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Technical Paper

A Methodology for the Prediction of Rotor Blade Ice Formation and Shedding

2011-06-13
2011-38-0090
An integrated approach for modeling the ice accretion and shedding of ice on helicopter rotors is presented. A modular framework is used that includes state of the art computational fluid dynamics, computational structural dynamics, rotor trim, ice accretion, and shedding tools. Results are presented for performance degradation due to icing, collection efficiency, surface temperature and water film properties associated with runback-refreeze phenomena, and shedding. Comparisons with other published simulations and test data are given.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Design Environment for Including Signatures Analysis in Conceptual Design

2000-10-10
2000-01-5564
System effectiveness has become the prime metric for the evaluation of military aircraft. As such, it is the designer's goal to maximize system effectiveness. Industry documents indicate that all future military aircraft will incorporate signature reduction as an attempt to improve system effectiveness. Today's operating environments demand low observable aircraft which are able to reliably eliminate valuable, time critical targets. Thus, it is desirable to be able to evaluate the signatures of a vehicle, as well as the influence of signatures on the systems effectiveness of a vehicle. Previous studies have shown that shaping of the vehicle is one of the most important contributors to radar cross section and must be considered from the very beginning of the design process. This research strives to meet these needs by developing a parametric geometry radar cross section prediction tool.
Technical Paper

A Probabilistic Approach to Multivariate Constrained Robust Design Simulation

1997-10-01
975508
Several approaches to robust design have been proposed in the past. Only few acknowledged the paradigm shift from performance based design to design for cost. The incorporation of economics in the design process, however, makes a probabilistic approach to design necessary, due to the inherent ambiguity of assumptions and requirements as well as the operating environment of future aircraft. The approach previously proposed by the authors, linking Response Surface Methodology with Monte Carlo Simulations, has revealed itself to be cumbersome and at times impractical for multi-constraint, multi-objective problems. In addition, prediction accuracy problems were observed for certain scenarios that could not easily be resolved. Hence, this paper proposes an alternate approach to probabilistic design, which is based on a Fast Probability Integration technique.
Journal Article

A Spline-Based Modeling Algorithm for Application to Aerodynamic Shape Optimization Based on CFD Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-1510
In early phases of conceptual design stages for developing a new car in the modern automobile industry, the lack of systematic methodology to efficiently converge to an agreement between the aesthetics and aerodynamic performance tremendously increases budget and time. During these procedures, one of the most important tasks is to create geometric information which is versatilely morphable upon the demands of both of stylists and engineers. In this perspective, this paper proposes a Spline-based Modeling Algorithm (SMA) to implement into performing aerodynamic design optimization research based on CFD analysis. Once a 3-perspective schematic of a car is given, SMA regresses the backbone boundary lines by using optimum polynomial interpolation methods with the best goodness of fit, eventually reconstructing the 3D shape by linearly interpolating from the extracted boundaries minimizing loss of important geometric features.
Technical Paper

A System Dynamics Approach for Dynamic Uncertainty Assessment in a PAV Design Environment

2006-08-30
2006-01-2434
One the most critical barriers to the advancement of Personal Air Vehicles in today's market environment is that the technological capabilities can never seem to outweigh the risks associated with financing such an endeavor. To address such a need, a system dynamics approach with the capability to model the uncertainties in the supply chain is presented in this paper. The overall modeling framework is first presented and the modeling process of the various relevant elements, such as demand prediction and manufacturer analysis, is then described. The aim of this research is ultimately to assess the viability of a next-generation aircraft program beyond the static confines of a net present value approach, through the inclusion of dynamic events and uncertainties that can occur throughout the life-cycle of the aircraft.
Technical Paper

A Technique for Testing and Evaluation of Aircraft Flight Performance During Early Design Phases

1997-10-01
975541
A technique is proposed for examining complex behaviors in the “pilot - vehicle - operational conditions” system using an autonomous situational model of flight. The goal is to identify potentially critical flight situations in the system behavior early in the design process. An exhaustive set of flight scenarios can be constructed and modeled on a computer by the designer in accordance with test certification requirements or other inputs. Distinguishing features of the technique include the autonomy of experimentation (the pilot and a flight simulator are not involved) and easy planning and quick modeling of complex multi-factor flight cases. An example of mapping airworthiness requirements into formal scenarios is presented. Simulation results for various flight situations and aircraft types are also demonstrated.
Journal Article

Accounting for the Duration of Analyses in Design Process Decisions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0908
Although the design phase can account for a sizable amount of the resources consumed during the product realization process, the time and costs associated with the design process are often neglected when making design decisions. To investigate this issue, we define a process-centric decision model in which the design-phase consumption of resources, such as time and money, is explicitly modeled. While it is clear that the utility of a design is almost always directly impacted by the monetary costs of the design process, our decision model also accounts for the fact that the profit earned by a product depends strongly on its launch date. The decision model allows us thus to consider the trade-off between the time necessary for analysis and the improvement in product quality that results from the analysis. The decision model is sufficiently generic that almost any set of beliefs about the alternatives or analyses, as well as any utility-based preference structure can be modeled.
Technical Paper

