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Technical Paper

A Demonstration of Emissions' Behaviour of Various Handheld Engines Including Investigations on Particulate Matter

2013-10-15
2013-32-9130
To get an overview of the emission situation in the field of small non-road mobile machinery powered by various types of SI engines, the Association for Emissions Control by Catalyst (AECC), together with the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics (IVT) of Graz University of Technology, conducted a customized test program. The main goal for this campaign was to derive information regarding the emissions of regulated gaseous components (following European Directive 97/68/EC) as well as particulate matter. With regard to the big variety of different engines that are available on the European and North-American market, the most representative ones had to be chosen. This resulted in a pool of test devices to cover different engine working principles (2-Stroke and 4-Stroke), technological standards (low-cost and professional tools) and different emissions control strategies (advanced combustion and exhaust gas aftertreatment).
Technical Paper

A New Approach to Occupant Simulation Through the Coupling of PC-Crash and MADYMO

1999-03-01
1999-01-0444
During recent years the accident simulation program PC-Crash was developed. This software simulates vehicle movement before, during and after the impact, using 3D vehicle and scene models. When reconstructing car accidents, quite often questions arise regarding occupant movement and loading. Especially important is the influence of different types of restraint systems on the occupant. MADYMO® is a software tool which was developed by TNO in the Netherlands and which is well known in the automotive industry for the simulation of occupant movement. It allows the simulation of all kinds of modern restraint systems such as airbags and seatbelts with and without pretensioners. As the software is used in the automotive industry quite extensively, a huge validated database of dummy and human models is available. Since MADYMO® demands the setup of quite complicated input files, its use normally requires a high level of expertise.
Technical Paper

A Smart Icing Detection System for Any Location on the Outer Aircraft Surface

2019-06-10
2019-01-1931
Given approximately one million small and light aircraft in operation worldwide, icing detection and icing quantification of in-flight icing are still an open research topic. Despite technical means are available to de-ice on ground, there is a lack of a suitable control system based on sensor data to de-ice while the aircraft is airborne. Most often, it is still task of the pilot to visually inspect the icing status of the airfoil and/or other critical parts of the aircraft such as engine air intakes, which distracts the flight crew from flying the aircraft especially in IMC conditions. Based on preliminary simulation and tests in 2014 in a collaborative research project lasting from 2015 until 2018, the technology of energy self-sustaining, wireless, self-adhesive smart sensors for industrial sensing in an aerodynamically critical environment (i.e. wind turbines) was further investigated to fulfil general aviation requirements.
Technical Paper

A Versatile Approach for an ISO26262 Compliant Hardware-Software Interface Definition with Model-Based Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0148
Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
Technical Paper

Advances in Automated Coupling of CFD and Radiation

2008-04-14
2008-01-0389
Research and development engineers have paid much attention to coupling commercial tools for examining complex systems, recently. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate an automated coupling of a CFD program with a commercial thermal radiation tool. Based on a previous work the coupling behaviour of a parallelized CFD code is being demonstrated. The automation thus speeds up the calculation procedure even for transient simulations not relying on codes of just one vendor. The simulation is then compared with measurements of temperatures of an actual SUV and conclusions are drawn.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Conventional Motorcycles with the Focus on Hybridization

2016-11-08
2016-32-0031
The release of the “Regulation No. 168/2013” for the approval and market surveillance of two- or three-wheel motorcycles and quadricycles of the European Union started a new challenge for the motorcycle industry. One goal of the European Union is to achieve emission parity between passenger cars (EURO 6) and motorcycles (EURO 5) in 2020. The hybridization of motorcycle powertrains is one way to achieve these strict legislation limits. In the automotive sector, hybridization is well investigated and has already shown improvements of fuel consumption, efficiency and emission behavior. Equally, motorcycle applications have a high potential to improve efficiency and to meet customer needs as fun to drive as well. This paper describes a methodical approach to analyze conventional motorcycles regarding the energy and power demand for different driving cycles and driving conditions. Therefore, a dynamic or forward vehicle simulation within MATLAB Simulink is used.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Multi Zone Combustion Model for Analysis and Prediction of CI Engine Combustion and Emissions

