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Technical Paper

ALSSAT Development Status

2009-07-12
2009-01-2533
The development of the Advanced Life Support (ALS) Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) using Microsoft® Excel was initiated by the Crew and Thermal Systems Division of the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) in 1997 to support the ALS and Exploration Offices in Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) design and studies. It aids the user in performing detailed sizing of the ECLSS for different combinations of Exploration Life Support (ELS) regenerative system technologies. This analysis tool will assist the user in performing ECLSS preliminary design and trade studies as well as system optimization efficiently and economically.
Technical Paper

Continued Research in EVA, Navigation, Networking and Communication Systems

2008-06-29
2008-01-2029
This paper summarizes the results of our continued testing of a radio based, non-Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation and communications system. The system has been integrated with two mobile computers, a robot and four work stations. It demonstrated crewmember interfaces for acquiring, storing and transmitting data from a space suit life support system simulation, test subject Electrocardiogram (ECG) and other biomedical data. This is an extension of the functions which were tested last year during the NASA Desert Research and Technology Studies (RATS) 2006 activities at both Johnson Space Center in Houston Texas and at Meteor Crater near Flagstaff Arizona. We added considerable complexity to the tests. The tests were conducted on an accurate series of geo-referenced paths at the El Toro Marine Air Station, a closed air field.
Technical Paper

Development of Pressure Swing Adsorption Technology for Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide and Humidity Removal

2006-07-17
2006-01-2203
Metabolically produced carbon dioxide (CO2) removal in spacesuit applications has traditionally been accomplished utilizing non-regenerative Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH) canisters. In recent years, regenerative Metal Oxide (MetOx) has been developed to replace the Extravehicular Mobility Unity (EMU) LiOH canister for extravehicular activity (EVA) missions in micro-gravity, however, MetOx may carry a significant weight burden for potential use in future Lunar or planetary EVA exploration missions. Additionally, both of these methods of CO2 removal have a finite capacity sized for the particular mission profile. Metabolically produced water vapor removal in spacesuits has historically been accomplished by a condensing heat exchanger within the ventilation process loop of the suit life support system.
Technical Paper

Development of a Miniaturized High Intensity Cryogenic Flow Boiler

2002-07-15
2002-01-2408
An extremely compact heat exchanger is being developed which can boil cryogenic fluids with a liquid heat source at temperatures close to its freezing point. Freezing of the heat source fluid, e.g. water is precluded by the normal flow arrangement. Boiling and superheating of the cryogen occurs as the fluid approaches the heat source in a stack of bonded jet-array laminations. This heat exchanger technology is important in many applications where the storage of fluids at cryogenic temperatures offers substantial advantages in terms of system weight and volume. Often, as in several advanced portable life support system concepts, the advantages include the use of the cryogen as a heat sink in system thermal management. Realizing this benefit and safely conditioning the stored fluid for use requires effective heat transfer between the cryogen and a secondary heat transport fluid.
Technical Paper

Development of an Amine-based System for Combined Carbon Dioxide, Humidity, and Trace Contaminant Control

2005-07-11
2005-01-2865
A number of amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) removal systems have been developed for atmosphere revitalization in closed loop life support systems. Most recently, Hamilton Sundstrand has developed an amine-based sorbent, designated SA9T, possessing approximately 2-fold greater capacity compared to previous formulations. This new formulation has demonstrated applicability for controlling CO2 levels within vehicles and habitats as well as during extravehicular activity (EVA). Our current data demonstrates an amine-based system volume which is competitive with existing technologies which use metal oxides (Metox) and lithium hydroxide sorbents. Further enhancements in system performance can be realized by incorporating humidity and trace contaminant control functions within an amine-based atmosphere revitalization system. A 3-year effort to develop prototype hardware capable of removing CO2, H2O, and trace contaminants from a cabin atmosphere has been initiated.
Technical Paper

