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Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Lubricating Oil Consumption of Diesel Engines - 3rd Report: Effect of Piston Motion on Piston Skirt Oil Film Behavior

The necessity of the reduction of the lubricating oil consumption of diesel engines has been increasing its importance to reduce the negative effect of exhausted oil on after treatment devices for exhausted gas. The final purpose of the studies is clarifying the mechanism of the oil consumption and developing the method of its estimation. For the basic study, the mechanism of oil film generation on the piston skirt could be explained by hydrodynamic lubrication in our first and second reports [1, 2]. In this paper, the piston skirt was calculated using the measured piston motion to clarify the effect of the piston motion to the piston skirt oil film behavior.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Lubricating Oil Consumption of Diesel Engines - 4th Report: The Measurement of Oil Pressure Under the Piston Oil Ring -

Clarifying the mechanism of the oil consumption of engines is necessary for developing its estimation method. Oil moves upwards on the piston to the combustion chamber through ring sliding surfaces, ring backs and ring gaps. The mechanisms of oil upwards transport through the ring gaps are hardly analyzed. In this report, oil pressure just under the oil ring was successfully measured by newly developed method to clarify the oil transport mechanism at the ring gap. It was showed that the generated oil pressure pushed up the oil at the ring gap.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Mechanism of Lubricating Oil Consumption of Diesel Engines -1st report: The Effect of the Design of Piston Skirt on Lubricating Oil Consumption-

Decrease of engine lubricating oil consumption is necessary to reduce environmental impact. Usually oil consumption is estimated experimentally at the engine development stage, and it is expensive in terms of both time and cost. Therefore it is essential to develop its calculation method. The purposes of this study are clarifying the mechanism of engine lubricating oil consumption and developing the calculation method for the estimation of oil consumption. In this report, oil film on the piston skirt, which affected on oil volume supplied to the oil ring, was observed. Furthermore the effect of piston skirt design on oil consumption was investigated. Findings showed that the splashed oil on the cylinder liner had much effect on the oil film on the piston skirt hence oil consumption. It was suggested that the splashed oil on the cylinder liner affected on supply oil volume and it should be considered in the calculation of oil consumption.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Economy Engine Oil for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine

More stringent emissions regulations, fuel economy standards, and regulations are currently being discussed to help reduce both CO2 and exhaust emissions. Vehicle manufacturers have been developing new engine technologies, such as downsizing and down-speeding with reduced friction loss, improved engine combustion and efficiency, heat loss recycling, power-train friction loss recycling, and reduced power-train friction loss. The use of more efficient fuel economy 5W-30 engine oils for heavy duty commercial vehicles has started to expand since 2009 in Japan as one technological solution to help reduce CO2 emissions. However, fuel economy 5W-30 oils for use in heavy duty vehicles in Europe are mainly based on synthetic oils, which are much expensive than the mineral oils that are predominantly used in Japan.
Technical Paper

Development of Next Generation Gear Oil for Heavy Duty Vehicles

Heavy duty vehicles take a large role in providing global logistics. It is required to have both high durability and reduced CO2 from the viewpoint of global environment conservation. Therefore lubricating oils for transmission and axle/differential gear box are required to have excellent protection and longer drain intervals. However, it is also necessary that the gear oil maintain suitable friction performance for the synchronizers of the transmission. Even with such good performance, both transmission and axle/differential gear box lubricants must balance cost and performance, in particular in the Asian market. The development of gear oil additives for high reliability gear oil must consider the available base oils in various regions as the additive is a global product. In many cases general long drain gear oils for heavy duty vehicles use the group III or IV base oils, but it is desirable to use the group I/II base oils in terms of cost and availability.
Technical Paper

Development of a New Multigrade Engine Oil for Improved Wear Resistance in Heavy Vehicle Diesel Engines-PART II: Development of a 10W-30 Oil for Diesel Engine Use

The purpose of the investigation presented here was to develop a high quality SAE 10W-30 engine lubricating oil to meet the heavy duty operating conditions of trucks. The operation of their engines is predicted to become more severe in future because of the trend toward higher power output, nore severe regulation of exhaust emissions and noise as well as the increasing demand for better fuel economy. To meet these demands, an improvement of the wear resistance of engine lubricating oil was considered to be the most important aspect for the development of high performance diesel engines in the future. The engine test developed was able to evaluate various experimental oils by observing wear resistance of the valve train which is considered to be one of the most severe tri-bological conditions. The best oils were determined by optimum selection of the amount and type of detergent, ashless dispersant and zinc dithiophosphate.
Technical Paper

Impacts on Engine Oil Performance by the Use of Waste Cooking Oil as Diesel Fuel

Technical impacts on engine oil performance by the use of waste cooking oil as bio-diesel fuel (BDF) are not well understood while the industry has made significant progress in studies on quality specifications and infrastructure. The authors, who consist of a consortium organized by Japan Lubricating Oil Society (JALOS), examined technical effects of waste cooking oil as BDF on engine oil performance such as wear and high temperature corrosion using vehicle fleets and bench tests to identify technical issues of engine oil meeting the use of BDF. The study brings fundamental information about technical impacts of BDF on engine oils.
Technical Paper

Mechanism of and Fuel Efficiency Improvement by Dimple Texturing on Liner Surface for Reduction of Friction between Piston Rings and Cylinder Bore

Reducing friction between the piston ring and cylinder is an effective way of meeting the demand for lower fuel consumption in vehicle engines. To that effect, the authors have proposed a new and efficient friction reduction treatment for the cylinder. At first glance, this treatment seems similar to typical microtexture treatments, but it is built on a different approach. Through a rig tester, it was confirmed that optimizing the shape of the dimples and the treatment area for the cylinder improves FMEP between the piston ring and the cylinder liner by 17%. This report presents an analysis of the test results to explain the mechanism by which this effect is achieved. Fuel consumption was measured in an actual engine, and a maximum fuel consumption improvement of 3.2% was confirmed after conversion to the Japanese heavy duty vehicle fuel economy standards (Category T2). Lubricating oil consumption, blow-by and durability were also examined.