2011-04-12
2011-01-1439
The paper describes a universally structured simulation platform which is used for the analysis and prediction of combustion in compression ignition (CI) engines. The models are on a zero-dimensional crank angle resolved basis as commonly used for engine cycle simulations. This platform represents a kind of thermodynamic framework which can be linked to single and multi zone combustion models. It is mainly used as work environment for the development and testing of new models which thereafter are implemented to other codes. One recent development task focused on a multi zone combustion model which corresponds to the approach of Hiroyasu. This model was taken from literature, extended with additional features described in this paper, and implemented into the thermodynamic simulation platform.
Technical Paper

Automatic Optimization of Pre-Impact Parameters Using Post Impact Trajectories and Rest Positions

1998-02-23
980373
When vehicle to vehicle collisions are analyzed using a discrete kinetic time forward simulation, several simulation runs have to be performed, to find a solution, where post impact trajectories and rest positions correspond with the real accident. This paper describes in detail a method to vary the pre-impact parameters automatically and to evaluate the simulation results. In a first step the different pre-impact parameters are discussed. Their influence on the impact and the post impact movement is shown. Furthermore the necessary specifications to define the post crash movement are presented. The necessity to define tire marks and rest positions of the vehicles involved is outlined. An effective evaluation criteria is derived, which is used to calculate a simulation error. This error is then used as a target function to control the optimization process. Two different optimization strategies are presented.
Technical Paper

Big Data-Based Driving Pattern Clustering and Evaluation in Combination with Driving Circumstances

2018-04-03
2018-01-1087
Car driver’s behavior and its influence on driving characteristics play an increasing role in the development of modern vehicles, e.g. in view of efficient powertrain control and implementation of driving assistance functions. In addition, knowledge about actual driving style can provide feedback to the driver and support efficient driving or even safety-related measures. Driving patterns are caused not only by the driver, but also influenced by road characteristics, environmental boundary conditions and other traffic participants. Thus, it is necessary to take the driving circumstances into account, when driving patterns are studied. This work proposes a methodology to cluster and evaluate driving patterns under consideration of vehicle-related parameters (e.g. acceleration and jerk) in combination with additional influencing factors, e.g. road style and inclination. Firstly, segmentation of the trip in distance series is performed to generate micro cycles.
Technical Paper

Charging and Powersport for Motorcycles: A Contradiction?

2011-11-08
2011-32-0585
In this study, investigations on charging strategies for motorcycle applications have been performed on the basis of modern charging concepts. These investigations had been driven by the goal of CO₂ reduction and optimization of packaging size, while maintaining the extraordinary dynamic response behavior of modern motorcycle engines. Based on experimental investigations of the boundary conditions and restrictions of motorcycle applications in contrast to automotive applications, intense experimental test bench and on the road investigations of the stationary and transient behavior of charging strategies have been performed. These investigations covered automotive state-of-the-art charged engines as well as charged motorcycle applications. With these results, simulations of the air path for stationary and transient operation were used in order to evaluate the potential of several charging strategies for motorcycle applications.
Technical Paper

Concepts for Mechanical Abuse Testing of High-Voltage Batteries

2012-04-16
2012-01-0124
Currently lithium-batteries are the most promising electrical-energy storage technology in fully-electric and hybrid vehicles. A crashworthy battery-design is among the numerous challenges development of electric-vehicles has to face. Besides of safe normal operation, the battery-design shall provide marginal threat to human health and environment in case of mechanical damage. Numerous mechanical abuse-tests were performed to identify load limits and the battery's response to damage. Cost-efficient testing is provided by taking into account that the battery-system's response to abuse might already be observed at a lower integration-level, not requiring testing of the entire pack. The most feasible tests and configurations were compiled and discussed. Adaptions of and additions to existing requirements and test-procedures as defined in standards are pointed out. Critical conditions that can occur during and after testing set new requirements to labs and test-rigs.
Technical Paper

