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