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Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Testing and Evaluation Approach for Autonomous Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0124
Performance testing and evaluation always plays an important role in the developmental process of a vehicle, which also applies to autonomous vehicles. The complex nature of an autonomous vehicle from architecture to functionality demands even more quality-and-quantity controlled testing and evaluation than ever before. Most of the existing testing methodologies are task-or-scenario based and can only support single or partial functional testing. These approaches may be helpful at the initial stage of autonomous vehicle development. However, as the integrated autonomous system gets mature, these approaches fall short of supporting comprehensive performance evaluation. This paper proposes a novel hierarchical and systematic testing and evaluation approach to bridge the above-mentioned gap.
Technical Paper

A Nonlinear Slip Ratio Observer Based on ISS Method for Electric Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0557
Knowledge of the tire slip ratio can greatly improve vehicle longitudinal stability and its dynamic performance. Most conventional slip ratio observers were mainly designed based on input of non-driven wheel speed and estimated vehicle speed. However, they are not applicable for electric vehicles (EVs) with four in-wheel motors. Also conventional methods on speed estimation via integration of accelerometer signals can often lead to large offset by long-time integral calculation. Further, model uncertainties, including steady state error and unmodeled dynamics, are considered as additive disturbances, and may affect the stability of the system with estimated state error. This paper proposes a novel slip ratio observer based on input-to-state stability (ISS) method for electric vehicles with four-wheel independent driving motors.
Technical Paper

A System of Systems Approach to Automotive Challenges

2018-04-03
2018-01-0752
The automotive industry is facing many significant challenges that go far beyond the design and manufacturing of automobile products. Connected, autonomous and electric vehicles, smart cities, urbanization and the car sharing economy all present challenges in a fast-changing environment which the automotive industry must adapt to. Cars no longer are just standalone systems, but have become constituent systems (CS) in larger System of Systems (SoS) context. This is reflected in the emergence of several acronyms such as vehicle-to-everything (V2X), vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) expressions. System of Systems are defined systems of interest whose elements (constituent systems) are managerially and operationally independent systems. This interoperating and/or integrated collection of constituent systems usually produce results unachievable by the individual systems alone, for example the use of car batteries as virtual power plants.
Technical Paper

Applications of Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation in Automotive Embedded Systems

2020-04-14
2020-01-1289
Hardware-in-the-loop (HiL) simulation is an advanced technique for development and testing of complex real-time embedded systems. This technique has greatly developed in the last decades and has been more and more used in the automotive industry for algorithm and software development, hardware validation, safety validation, and fault investigation activities. Plant simulation model executes in HiL simulator to provide a virtual vehicle that interacts in an open-loop or closed-loop fashion with the embedded system that is under test. Compared to in-vehicle testing, HiL simulation provides benefits of low cost, high availability, high flexibility, repeatability, and test automation capability. HiL simulation reduces the risk caused by control failure, which is especially important for self-driving control system development and testing. The HiL simulation system is more application specific.
Technical Paper

Brake System Design for Dedicated BEV Architectures

2018-10-05
2018-01-1870
As fossil fuels dwindle and more electric vehicles enter the market, there is an opportunity to reevaluate the standard brake system. This paper will discuss and compare the differences in brake system sizing between a non-regenerative braking internal combustion engine vehicle and a dedicated battery electric vehicle with regenerative braking. It will use a model derived from component dynamometer testing and vehicle test data of a mid-size production vehicle. The model will be modified for the mass and regenerative braking capabilities of a battery electric vehicle. The contribution of regenerative braking energy will be analyzed and compared to show its impact on component sizing, thermal sizing, and lining life. The detailed design study will calculate the parameters for caliper, rotor design, actuation, etc., that are optimized for 100% regen enabled vehicles.
Journal Article

