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Technical Paper

A Comparison of Burn Characteristics and Exhaust Emissions from Off-Highway Engines Fueled by E0 and E85

Ethanol fuel has received renewed attention in recent years because of its oxygenate content and its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from spark ignition engines. The economic impact on farm industry has been one of the drivers for its use in engines in the U.S. Although ethanol, in various blends, has been used in automotive engines for almost a decade the fuel has seldom been utilized in off-highway engines where the fuel systems are not well controlled. This investigation was conducted to evaluate exhaust emissions and combustion characteristics of E85 fuel in an off-highway engine used in farm equipment. A single-cylinder, four-stroke, spark ignition engine equipped with a carburetor was used to investigate combustion and exhaust emissions produced by gasoline and blends of gasoline and ethanol fuels. The engine fuel system was modified to handle flow rates required by the engine. A variable size-metering orifice was used to control air-to-fuel ratios.
Technical Paper

A Dual-Use Enterprise Context for Vehicle Design and Technology Valuation

Developing a new technology requires decision-makers to understand the technology's implications on an organization's objectives, which depend on user needs targeted by the technology. If these needs are common between two organizations, collaboration could result in more efficient technology development. For hybrid truck design, both commercial manufacturers and the military have similar performance needs. As the new technology penetrates the truck market, the commercial enterprise must quantify how the hybrid's superior fuel efficiency will impact consumer purchasing and, thus, future enterprise profits. The Army is also interested in hybrid technology as it continues its transformation to a more fuel-efficient force. Despite having different objectives, maximizing profit and battlefield performance, respectively, the commercial enterprise and Army can take advantage of their mutual needs.
Technical Paper

A Framework for Optimization of the Traction Motor Design Based on the Series-HEV System Level Goals

The fidelity of the hybrid electric vehicle simulation is increased with the integration of a computationally-efficient finite-element based electric machine model, in order to address optimization of component design for system level goals. In-wheel electric motors are considered because of the off-road military application which differs significantly from commercial HEV applications. Optimization framework is setup by coupling the vehicle simulation to the constrained optimization solver. Utilizing the increased design flexibility afforded by the model, the solver is able to reshape the electric machine's efficiency map to better match the vehicle operation points. As the result, the favorable design of the e-machine is selected to improve vehicle fuel economy and reduce cost, while satisfying performance constraints.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Electric Vehicle Thermal Management System - Nonlinear Controller Design

The components in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) powertrain include the battery pack, an internal combustion engine, and the electric machines such as motors and possibly a generator. These components generate a considerable amount of heat during driving cycles. A robust thermal management system with advanced controller, designed for temperature tracking, is required for vehicle safety and energy efficiency. In this study, a hybridized mid-size truck for military application is investigated. The paper examines the integration of advanced control algorithms to the cooling system featuring an electric-mechanical compressor, coolant pump and radiator fans. Mathematical models are developed to numerically describe the thermal behavior of these powertrain elements. A series of controllers are designed to effectively manage the battery pack, electric motors, and the internal combustion engine temperatures.
Technical Paper

A Parallel Hybrid Automobile with Less Than 0.1 kWh of Energy Storage

The paper describes a new hybrid vehicle design option having very low energy storage capability, and in particular, a parallel hybrid with hydraulic storage and reapplication of braking energy. The operating efficiency of the propulsion system at light loads is substantially improved by splitting the engine into two segments, and finding ways of shutting down one or both engine segments whenever possible. The hybrid vehicle utilizes primarily current technologies. A diesel powered parallel hybrid as described demonstrates a reduction in fuel consumption of 53.9% on a volume basis when compared with an equivalent baseline vehicle.
Journal Article