Current Findings in Measurement Technology and Measurement Methodology for RDE and Fuel Consumption for Two-Wheeler-Applications

2017-11-05
2017-32-0041
Real world operating scenarios have a major influence on emissions and fuel consumption. To reduce climate-relevant and environmentally harmful gaseous emissions and the exploitation of fossil resources, deep understanding concerning the real drive behavior of mobile sources is needed because emissions and fuel consumption of e.g. passenger cars, operated in real world conditions, considerably differ from the officially published values which are valid for specific test cycles only [1]. Due to legislative regulations by the European Commission a methodology to measure real drive emissions RDE is well approved for heavy duty vehicles and automotive applications but may not be adapted similar to two-wheeler-applications. This is due to several issues when using the state of the art portable emission measurement system PEMS that will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Expansion to Higher Efficiency - Experimental Investigations of the Atkinson Cycle in Small Combustion Engines

2015-11-17
2015-32-0809
The enhancement of efficiency will play a more and more important role in the development of future (small) internal combustion engines. In recent years, the Atkinson cycle, realized over the crank drive, has attracted increasing attention. Several OEMs have been doing investigations on this efficiency-increasing principle with in the whole range from small engines up to automotive ones. In previous publications, the authors stated that an indicated efficiency of up to 48% could be reached with an Atkinson cycle-based engine. However, these studies are based on 1D-CFD simulation. To verify the promising simulation results, a prototype engine, based on the Atkinson principle, was designed and experimentally tested. The aim of the present study is to evaluate and validate the (indicated) engine efficiency gained by experimental tests compared to the predicted simulation results. In order to investigate part load behavior, several valve timing strategies were also developed and tested.
Technical Paper

Expansion to Higher Efficiency - Investigations of the Atkinson Cycle in Small Combustion Engines

2012-10-23
2012-32-0059
Small combustion engines can be found in various applications in daily use (e.g. as propulsion of boats, scooters, motorbikes, power-tools, mobile power units, etc.) and have predominated these markets for a long time. Today some upcoming competitive technologies in the field of electrification can be observed and have already shown great technical advances. Therefore, small combustion engines have to keep their present advantages while concurrently minimizing their disadvantages in order to remain the predominant technology in the future. Whereas large combustion engines are most efficient thermal engines, small engines still suffer from significantly lower efficiencies caused by a disadvantageous surface to volume ratio. Thus, the enhancement of efficiency will play a key role in the development of future small combustion engines. One promising possibility to improve efficiency is the use of a longer expansion than compression stroke.
Technical Paper

Experimental Verification and Drivability Investigations of a Turbo Charged 2-Cylinder Motorcycle Engine

2014-11-11
2014-32-0112
There are several reasons for equipping an internal combustion engine with a turbo-charger. The most important motivation for motorcycle use is to increase the power to weight ratio. Focusing on the special boundary conditions of motorcycles, like the wide engine speed range or the extraordinarily high demands on response behavior, automotive downsizing technologies cannot be transferred directly to this field of application. This led to the main question: Is it possible to design a turbo-charged motorcycle engine with satisfactory drivability and response behavior? The layout of the charged motorcycle engine was derived by simulation and had to be verified by experimental investigations. Main components, like the turbo charger or the waste gate control as well as the influence of the increasing back pressure on the combustion, were verified by test bench measurements. Afterwards the operation strategy in general was investigated and applied to the prototype engine.
Technical Paper