Emergency Oxygen System Evaluation for Exploration PLSS Applications

2006-07-17
2006-01-2208
The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) emergency oxygen system is being reexamined for the next generation of suits. These suits will be used for transit to Low Earth Orbit, the Moon and to Mars as well as on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Currently, the plan is that there will be two different sets of suits, but there is a strong desire for commonality between them for construction purposes. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate what the emergency PLSS requirements are and how they might best be implemented. Options under consideration are enlarging the tanks on the PLSS, finding an alternate method of storage/delivery, or providing additional O2 from an external source. The system that shows the most promise is the cryogenic oxygen system with a composite dewar which uses a buddy system to split the necessary oxygen between two astronauts.
Technical Paper

Heat Exchanger Fouling Diagnosis for an Aircraft Air-Conditioning System

2013-09-17
2013-01-2250
This paper addresses the issue of fault diagnosis in the heat exchanger of an aircraft Air Conditioning System (ACS). The heat exchanger cools the air by transferring the heat to the ram-air. Due to a variety of biological, mechanical and chemical reasons, the heat exchanger may experience fouling conditions that reduces the efficiency and could considerably affect the functionality of the ACS. Since, the access to the heat exchanger is limited and time consuming, it is preferable to implement an early fault diagnosis technique that would facilitate Condition Based Maintenance (CBM). The main contribution of the paper is pre-flight fault assessment of the heat exchanger using a combined model-based and data-driven approach of fault diagnosis. A Simulink model of the ACS, that has been designed and validated by an industry partner, has been used for generation of sensor data for various fouling conditions.
Technical Paper

Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

2008-06-29
2008-01-2117
As part of NASA's initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet, passes over the astronaut's body, and is extracted at the astronaut's wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline.
Technical Paper

International Space Station (ISS) Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) On-Orbit Performance

2006-07-17
2006-01-2092
This paper summarizes the first 5 plus years of on-orbit operation for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The MCA is an essential part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The MCA is a mass spectrometer instrument in the US Destiny Laboratory Module of the International Space Station. The MCA provides critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents (nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and water vapor (H2O)) sampled continuously and automatically in all United States On-Orbit Segment (USOS) modules via the Sample Distribution System (SDS). Sample lines have been routed throughout the U.S. modules with valves to facilitate software-automated sequential sampling of the atmosphere in the various modules.
Journal Article

International Space Station (ISS) Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) On-Orbit Performance

2008-06-29
2008-01-1971
This paper summarizes the first seven plus years of on-orbit operation for the Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA). The MCA is an essential part of the International Space Station (ISS) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). The MCA is a mass spectrometer instrument in the US Destiny Laboratory Module, which provides critical monitoring of six major atmospheric constituents (nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and water vapor (H2O)). These gases are sampled continuously and automatically in all United States On Orbit Segment (USOS) modules via the ISS Sample Delivery System (SDS). Continuous readout of the partial pressures of these gases is critical to verifying safe operation of the Atmosphere Re-vitalization (AR) system, Atmosphere Control System (ACS), and crew safety for Airlock Extravehicular Activity (EVA) preparation.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional Fiber Batteries for Next Generation Space Suits

2007-07-09
2007-01-3173
As next generation space suit concepts enable extravehicular activity (EVA) mission capability to extend beyond anything currently available today, revolutionary advances in life support technologies are required to achieve anticipated NASA mission profiles that may measure years in duration and require hundreds of sorties. Since most life support systems require power, increased mass and volume efficiency of the energy storage materials can have a dramatic impact on reducing the overall weight of next generation space suits. This paper details the development of a multifunctional fiber battery to address these needs.
Technical Paper