Active Thermal Management with a Dual Mode Coolant Pump

A GT-suite commercial code was used to develop a fully integrated model of a light duty commercial vehicle with a V6 diesel engine, to study the use of a BorgWarner dual mode coolant pump (DMCP) in active thermal management of the vehicle. An Urban Dynamometer Driving Schedule (UDDS) was used to validate the simulation results with the experimental data. The conventional mechanical pump from the validated model was then replaced with the dual mode coolant pump. The control algorithm for the pump was based on controlling the coolant temperature with pump speed. Maximum electrical speed of the pump and the efficiency of the pump were used to determine whether the pump should run in mechanical or electrical mode. The model with the dual mode coolant pump was simulated for the UDDS cycle to demonstrate the effectiveness of control strategy.
Technical Paper

Alternative Fuel Property Correlations to the Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI)

The Honda Particulate Matter Index (PMI) is a very helpful tool which provides an indication of a fuel’s sooting tendency. Currently, the index is being used by various laboratories and vehicle OEMs as a metric to understand a fuels impact on automotive engine sooting, in preparation for new global emissions regulations. The calculation of the index involves generating detailed hydrocarbon analysis (hydrocarbon molecular speciation) using gas chromatography laboratory equipment and the PMI calculation requires the exact list of compounds and correct naming conventions to work properly. The analytical methodology can be cumbersome, when the gas chromatography methodology has to be adjusted for new compounds that are not in the method, or if the compounds are not matching the list for quantification. Also, the method itself is relatively expensive, and not easily transferrable between labs.
Technical Paper

An Electrorheologically Controlled Semi-Active Landing Gear

This study is to explore the application of electrorheology (ER) to the real-time control of damping forces that are transmitted through the nose landing gear for an F-106B aircraft. The main part of the landing gear is a strut that consists of a pneumatic spring and an ER controlled damper that is situated on the strut centerline and applies a force directly opposing the vertical displacement of the nose wheel. The damping element rotates in response to strut displacement, employing a co-axial arrangement of stator and rotor plates connected to the opposing electrodes in the control circuit. The vertical displacement is converted into rotation of the damper through a screw-nut mechanism. The ER fluid between the electrodes is thus engaged in shear along circumferential lines of action. This design results in a fast time response and a high ratio of strut forces achieved under ER- vs. zero-field control. Compact size and simplicity in fabrication are also attained.
Journal Article

An Evaluation of Residual Gas Fraction Measurement Techniques in a High Degree of Freedom Spark Ignition Engine

Stringent fuel economy and emissions regulations have driven development of new mixture preparation technologies and increased spark-ignition engine complexity. Additional degrees of freedom, brought about by devices such as cam phasers and charge motion control valves, enable greater range and flexibility in engine control. This permits significant gains in fuel efficiency and emission control, but creates challenges related to proper engine control and calibration techniques. Accurate experimental characterization of high degree of freedom engines is essential for addressing the controls challenge. In particular, this paper focuses on the evaluation of three experimental residual gas fraction measurement techniques for use in a spark ignition engine equipped with dual-independent variable camshaft phasing (VVT).
Technical Paper

An Experimental Assessment of Turbulence Production, Reynolds Stress and Length Scale (Dissipation) Modeling in a Swirl-Supported DI Diesel Engine

Simultaneous measurements of the radial and the tangential components of velocity are obtained in a high-speed, direct-injection diesel engine typical of automotive applications. Results are presented for engine operation with fuel injection, but without combustion, for three different swirl ratios and four injection pressures. With the mean and fluctuating velocities, the r-θ plane shear stress and the mean flow gradients are obtained. Longitudinal and transverse length scales are also estimated via Taylor's hypothesis. The flow is shown to be sufficiently homogeneous and stationary to obtain meaningful length scale estimates. Concurrently, the flow and injection processes are simulated with KIVA-3V employing a RNG k-ε turbulence model. The measured turbulent kinetic energy k, r-θ plane mean strain rates ( 〈Srθ〉, 〈Srr〉, and 〈Sθθ〉 ), deviatoric turbulent stresses , and the r-θ plane turbulence production terms are compared directly to the simulated results.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Lubricant/Main Shaft Interaction and Dryout in an Automatic Transmission Model

