A Comparison of Virtual Sensors for Combustion Parameter Prediction of Gas Engines Based on Knock Sensor Signals
Precise prediction of combustion parameters such as peak firing pressure (PFP) or crank angle of 50% burned mass fraction (MFB50) is essential for optimal engine control. These quantities are commonly determined from in-cylinder pressure sensor signals and are crucial to reach high efficiencies and low emissions. Highly accurate in-cylinder pressure sensors are only applied to test rig engines due to their high cost, limited durability and special installation conditions. Therefore, alternative approaches which employ virtual sensing based on signals from non-intrusive sensors retrieved from common knock sensors are of great interest. This paper presents a comprehensive comparison of selected approaches from literature, as well as adjusted or further developed methods to determine engine combustion parameters based on knock sensor signals. All methods are evaluated on three different engines and two different sensor positions.