An Analytic Foundation for the Two-Mode Hybrid-Electric Powertrain with a Comparison to the Single-Mode Toyota Prius THS-II Powertrain

2009-04-20
2009-01-1321
General Motors has introduced a Two-Mode Transmission (2-MT) that provides significant improvements over the Toyota THS-II transmission. These improvements are achieved by employing additional planetaries with clutches and brakes to switch from a Mode-1 to Mode-2 as vehicle speed increases. In addition the 2-MT has four fixed-gear ratios that provide for a purely mechanical energy path from the IC engine to the driven wheels with the electric machines also able to provide additional driving torque. The purpose of this present paper is to extend the methodology in a previous paper [1] to include the 2-MT, thereby presenting an analytic foundation for its operation. The main contribution in this analysis is in the definition of dimensionless separation factors, defined in each mode that govern the power split between the parallel mechanical and electrical energy paths from the IC engine to the driven wheels.
Technical Paper

An Application of a Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF) Method to an Uninhabited Combat Aerial Vehicle

1999-10-19
1999-01-5633
In today’s atmosphere of lower U.S. defense spending and reduced research budgets, determining how to allocate resources for research and design has become a critical and challenging task. In the area of aircraft design there are many promising technologies to be explored, yet limited funds with which to explore them. In addition, issues concerning uncertainty in technology readiness as well as the quantification of the impact of a technology (or combinations of technologies), are of key importance during the design process. The methodology presented in this paper details a comprehensive and structured process in which to explore the effects of technology for a given baseline aircraft. This process, called Technology Impact Forecasting (TIF), involves the creation of a forecasting environment for use in conjunction with defined technology scenarios. The advantages and limitations of the method will be discussed, as well its place in an overall methodology used for technology infusion.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Aerobatic Flight Safety Using Autonomous Modeling and Simulation

2000-04-11
2000-01-2100
An affordable technique is proposed for fast quantitative analysis of aerobatics and other complex flight domains of highly maneuverable aircraft. A generalized autonomous situational model of the “pilot (automaton) – vehicle – operational environment” system is employed as a “virtual test article”. Using this technique, a systematic knowledge of the system behavior in aerobatic flight can be generated on a computer, much faster than real time. This information can be analyzed via a set of knowledge mapping formats using a 3-D graphics visualization tool. Piloting and programming skills are not required in this process. Possible applications include: aircraft design and education, applied aerodynamics, flight control systems design, planning and rehearsal of flight test and display programs, investigation of aerobatics-related flight accidents and incidents, physics-based pilot training, research into new maneuvers, autonomous flight, and onboard AI.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Water Strategy Tools for Automotive Manufacturing

2014-04-01
2014-01-1958
Tools are now publicly available that can potentially help a company assess the impact of its water use and risks in relation to their global operations and supply chains. In this paper we describe a comparative analysis of two publicly available tools, specifically the WWF/DEG Water Risk Filter and the WBCSD Global Water Tool that are used to measure the water impact and risk indicators for industrial facilities. By analyzing the risk assessments calculated by these tools for different scenarios that include varying facilities from different industries, one can better gauge the similarities and differences between these water strategy tools. Several scenarios were evaluated using the water tools, and the results are compared and contrasted. As will be shown, the results can vary significantly.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Design of Current Technology and Advanced Concepts for an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft

2005-10-03
2005-01-3399
A design process is formulated and implemented for the taxonomy selection and system-level optimization of an Efficient Multi-Mach Aircraft Current Technology Concept and an Advanced Concept. Concept space exploration of taxonomy alternatives is performed with multi-objective genetic algorithms and a Powell’s method scheme for vehicle optimization in a multidisciplinary modeling and simulation environment. A dynamic sensitivity visualization analysis tool is generated for the Advanced Concept with response surface equations.
Technical Paper

Demonstration of a Probabilistic Technique for the Determination of Aircraft Economic Viability

1997-10-01
975585
Over the past few years, modern aircraft design has experienced a paradigm shift from designing for performance to designing for affordability. This paper contains a probabilistic approach that will allow traditional deterministic design methods to be extended to account for disciplinary, economic, and technological uncertainty. The probabilistic approach was facilitated by the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) technique; a technique which allows the designer to gather valuable information about the vehicle's behavior in the design space. This technique is efficient for assessing multi-attribute, multi-constraint problems in a more realistic fashion. For implementation purposes, this technique is applied to illustrate how both economic and technological uncertainty associated with a Very Large Transport aircraft may be assessed.
Technical Paper