When unexpected integrated lubricant-related problems occur, for example, high-speed operating conditions, lubricants can be degraded and even fail to reach certain automatic transmission parts. Dryout of oil films means a serious lack of lubrication, which may damage the power transmission line and key parts. Dryout of ATF is analogous to that in forced convective boiling and condensation. It thus requires special efforts to determine the mechanics that induce such fluid transport phenomena. This paper presents an experimental investigation of lubricant activities in the main shaft. Dimensional analysis is applied, and flow maps of the air-oil flow and dryout regimes are constructed. Correlations closely agree with the data and reveal the possibility of dryout. Heat transfer effect is briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Control of Transient Flow in the Diesel Injection System Part II - Design Results of Controlled After-Injection

After-injection is the introduction of additional fuel to the combustion chamber after the end of the main injection. It is a persistent diesel fuel injection problem which usually results in reduced engine power and economy and increased emissions. After-injection is caused by uncontrolled pressure transients at the injector after the opening of the pump spill port. These pressure transients are related to the wave propagation phenomena in the high-pressure pipeline connecting the pump and injector. Use of experimental trial-and-error methods in attempts to control this phenomenon has met with limited success. The analytical control method described in another paper is used to determine design means by which after-injection may be controlled. Further investigation and evaluation of two design changes which release the injection system excess elastic energy in a controlled manner are considered herein. One design change is the addition of a control valve in the pump delivery chamber.
Technical Paper

Application of Empirical Asperity Contact Model to High Fidelity Wet Clutch System Simulations

Wet clutches are complex hydrodynamic devices used in both conventional and electrified drivetrain systems. They couple or de-couple powertrain components for applications such as automatic shifting, engine disconnect and torque vectoring. Clutch engagement behaviors vary greatly, depending on design parameters and operating conditions. Because of their direct impact on vehicle drivability and fuel economy, a predictive CAE model is desired for enabling analytical design verification processes. During engagement, a wet clutch transmits torque through viscous shear and asperity contact. A conventional Coulomb’s model, which is routinely utilized in shift simulations, is inadequate to capture non-linear hydrodynamic effects for higher fidelity analysis. Extensive research has been conducted over the years to derive hydrodynamic torque transfer models based on 1D squeeze film or 3D CFD. They are typically coupled with an elastic asperity contact model for mechanical torque transfer.
Technical Paper

Aqueous Corrosion of Experimental Creep-Resistant Magnesium Alloys

This paper presents a comparison of aqueous corrosion rates in 5% NaCl solution for eight experimental creep-resistant magnesium alloys considered for automotive powertrain applications, as well as three reference alloys (pure magnesium, AM50B and AZ91D). The corrosion rates were measured using the techniques of titration, weight loss, hydrogen evolution, and DC polarization. The corrosion rates measured by these techniques are compared with each other as well as with those obtained with salt-spray testing using ASTM B117. The advantages and disadvantages of the various corrosion measurement techniques are discussed.
Journal Article

Assessing a Hybrid Supercharged Engine for Diluted Combustion Using a Dynamic Drive Cycle Simulation

This study uses full drive cycle simulation to compare the fuel consumption of a vehicle with a turbocharged (TC) engine to the same vehicle with an alternative boosting technology, namely, a hybrid supercharger, in which a planetary gear mechanism governs the power split to the supercharger between the crankshaft and a 48 V 5 kW electric motor. Conventional mechanically driven superchargers or electric superchargers have been proposed to improve the dynamic response of boosted engines, but their projected fuel efficiency benefit depends heavily on the engine transient response and driver/cycle aggressiveness. The fuel consumption benefits depend on the closed-loop engine responsiveness, the control tuning, and the torque reserve needed for each technology. To perform drive cycle analyses, a control strategy is designed that minimizes the boost reserve and employs high rates of combustion dilution via exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
Technical Paper