Brake System Performance at Higher Mileage

2017-09-17
2017-01-2502
The purchase of a new automobile is unquestionably a significant investment for most customers, and with this recognition, comes a correspondingly significant expectation for quality and reliability. Amongst automotive systems -when it comes to considerations of reliability - the brakes (perhaps along with the tires) occupy a rarified position of being located in a harsh environment, subjected to continuous wear throughout their use, and are critical to the safe performance of the vehicle. Maintenance of the brake system is therefore a fact of life for most drivers - something that almost everyone must do, yet given the potentially considerable expense, it is something that of great benefit to minimize.
Journal Article

Braking with a Trailer and Mountain Pass Descent

2019-09-15
2019-01-2116
A truly strange - but very interesting - juxtaposition of thought occurs when considering customer’s deceleration needs for towing heavy trailers in mountainous regions, and the seemingly very different area of sizing brakes for Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) and other regenerative braking-intensive vehicle applications, versus brakes for heavy-duty trucks and other vehicles rated to tow heavy trailers. The common threads between these two very different categories of vehicles include (a) heavy dependence on the powertrain and other non-brake sources of energy loss to control the speed of the vehicle on the grade and ensure adequate capacity of the brake system, (b) a need to consider descent conditions where towing a heavy trailer is feasible (in the case of heavy trailer towing) or initiating a descent with a full state of charge is realistic (in the case of BEVs), which forces consideration of different descents versus the typical (for brake engineers) mountain peak descent.
Technical Paper

Corroborative Evaluation of the Real-World Energy Saving Potentials of InfoRich Eco-Autonomous Driving (iREAD) System

2020-04-14
2020-01-0588
There has been an increasing interest in exploring the potential to reduce energy consumption of future connected and automated vehicles. People have extensively studied various eco-driving implementations that leverage preview information provided by on-board sensors and connectivity, as well as the control authority enabled by automation. Quantitative real-world evaluation of eco-driving benefits is a challenging task. The standard regulatory driving cycles used for measuring exhaust emissions and fuel economy are not truly representative of real-world driving, nor for capturing how connectivity and automation might influence driving trajectories. To adequately consider real-world driving behavior and potential “off-cycle” impacts, this paper presents four collaborative evaluation methods: large-scale simulation, in-depth simulation, vehicle-in-the-loop testing, and vehicle road testing.
Technical Paper

Design and Implementation of a Distributed Thermal Control System for Power Electronics Components in Hybrid Vehicles

2019-04-02
2019-01-0501
Hybrid electric vehicles and battery electric vehicles (BEV) use power electronics (PE) devices to convert between high voltage DC power of the battery and other formats of power. These PE components requires operation within certain temperature range, otherwise, overheating causes component as well as vehicle performance degradation. Therefore, a thermal management system is required for PE components. This paper focuses on the design and development of such a PE components thermal control system. The proposed control system is a distributed thermal control system in which all the PE components are placed in series within one cooling loop. The advantage of the proposed control system is its reduced system complexity, energy efficiency and flexibility to add future PE components. In addition, electric control unit (ECU) are utilized so that complex control algorithms can be implemented.
Journal Article

Development and Validation of the SAE J3052 High Pressure Differential Flow Rate Recommended Practice

2017-09-17
2017-01-2498
This paper describes the development work that went into the creation of the SAE J3052 “Brake Hydraulic Component Flow Rate Measurement at High Delta Pressure”, and also shows some example applications. The SAE J3052 recommended practice is intended to measure flow characteristics through brake hydraulic components and subsystems driven by pressure differentials above 1 bar, and was anticipated by the task force to be invoked for components and subsystems for which pressure response characteristics are critical for the operation of the system (such as service brake pressure response and stopping distance, or pressure rise rate of a single hydraulic circuit in response to an Electronic Stability Control command). Data generated by this procedure may be used as a direct assessment of the flow performance of a brake hydraulic component, or they may be used to build subsystem or system-level models.
Technical Paper