Holistic Approach for Improved Safety Including a Proposal of New Virtual Test Conditions of Small Electric Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0571
In the next 20 years the share of small electric vehicles (SEVs) will increase especially in urban areas. SEVs show distinctive design differences compared to traditional vehicles. Thus the consequences of impacts of SEVs with vulnerable road users (VRUs) and other vehicles will be different from traditional collisions. No assessment concerning vehicle safety is defined for vehicles within European L7e category currently. Focus of the elaborated methodology is to define appropriate test scenarios for this vehicle category to be used within a virtual tool chain. A virtual tool chain has to be defined for the realization of a guideline of virtual certification. The derivation and development of new test conditions for SEVs are described and are the main focus of this work. As key methodology a prospective methodical analysis under consideration of future aspects like pre-crash safety systems is applied.
Technical Paper

How to Use PC-CRASH to Simulate Rollover Crashes

2004-03-08
2004-01-0341
Due to the increasing number of minivans and sport utility vehicles, rollovers have become more significant. As a result, various accident reconstruction programs have been developed to address this issue. To reconstruct rollover crashes, various requirements have to be fulfilled. These consist of: providing a simple method that is able to model three dimensional environments that often play a major role in rollovers. including suspension, tire and collision models must be provided. This is particularily important in the rollover initiation phase. including proper vehicle geometry and contact stiffness must be available. These are important for simulation of body contacts that affect the vehicle motion. This study focuses on one program, PC-CRASH. This program was developed to allow simulations of vehicle 3-dimensional movements before, during and after the impact. The study also discusses the physical background of the models, their capabilities as well as their limitations.
Journal Article

Improved Modeling of Near-Wall Heat Transport for Cooling of Electric and Hybrid Powertrain Components by High Prandtl Number Flow

2017-03-28
2017-01-0621
Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) computations of heat transfer involving wall bounded flows at elevated Prandtl numbers typically suffer from a lack of accuracy and/or increased mesh dependency. This can be often attributed to an improper near-wall turbulence modeling and the deficiency of the wall heat transfer models (based on the so called P-functions) that do not properly account for the variation of the turbulent Prandtl number in the wall proximity (y+< 5). As the conductive sub-layer gets significantly thinner than the viscous velocity sub-layer (for Pr >1), treatment of the thermal buffer layer gains importance as well. Various hybrid strategies utilize blending functions dependent on the molecular Prandtl number, which do not necessarily provide a smooth transition from the viscous/conductive sub-layer to the logarithmic region.
Technical Paper

Low Cost Range Extender Technology for Hybrid Electric City Scooters

2012-10-23
2012-32-0083
Electric driving is generally limited to short distances in an emission sensible urban environment. In the present situation with high cost electric storage and long charging duration hybridization is the key to enable electric driving. In comparison to the passenger car segment, where numerous manufacturers are already producing and offering different hybrid configurations for their premium class models, the two wheeler sector is not yet affected by this trend. The main reason for the retarded implementation of this new hybrid technology is its high system costs, as they cannot be covered by a reasonable product price. Especially for the two wheeler class L1e, with a maximum speed of 45 km/h and an engine displacement of less than 50 cm₃, the cost factor is highly important and decisive for its market acceptance, because the majority of vehicles are still low-cost products equipped with simple carbureted 2-stroke engines.
Journal Article

Mass Balancing Measures of a Linkage-Based Extended Expansion Engine

2016-11-08
2016-32-0096
The enhancement of efficiency will play a more and more important role in the development of future (small) internal combustion engines. In recent years, the Atkinson (or Extended Expansion) cycle, realized over the crank drive, attracted increasing attention. Several OEMs have investigated this efficiency-increasing principle in the whole range from small engines up to automotive engines until now. In prior publications, the authors outlined the remarkable efficiency potentials of an Extended Expansion (EE) cycle. However, for an internal combustion engine, a smooth running performance as well as low vibrations and noise emissions are relevant aspects. This is especially true for an Extended Expansion engine realized over the crank drive. Therefore, design measures concerning friction and NVH need to be taken to enable possible series production status. Basically, these measures strongly depend on the reduction of the free mass forces and moments.
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