Automotive Demand, Markets, and Material Selection Processes

Cost reduction, quality improvement, and regulatory compliance are well-recognized competitive issues. Companies must excel along each of these fronts while operating in an environment of rapid and multi-faceted change, limited financial and human capital, and increasing product development time pressure. In addition, consumers are demanding automobiles that provide greater performance, function, and comfort while emitting lower emissions, consuming fewer gallons of gasoline, injuring fewer humans, and requiring fewer dollars to build and purchase. A solution to these seemingly conflicting objectives is to take a systems view of the product and industry. This paper explores the material decision process so that manufacturers, component suppliers, and material providers may better understand the interlocking web of compromises that shape the pursuit of value-added alternatives and avoidance of unprofitable compromises.
Technical Paper

Automotive Nuclear-Heat Engines and Associated High-Temperature Materials

APPLICATION of nuclear energy for civilian automotive uses has possibilities, these authors say. Nuclear power for automotive applications, they feel, is technically feasible now where size and weight are not prime considerations; where size and weight are major parameters, discoveries of new materials for construction of nuclear-power reactors must be made. New materials are needed for reactor fuels, heat extractants, neutron reflectors, reactor construction materials, controls, and radiation shields which must have unique nuclear properties in addition to conventional engineering properties. This paper presents nuclear automotive propulsion devices in terms of technologies now available. The necessary radiation-shielding mass and weight requirements are presented for an ideal point-source nuclear-heat-power engine.
Technical Paper

Characteristic Time Analysis of SI Knock with Retarded Combustion Phasing in Boosted Engines

This study investigates the use of a characteristic reaction time as a possible method to speed up automotive knock calculations. In an earlier study of HCCI combustion it was found that for ignition at TDC, the ignition delay time at TDC conditions was required to be approximately 10 crank angle degrees (CAD), regardless of engine speed. In this study the analysis has been applied to knock in SI engines over a wide range of engine operating conditions including boosted operation and retarded combustion phasing, typical of high load operation of turbocharged engines. Representative pressure curves were used as input to a detailed kinetics calculation for a gasoline surrogate fuel mechanism with 312 species. The same detailed mechanism was used to compile a data set with traditional constant volume ignition delays evaluated at the peak pressure conditions in the end gas assuming adiabatic compression.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of High-Pressure Spray and Exhaust Emissions in a Single- Cylinder Di Diesel Engine

Regulations on exhaust emissions from light- and heavy-duty diesel engines have generated interest in high-pressure fuel injection systems. It has been recognized that high-pressure injection systems produce fuel sprays that may be more conductive to reducing exhaust emissions in direct-injection diesel engines. However, for such a system to be effective it must be matched carefully with the engine design and its operating parameters. A common-rail type of fuel injection system was investigated in the present study. The injection system utilizes an intensifier to generate injection pressures as high as 160 MPa. The fuel spray characteristics were evaluated on a test bench in a chamber containing pressurized nitrogen gas. The injection system was then incorporated in a single-cylinder diesel engine. The injection system parameters were adjusted to match engine specifications and its operating parameters.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Exhaust Emissions in a SI Engine using E85 and Cooled EGR

Gasoline-ethanol blends are being used or have been considered as a fuel for spark ignition engines. The motivation for using the blends varies in indifferent parts of the world and even in regions within a country. The increasing cost of gasoline, combined with regional tax incentives, is one of the reasons for increased interests in gasoline-ethanol blends in recent years in the U.S. Many vehicular engines are not designed to use a specific gasoline-ethanol blend. Rather, the engines have multi-blend capability, ranging from E0 to about E85. It is plausible that engine-out emissions will vary depending on the blend being used which may be further impacted by the level of EGR used with the blends. The present work was carried out to investigate engine out emissions when a vehicular spark-ignition engine was operated on E0 and E85 and different levels of EGR. A 4-cylinder, 2.5 liter, PFI engine was used in the experimental investigation.