Multifunctional Fiber Batteries for Next Generation Space Suits

2008-06-29
2008-01-1996
As next generation space suit concepts enable extravehicular activity (EVA) mission capability to extend beyond anything currently available today, revolutionary advances in life support technologies are required to achieve anticipated NASA mission profiles than may measure years in duration and require hundreds of sorties. Since most life support systems require power, increased mass and volume efficiency of the energy storage materials can have a dramatic impact on reducing the overall weight of next generation space suits. ITN Energy Systems, in collaboration with Hamilton Sundstrand and the NASA Johnson Space Center's EVA System's Team, is developing multifunctional fiber batteries to address these challenges. By depositing the battery on existing space suit materials, e.g. scrim fibers in the thermal micrometeoroid garment (TMG) layers, parasitic mass (inactive materials) is eliminated leading to effective energy densities ∼400 Wh/kg.
Technical Paper

Testing, Modeling and System Impact of Metabolic Heat Regenerated Temperature Swing Adsorption

2008-06-29
2008-01-2116
Metabolic heat regenerated temperature swing adsorption (MTSA) technology is being developed for removal and rejection of carbon dioxide (CO2) and heat from a portable life support system (PLSS) to the Martian environment. Previously, hardware was built and tested to demonstrate using heat from simulated, dry ventilation loop gas to affect the temperature swing required to regenerate an adsorbent used for CO2 removal. New testing has been performed using a moist, simulated ventilation loop gas to demonstrate the effects of water condensing and freezing in the heat exchanger during adsorbent regeneration. Also, the impact of MTSA on PLSS design was evaluated by performing thermal balances assuming a specific PLSS architecture. Results using NASA's Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT), a PLSS system evaluation tool, are presented.
Technical Paper

The Orion Air Monitor Performance Model; Dynamic Simulations and Accuracy Assessments in the CEV Atmospheric Revitalization Unit Application

2009-07-12
2009-01-2521
The Orion Air Monitor (OAM), a derivative of the International Space Station's Major Constituent Analyzer (MCA) (1–3) and the Skylab Mass Spectrometer (4, 5), is a mass spectrometer-based system designed to monitor nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water vapor. In the Crew Exploration Vehicle, the instrument will serve two primary functions: 1) provide Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) data to control nitrogen and oxygen pressure, and 2) provide feedback the ECLSS water vapor and CO2 removal system for swing-bed control. The control bands for these ECLSS systems affect consumables use, and therefore launch mass, putting a premium on a highly accurate, fast-response, analyzer subsystem. This paper describes a dynamic analytical model for the OAM, relating the findings of that model to design features required for accuracies and response times important to the CEV application.
Technical Paper

Trade Study of an Exploration Cooling Garment

2008-06-29
2008-01-1994
A trade study was conducted with a goal to develop relatively high TRL design concepts for an Exploration Cooling Garment (ExCG) that can accommodate larger metabolic loads and maintain physiological limits of the crewmembers health and work efficiency during all phases of exploration missions without hindering mobility. Effective personal cooling through use of an ExCG is critical in achieving safe and efficient missions. Crew thermoregulation not only impacts comfort during suited operations but also directly affects human performance. Since the ExCG is intimately worn and interfaces with comfort items, it is also critical to overall crewmember physical comfort. Both thermal and physical comfort are essential for the long term, continuous wear expected of the ExCG.
Technical Paper

Trade Study of an Interface for a Removable/Replaceable Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment

2008-06-29
2008-01-1990
Effective thermal and micrometeoroid protection as afforded by the Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG) is critical in achieving safe and efficient missions. It is also critical that the TMG does not increase torque or decreased range of motion which can cause crewmember discomfort, fatigue, and reduced efficiency. For future exploration missions, removable and replaceable TMGs will allow the use of different pressure garment protective covers and TMG configurations for launch, re-entry, 0-G Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), and lunar surface EVA. A study was conducted with the goal of developing high Technology Readiness Level (TRL), scalable, interface design concepts for TMG systems. The affects of TMG segmentation on mobility and donning were assessed. Closure mechanisms were investigated and tested to determine their operability after exposure to lunar dust. A TMG configuration with the optimum number of segments and location of interfaces was selected for the Mark III spacesuit.
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