Design and Fabrication of Composite Attach Fitting for Satellite Launch Vehicle

1998-06-02
981837
Compressive load capacity of composite lattice structures are studied. The objective of this research is to investigate the buckling strength of composite lattice structures and to design the most weight efficient structure with the highest buckling load. Buckling strength of both the composite lattice cylindrical and conical shells under axial compressive loads are examined. The main emphasis is placed on the effects of geometric constraints and the optimal design of the structures. In this research, various constraints are studied and the optimal structure which gives the highest strength to weight ratio is obtained. Moreover, these structures can be constructed by filament winding, the manufacturing process can be automated, and the costs can be greatly reduced.
Technical Paper

Development of Wing Structural Weight Equation for Active Aeroelastic Wing Technology

1999-10-19
1999-01-5640
A multidisciplinary design study considering the impact of Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) technology on the structural wing weight of a lightweight fighter concept is presented. The study incorporates multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) and response surface methods to characterize wing weight as a function of wing geometry. The study involves the sizing of the wing box skins of several fighter configurations to minimum weight subject to static aeroelastic requirements. In addition, the MDO problem makes use of a new capability, trim optimization for redundant control surfaces, to accurately model AAW technology. The response surface methodology incorporates design of experiments, least squares regression, and makes use of the parametric definition of a structural finite element model and aerodynamic model to build response surface equations of wing weight as a function of wing geometric parameters for both AAW technology and conventional control technology.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Modeling for Universal Design

2003-06-17
2003-01-2199
Several research institutions and universities have taken on the challenge of providing solutions for accessible and universally designed workplace accommodations with a focus on people with disabilities. Accessible Design is a subset of what is termed Universal Design. Where Universal Design covers the design of products, systems and environments for all people and encompasses all design principles, Accessible Design focuses on principles that extend the standard design process to those people with some type of performance limitation. In order for individuals with disabiltities to gain better access to the work environments and the products that facilitate independence, health, safety, and social participation a multi-disciplined approach to the research is needed to identify needs and challenges of the targeted population.
Technical Paper

Enabling Advanced Design Methods in an Internet-Capable Framework

1999-10-19
1999-01-5578
The enabling of advanced design methods in an internet-capable framework will be discussed in this paper. The resulting framework represents the next generation of design and analysis capability in which engineering decision- making can be done by geographically distributed team members. A new internet technology called the lean-server approach is introduced as a mechanism for granting Web browser access to frameworks and domain analyses. This approach has the underpinnings required to support these next generation frameworks - collaboratories. A historical perspective of design frameworks is discussed to provide an understanding of the design functionality that is expected from framework implementations to insure design technology advancement. Two research areas were identified as being important to the development of collaboratories: design portals and collaborative methods.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Studies of Cylinder Head Cooling

1993-04-01
931122
Previous work on the cooling jackets of the Cummins L10 engine revealed flow separation, and low coolant velocities in several critical regions of the cylinder head. The current study involved the use of detailed cooling jacket temperature measurements, and finite element heat transfer analysis to attempt the identification of regions of pure convection, nucleate boiling, and film boiling. Although difficult to detect with certainty, both the measurements and analysis pointed strongly to the presence of nucleate boiling in several regions. Little or no evidence of film boiling was seen, even under very high operating loads. It was thus concluded that the regions of seemingly inadequate coolant flow remained quite effective in controlling cylinder head temperatures. The Cummins L10 upon which this study has focused is an in-line six cylinder, four-stroke direct injection diesel engine, with a displacement of 10 liters.
Journal Article

Experimental and Computational Investigation of Subcritical Near-Nozzle Spray Structure and Primary Atomization in the Engine Combustion Network Spray D

2018-04-03
2018-01-0277
In order to improve understanding of the primary atomization process for diesel-like sprays, a collaborative experimental and computational study was focused on the near-nozzle spray structure for the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) Spray D single-hole injector. These results were presented at the 5th Workshop of the ECN in Detroit, Michigan. Application of x-ray diagnostics to the Spray D standard cold condition enabled quantification of distributions of mass, phase interfacial area, and droplet size in the near-nozzle region from 0.1 to 14 mm from the nozzle exit. Using these data, several modeling frameworks, from Lagrangian-Eulerian to Eulerian-Eulerian and from Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS), were assessed in their ability to capture and explain experimentally observed spray details. Due to its computational efficiency, the Lagrangian-Eulerian approach was able to provide spray predictions across a broad range of conditions.
Technical Paper

Exploration of Turbulent Atomization Mechanisms for Diesel Spray Simulations

2017-03-28
2017-01-0829
The atomization and initial spray formation processes in direct injection engines are not well understood due to the experimental and computational challenges associated with resolving these processes. Although different physical mechanisms, such as aerodynamic-induced instabilities and nozzle-generated turbulence and cavitation, have been proposed in the literature to describe these processes, direct validation of the theoretical basis of these models under engine-relevant conditions has not been possible to date. Recent developments in droplet sizing measurement techniques offer a new opportunity to evaluate droplet size distributions formed in the central and peripheral regions of the spray. There is therefore a need to understand how these measurements might be utilized to validate unobservable physics in the near nozzle-region.
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