Development of GM Allison 10-Speed Heavy Duty Transmission

2020-04-14
2020-01-0438
This paper describes the development of the GM Allison 10-Speed Heavy Duty (HD) Transmission. The trend of increased towing capacity and engine horsepower in the automotive heavy-duty truck segment has been steadily climbing for the past 10 years. The development of 10-Speed HD Transmission is designed to be best in class in for towing performance in the 2500/3500 series segment while optimizing fuel economy. The 10-Speed HD Transmission also gives the customers the option to order an integrated power take-off (PTO) unit that benefits downstream installation of utility accessories such as hydraulic pumps, generators, etc.
Technical Paper

Development of General Motors’ eAssist Gen3 Propulsion System

2018-04-03
2018-01-0422
General Motors’ 3rd generation eAssist propulsion systems build upon the experience gained from the 2nd generation 115v system and the 1st generation 36v system. Extensive architectural studies were conducted to optimize the new eAssist system to maintain the performance and fuel economy gains of the 2nd generation 115v system while preserving passenger and cargo space, and reducing cost. Three diverse vehicle applications have been brought to production. They include two similar pickup trucks with 5.3 liter V8 engines and 8 speed transmissions, a 4-door passenger car with 2.5 liter 4 cylinder normally aspirated gasoline engine and a 6-speed automatic transmission, and a crossover SUV with a 2.0-liter turbocharged engine and 9 speed transmission. The key electrification components are a new water cooled induction motor/generator (MG), new water cooled power electronics module, and two major variants of 86v lithium ion battery packs.
Technical Paper

Development of Production Control Algorithms for Hybrid Electric Vehicles by Using System Simulation: Technology Leadership Brief

2012-10-08
2012-01-9008
In an earlier paper, the authors described how Model-Based System Engineering could be utilized to provide a virtual Hardware-in-the-Loop simulation capability, which creates a framework for the development of virtual ECU software by providing a platform upon which embedded control algorithms may be developed, tested, updated, and validated. The development of virtual ECU software is increasingly valuable in automotive control system engineering because vehicle systems are becoming more complex and tightly integrated, which requires that interactions between subsystems be evaluated during the design process. Variational analysis and robustness studies are also important and become more difficult to perform with real hardware as system complexity increases. The methodology described in this paper permits algorithm development to be performed prior to the availability of vehicle and control system hardware by providing what is essentially a virtual integration vehicle.
Technical Paper

Development of Wireless Message for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Safety Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0027
This paper summarizes the development of a wireless message from infrastructure-to-vehicle (I2V) for safety applications based on Dedicated Short-Range Communications (DSRC) under a cooperative agreement between the Crash Avoidance Metrics Partners LLC (CAMP) and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). During the development of the Curve Speed Warning (CSW) and Reduced Speed Zone Warning with Lane Closure (RSZW/LC) safety applications [1], the Basic Information Message (BIM) was developed to wirelessly transmit infrastructure-centric information. The Traveler Information Message (TIM) structure, as described in the SAE J2735, provides a mechanism for the infrastructure to issue and display in-vehicle signage of various types of advisory and road sign information. This approach, though effective in communicating traffic advisories, is limited by the type of information that can be broadcast from infrastructures.
Technical Paper

Development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel Standard

2019-04-02
2019-01-0264
The TOP TIERTM Diesel fuel standard was first established in 2017 to promote better fuel quality in marketplace to address the needs of diesel engines. It provides an automotive recommended fuel specification to be used in tandem with regional diesel fuel specifications or regulations. This fuel standard was developed by TOP TIERTM Diesel Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) sponsors made up of representatives of diesel auto and engine manufacturers. This performance specification developed after two years of discussions with various stakeholders such as individual OEMs, members of Truck and Engine Manufacturers Association (EMA), fuel additive companies, as well as fuel producers and marketers. This paper reviews the major aspects of the development of the TOP TIERTM Diesel program including implementation and market adoption challenges.
Technical Paper

Edge-Quality Effects on Mechanical Properties of Stamped Non-Oriented Electrical Steel

2020-04-14
2020-01-1072
The market for electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles is expected to grow in the coming years, which is increasing interest in design optimization of electric motors for automotive applications. Under demanding duty cycles, the moving part within a motor, the rotor, may experience varying stresses induced by centrifugal force, a necessary condition for fatigue. Rotors contain hundreds of electrical steel laminations produced by stamping, which creates a characteristic edge structure comprising rollover, shear and tear zones, plus a burr. Fatigue properties are commonly reported with specimens having polished edges. Since surface condition is known to affect fatigue strength, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of sample preparation on tensile and fatigue behavior of stamped specimens. Tensile properties were unaffected by polishing. In contrast, polishing was shown to increase fatigue strength by approximately 10-20% in the range of 105-107 cycles to failure.
Journal Article

Electric Vehicle Detectability: a Methods-Based Approach to Assess Artificial Noise Impact on the Ability of Pedestrians to Safely Detect Approaching Electric Vehicles

2017-06-05
2017-01-1762
Hybrid and electric vehicles (HVs and EVs) have demonstrated low noise levels relative to their Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) counterparts, particularly at low speeds. As the number of HVs/EVs on the road increases, so does the need for data quantifying auditory detectability by pedestrians; in particular, those who are vision impaired. Manufacturers have started implementing additive noise solutions designed to increase vehicle detectability while in electric mode and/or when traveling below a certain speed. A detailed description of the real-time acoustic measurement system, the corresponding vehicular data, development of an immersive noise field, and experimental methods pertaining to a recent evaluation of candidate vehicles is provided herein. Listener testing was completed by 24 legally blind test subjects for four vehicle types: an EV and HV with different additive noise approaches, an EV with no additive noise, and a traditional ICE vehicle.
Journal Article

Electrified Drive-Unit Parametric Mechanical-Loss Model Development and Calibration

2019-04-02
2019-01-1298
As the automotive industry vies to meet progressively more stringent global CO2 regulations in a cost-effective manner, electrified drive system cost and losses must be reduced. To this end, a parametric Drive Unit (DU) mechanical-loss model was developed to aid in the design and development of electrified propulsion systems, where the total propulsion system cost and DU losses can be directly linked (e.g., Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) motor/inverter/engine content, or Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV) battery size). Many DUs for electrified propulsion systems are relatively “simple” drive systems, consisting of gears, bearings, shafts, lip seals, and an electric motor(s), but without clutches, high-pressure lube systems, or chains/belts as found in conventional automatic transmissions. The DU loss model described in this paper studies these simple DUs, with the mechanical losses dissected into 10 loss components.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of V2V Reception Cadence- A New Metric for System Level Performance Analysis

2019-01-16
2019-01-0102
Vehicle to Everything (V2X) communication is a prominent solution for active safety collision avoidance and for providing autonomous vehicles Non-Line of Sight (NLOS) capabilities. For safety purposes, it is essential the V2X technology would support communication between all road users, e.g., Vehicles (V2V), pedestrians (V2P) and road infrastructure (V2I). Hence, the efficiency of a V2V communication solution should be evaluated through system level performance. In addition, the examined performance metrics need to reflect safety related properties. Metrics as Packet Reception Ratio (PRR) and transmission latencies, which are commonly used to assess V2X system’s functionality, aren’t enough since reception latencies are overlooked. The latter is crucial in ensuring messages would reach their destination on time to avoid hazardous incidents. The reception cadence may be much lower than this of the transmission due to various phenomenon (e.g. channel congestion).
Technical Paper

Feasibility Study Using FE Model for Tire Load Estimation

2019-04-02
2019-01-0175
For virtual simulation of the vehicle attributes such as handling, durability, and ride, an accurate representation of pneumatic tire behavior is very crucial. With the advancement in autonomous vehicles as well as the development of Driver Assisted Systems (DAS), the need for an Intelligent Tire Model is even more on the increase. Integrating sensors into the inner liner of a tire has proved to be the most promising way in extracting the real-time tire patch-road interface data which serves as a crucial zone in developing control algorithms for an automobile. The model under development in Kettering University (KU-iTire), can predict the subsequent braking-traction requirement to avoid slip condition at the interface by implementing new algorithms to process the acceleration signals perceived from an accelerometer installed in the inner liner on the tire.
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